Groups and individuals at work

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Groups and individuals at work

1. Full title

The functioning and performance of individuals and groups in organizations

2. Research group

Work and Organizational Psychology

Director: Carsten de Dreu 3. Members of the group

Senior staff

Bianca Beersma, Carsten de Dreu, Arne Evers, Ute-Christine Klehe, Aukje Nauta, Jan te Nijenhuis, Bernard Nijstad, Irene de Pater, Marc Schabracq, Olga Smit-Voskuijl, Annelies van Vianen

Postdoctoral fellows

Myriam Bechtoldt, Michel Handgraaf


Matthijs Baas, Maria Dijkstra, Astrid Homan, Ilona McNeill, Paul Preenen, Sonja Schinkel, Lotte Scholten, Femke ten Velden

4. Membership Research Schools and other Research Institutes

Research of the group is embedded in two research schools, the Kurt Lewin Institute, and IOPS.

5. Research topics

In today’s world of team-based work, boundaryless careers, rapidly changing and exceedingly competitive markets, and increasingly diverse workforces, it is vital to understand how individuals and groups make choices, arrive at

decisions, and work together to create new products, goods and services. How do people work together, manage their conflicts and are affected by them? What leads groups towards high quality decisions, and why do individuals so often fail to produce creative ideas and problem solutions? What does it take to manage one’s career, and what predicts individual learning and development? How do we select and socialize newcomers into groups and organizations, and with what effect – why do some newcomers stick around and others not?


group-level alone and in interaction predict motivational and affective states

(e.g., organizational commitment, group affective tone, work motivation),

cooperation and coordination among individuals and groups (e.g.,

organizational citizenship behavior, conflict management), and individual and group performance (e.g., task and career decisions, creativity and innovation, negotiated agreement, decision failures).

We do engage in applied work but our emphasis is on theory development and testing. In our research we explicitly take a multi-level multi-method approach, assuming that work-related processes can often be better understood when taking into account both individual and group levels of analysis, and by

assuming that each method has its vices and virtues. Thus, our work focuses on individual and group-level principles and processes, and employs laboratory experiments, cross-sectional and longitudinal field studies, and meta-analytic reviews to build and test theory.

Because our primary focus is on basic psychological theory that applies to work-related processes and phenomena relevant to organizations, our work is published in and discussed with colleagues both within as well as outside (organizational) psychology. Thus, we seek to contribute to organizational, personnel and social psychology journals and societies. PhD training takes place in the Kurt Lewin Institute and the Amsterdam Graduate School of Psychology.

6. Program development

In 2006 Aukje Nauta was appointed full professor by the Van der Gaag Foundation to study the “social and organizational psychology of pro-social behaviour.” This adjunct position serves to strengthen the program’s focus on cooperation and coordination in the workplace with a specific emphasis on a scientist-practitioner orientation. In addition, Femke ten Velden and Michel Handgraaf were appointed as assistant professors to further strengthen basic research on group processes and performance (both starting January 1, 2007).


7. Composition of research input of academic staff in 2006

FTE wp1 wp2 wp3 Total

Professor (HGL) 0.53 0.53

Associate professor (UHD) 1.06 0.53 1.59

Assistant professor (UD) 1.52 1.00 0.50 3.02

Researcher 1.00 1.00


Ph.D. students (AIO, OIO) 1.62 1.84 1.00 4.46

Additional research staff (OZ) 0.25 0.11 0.36 Total 4.97 4.48 1.50 10.95



1. Ph.D. Theses

1.a Internally prepared

Dijkstra, M. T. M. (January 2006). Workplace conflict and individual well-being

(pp. 118). Promotor: C. K. W. de Dreu; Co-promotores: A. Evers, D. van Dierendonck.

Homan, A. (July 2006). Harvesting the value in diversity: Examining the effects of diversity beliefs, cross-categorization, and superordinate identities on the functioning of diverse work groups (pp. 144). Promotor: C. K. W. de Dreu; Co-Promotor: D. van Knippenberg.

2. Academic Publications

2.1 In refereed journals issued in English

Buunk B. P., & de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). The moderating role of communal orientation on equity considerations in close relationships. Revue

Internationale de Psychologie Sociale,19, 133-156.

de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). Rational self-interest and other orientation in organizational behavior: A critical appraisal and extension of Meglino and Korsgaard (2004). Journal of Applied Psychology,91, 1245-1252.

de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). When too little or too much hurts: Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between task conflict and innovation in teams.

Journal of Management,32, 83-107.

de Dreu, C. K. W., Beersma, B., Stroebe, K., & Euwema, M. C. (2006). Motivated information processing, strategic choice, and the quality of negotiated agreement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90,


Klehe, U.-C., & Latham, G. (2006). What would you do – really or ideally? Constructs underlying the behavior description interview and situational interview in predicting typical versus maximum performance. Human Performance, 19, 357-382.

König, C., Melchers, K., Kleinmann, M., Richter, G., & Klehe, U.-C. (2006). The ability to identify evaluation criteria and social desirability as factors influencing responses in an integrity test. Psychology Science, 48, 369-377. Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2006). How the group affects the mind: A

cognitive model of idea generation in groups. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10, 186-213.


Nijstad, B. A., Stroebe, W., & Lodewijkx, H. F. M. (2006). The illusion of group productivity: A reduction of failures explanation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 31-48.

Rietzschel, E. F., Nijstad, B. A., & Stroebe, W. (2006). Productivity is not enough: A comparison of interactive and nominal brainstorming groups on idea generation and selection. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 244-251.

te Nijenhuis, J., & Hartmann, P. (2006). Spearman’s “Law of Diminishing Returns” in samples of Dutch and immigrant children and adults.

Intelligence,34, 437-447.

ten Velden, F. S., Beersma, B., & de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). Majority and minority influence in group negotiation: The moderating effects of social motivation and decision rules. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 259-268. van Kleef, G. A., de Dreu, C. K. W., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2006). Supplication

and appeasement in conflict and negotiation: The interpersonal effects of disappointment, worry, guilt and regret. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,91, 124-142.

van Kleef, G. A., de Dreu, C. K. W., Pietroni, D., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2006). Power and emotions in negotiation: Power moderates the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness on concession making. European Journal of Social Psychology,36, 557-581.

Wijngaard, J., de Vries, J., & Nauta, A. (2006). Performers and performance: How to investigate the contribution of the operational network to operational performance. International Journal of Operations & Production

Management, 26, 394-411.

Zeelenberg, M., Nijstad, B. A., van Putten, M., & van Dijk, E. (2006). Inaction inertia, regret and valuation: A closer look. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 101, 89-104.

Zikic, J., & Klehe, U.-C. (2006). Job loss as ‘Blessing in Disguise’: Career activities as predictors of reemployment quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69, 391-409.

2.2 Abstracts in refereed journals

2.3. In refereed journals issued in other languages

Nijstad, B. A., van Kleef, G. A., & de Jonge, J. (2006). Emoties in arbeid en organisaties: Introductie op het thema. Gedrag & Organisatie, 19, 313-322.


Oeij, P., Goudswaard, A., Kraan, K., Nauta, A., & Huiskamp, R. (2006). Dialoog en maatwerk in huidige arbeidsrelaties. Tijdschrift voor HRM, 9, 6-30.

2.4 Other academic publications

Carnevale, P. J., & de Dreu, C. K. W. (Eds.). (2006). Methods in negotiation research. Dordrecht, NL: Martinus Nijhoff.

Carnevale, P. J., & de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). Laboratory experiments in the study of negotiation. In P. J. Carnevale & C. K. W. de Dreu (Eds.), Methods in negotiation research (pp. 4-19). Dordrecht, NL: Martinus Nijhoff.

Carnevale, P. J. D., & de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). Motive: The negotiator’s raison d’etre. In L. L. Thompson & J. M. Brett (Eds.), The social psychology of negotiation (pp. 55-76). New York: Psychology Press.

de Dreu, C. K. W., & Carnevale, P. J. (2006). Disparate methods and common findings in the study of negotiation. In P. J. Carnevale & C. K. W. de Dreu (Eds.), Methods in negotiation research (pp. 345-358). Dordrecht, NL: Martinus Nijhoff.

de Dreu, C. K. W., & Levine, J. M. (2006). Bridging social psychology and the organizational sciences. In P. A. M. van Lange (Ed.), Bridging social

psychology: Benefits of transdisciplinary approaches (pp. 347-352). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

de Dreu, C. K. W., & Steinel, W. (2006). Motivated information processing and social decision making. In D. de Cremer, M. Zeelenberg & J. K. Murnighan (Eds.), Social psychology and economics (pp. 55-77). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Heslin, P. A., & Klehe, U.-C. (2006). Understanding and developing self-efficacy. In S. Rogelberg (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of industrial/organizational psychology (pp. 705-707). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Klehe, U.-C. (2006). Criterion theory. In S. Rogelberg (Ed.), Encyclopaedia of industrial/organizational psychology (pp. 131-134). Thousand Oaks: Sage. Klehe, U.-C. (2006). Practical intelligence. In S. Rogelberg (Ed.),

Encyclopaedia of industrial/organizational psychology (pp. 633-635). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Nauta, A., & Kluwer, E. (2006). The use of questionnaires in conflict research. In: P. Carnevale & C. K. W. de Dreu (Eds.), Methods of negotiation

research. International negotiation series (Vol. 2). Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff. Reprinted from International Negotiation, 9, 457-470, 2004. Schabracq, M. J. (2006). Leadership and organization culture. In R. J. Burke &


3. Professional Publications

de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). Wat is een conflict? In T. Bercx, A. Kil, R. van der Laan & L. Marinusse (Eds.), Handboek conflicthantering en mediation (pp. 17-48). Deventer: Kluwer.

Euwema, M. C., & Nauta, A. (2006). Master conflictmanagement: Wat voegt de nieuwe opleiding toe? Tijdschrift Conflicthantering, 1, 63-66.

Nauta, A. (2006). Gender and age differences in work and health. In P. G. W. Smulders (Ed.), Worklife in the Netherlands (pp. 83-106). Hoofddorp: TNO Work and Employment.

Nauta, A., & Sanders, J. (2006). Logboek voor leren en werken. Carrière maken met het elektronische portfolio. Gids voor Personeelsmanagement, 85(4),


Nijstad, B. A. (2006). The man who did (not) retire – Wolfgang Stroebe.

European Bulletin of Social Psychology, 18(2), 88-89.

van Vianen, A. E. M. (2006). Zelfdoen! Over de maakbaarheid van loopbanen (Doing on your own. The making of careers). Inaugurele rede Universiteit van Amsterdam, 24 maart, 1-24.

van Vianen, A. E. M., & de Pater, I. E. (2006). Uitdagend werk, goed voor u. Doe je dingen goed of doe je de goede dingen? (Challenging work, good for you. Are you doing right or are you doing the right thing?) Gids voor

Personeelsmanagement, 85, 22-24.

4. Congress proceedings

van der Kleij, R., Rasker, P. C., Lijkwan, J. T. E., & de Dreu, C. K. W. (2006). Effects of distributed teamwork and time pressure on collaborative planning quality. Proceedings of the HFES 50th Annual Meeting, October 16-20, 2006, San Francisco, California USA. (On CD-ROM)

5. Popular publications

Schabracq, M. J. (2006). Interview met Deepak Chopra over Leiderschap.

Psychologie Magazine, april, p. 50.

te Nijenhuis, J. (2006). Hersengebied voor hoogbegaafdheid: Waarom blijft een mysterie [Brain area for giftedness: The cause remains a mystery; An

interview with Kunho Lee]. Talent: Tijdschrift over Hoogbegaafdheid, 8(2),


te Nijenhuis, J. (2006). Hebben hoogbegaafde kinderen hoogbegaafde ouders? Regressie naar het midden [Do gifted children have gifted parents?


van Vianen, A. E. M. (2006). Geluk is heel gewoon (Happiness is normal).

NSVP journaal, 2(3), p. 3.

van Vianen, A. E. M. (2006). Reactie op Luken over de toekomstvisie van de overheid (Comments to Luken on the vision of the Dutch government).

Loopbaan, tijdschrift voor loopbaanadviseurs en-begeleiders, 12(2), p. 18.


6. Editorial positions 6.1 Editorships

de Dreu, C. K. W.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin (Associate Editor) 6.2 Memberships of editorial boards

Beersma, B.

International Public Management Journal Journal of Management

Negotiation and Conflict Management Research

de Dreu, C. K. W.

European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology Group Processes and Intergroup Relations

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes Personnel Psychology

Evers, A.

International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance Suvremena Psihologija

Klehe, U.-C.

Journal of Managerial Psychology

Nijstad, B. A.

Gedrag en Organisatie

te Nijenhuis, J.


International Journal of Selection and Assessment

van Vianen, A. E. M.

Gedrag en Organisatie Personnel Psychology


7. Organisation of conferences and symposia

de Dreu, C. K. W., & Munduate, L. (2006). Benefits and Detriments of Workplace Conflict across Cultures. Keynote Symposium at the

International Association for Applied Psychology, Athens, Greece, July. Ferstl, K. L., & Klehe, U.-C. (2006). New Insights into Constructs Underlying

Structured Interview Performance and Validity. Symposium organized for the 21st annual meeting of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Dallas, Texas, May.

Klehe, U.-C., & Ferstl, K. L. (2006). Structured Interviews: Current Practices and Investigations of Scoring Issues. Symposium organized for the 21st annual meeting of the Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Dallas, Texas, May.

8. Scientific Awards

Baas, M. (2006). Runner-up Best Master’s Thesis Award of the Department of Psychology of the University of Amsterdam, for “Indecision in groups – Effects of distinctiveness and uncertainty”, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, January.

Baas, M. (2006). Best Master’s Thesis Award of the Nederlandse Stichting voor Psychotechniek (NSVP), for “Indecision in groups – Effects of

distinctiveness and uncertainty”, Utrecht, the Netherlands, February. Homan, A. C., van Knippenberg, D., van Kleef, G. A., & de Dreu, C. K. W.

(2006). Bridging faultlines by valuing diversity: The effects of diversity beliefs on information elaboration and performance in diverse workgroups.

The International Association for Conflict Management Conference Award for best paper first authored by a graduate student.

van Kleef, G. A., de Dreu, C. K. W., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2004). The Interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 57-76. KLI Best Paper Award (2006, honourable mention, for best paper authored by graduate student).

van Vianen, A. E. M. Supervisor of winner of the David van Lennep scriptieprijs (best doctoral thesis prize).

9. Research Grants


10. Memberships of Scientific Committees

de Dreu, C. K. W.

Amsterdam Center for Conflict Studies, Co-director

European Association for Experimental Social Psychology, Treasurer Kurt Lewin Institute, Scientific Director

Nederlandse Stichting voor Psychotechniek, Board Member NWO referenten college

NWO Verkenningscommissie “Conflict,” Chair

Evers, A.

Committee on Test Affairs of the Dutch Association of Psychologists (COTAN) Representative, Department of Psychology of the UvA.

European Federation of Professional Psychological Associations (EFPPA) Member, Standing Committee on Tests and Testing

International Test Commission, Dutch representative

van Vianen, A. E. M.

Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Studies (AIAS), Board 11. Other products

Bechtoldt, M. N.

Anti-Mobbingkurse fuer Chefs. Interview in Frankfurter Rundschau, March. Mobbing am Arbeitsplatz. Interview with RTL-Radio, March.

Mobbing – Wenn alle Gespraeche ploetzlich verstummen. Interview in Frankfurter Rundschau, July.

Kontaktfreudig und verlaesslich – Emotionale Intelligenz ist schwer zu fassen. Interview in Frankfurter Rundschau, September.

De Dreu, C.K.W.

Leiderschap in organisaties. Interview Algemeen Dagblad, oktober Samenwerking en conflict. Interview NRC-next, december

Nauta, A.

Jobzitten. Interview in Esta, 18, p. 8.

Mythes over ouderen. Interview in Binnenlands Bestuur, February 24. Remedie tegen het vastroesten. Interview in De Volkskrant, June 16.


Nijstad, B. A.

Keuzeprocessen in de studie. Interview Brabants Dagblad, november. Moeilijkheden in het keuzeproces. Interview Intermediair, oktober.

Schabracq, M. J.

TV-optreden over het non-verbale gedrag van J. P. Balkenende itw Volkskrant over het nonverbale gedrag van alle “oude” ministers, september.

12. Visiting professorships and invited lectures Visiting professorships

Keynote speeches and invited lectures at conferences

Bechtoldt, M. N. Emotionale Intelligenz, Gender und Arbeitsqualifikationen.

Invited talk at the Gender-Symposium on Emotionale Intelligenz, Gender und Elite, Ev. Akademie Arnoldshain/Templeton Research Lectures, University of Frankfurt, Frankfurt, May.

Bechtoldt, M. N. Die Bedeutung Sozialer Kompetenz fuer die Bewaeltigung interpersoneller Stress-Situationen am Arbeitsplatz. Invited talk at the BAD-Expertentagung Stressmanagement, Hannover, September.

Bechtoldt, M. N. Mobbing am Arbeitsplatz. Invited talk at the

Dienstrechtstagung, Luzern, University of St. Gallen, November .

Evers, A. Toepassingen van intelligentietests bij allochtonen in het kader van de personeelsselectie: Problemen (en oplossingen)? Symposium “Intelligent testing”, organized by PITS Test Services, Amsterdam, September. Evers, A. Testkwaliteit: Europees en Nederlands perspectief. NIP-symposium,

Utrecht, November.

Klehe, U.-C., & König, C. J. The ability to identify evaluation criteria in personnel selection situations. Invited presentation at the Universitiy of Houston, Houston, May.

Nijstad, B. A. Kenniscafé “kennis achter keuzes”. Georganiseerd door De Volkskrant en TUMULT,Utrecht, January.

Nijstad, B. A. Keuzestress en psychologie. PLATO symposium keuzestress, Universiteit van Tilburg, November.

van Vianen, A. E. M. De maakbaarheid van loopbanen (Making careers).

NSVP loopbaancongres, IJsselstein, November.

Invited lectures at universities