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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

83

A New Way to Save Energy and Cost – Cloud

Computing

Satyendra Singh Rawat

1

, Prof. Niresh Sharma

2

1M.Tech Research Scholar, RKDF Institute of Science & Technology 2

HOD CSE, RKDF Institute of Science & Technology

1Satyandra2005@gmail.com 2nireshsharma@yahoo.co

Abstract— Cloud computing is used as an efficient way to achieve green computing in the long run. Most of the system equipment are designed in a way to reduce emissions and achieve energy performance. This kind of computing can always be used for re-provisioning of resources. This will help you to expand the resources at ease as and when required. There is no requirement to add extra cooling components when the resource usage is extended beyond its usual levels. It is possible to save the environment as well as the operating costs by this manner.

Keywords—Cloud Computing, Cloud Server, Green computing, Energy saving.

I. INTRODUCTION

We are living now in a society which draws heavily on the benefits offered by Information Technology(IT) . Computers have come a long way from its early days of large mainframe which were energy guzzlers to the latest gizmos called tablets ,led by iPads and its competitors ,designed to be frugal in energy use.

The computing scene entered the next landmark era with the advent of Internet , the network of computer networks. Today ,Internet has become ubiquitous ,faster ,and easily manageable by non-technical communities . social Networking , an offshoot of the Web ,now enables people of all ages and strata to interact with others anywhere in the world through sites like Facebook, Twitter, Linked-In , YouTube, Flicker, Second Life, Delicious , Blogs, Wikis, etc.

With more and more people depending heavily on computers for their day to day activities , leveraging on the web, an unprecedented proliferation of computer systems has resulted. Millions of severs and even more end-user devices like desktops , laptops, tablets or smartphones are operating and the globe.

Now the pinch is felt by the power sector as the demand for energy increases from these computing devices in millions. To address this ,on one side, the hardware designers spend all efforts to come out with energy efficient designs of their computer chips and related hardware. On software side, operating systems and applications are now oriented to wards energy efficient usage of hardware they are required to work with.

Cloud computing [2] can be used as the pay per use model that will enable the supply of resources on demand from the client side. The users need not configure resource management and can have easy access to these resources without any hassle. It is enough to pay for the resources that are used online. The client need not set up any kind of special infrastructure to receive the services or to use the software. It acts as an abstraction layer which can be used by all the clients on demand. There are 3 categories of cloud services such as public, private and hybrid. Irrespective of these categories, there are certain categories that all the 3 will posses

1. The system should be able to allot and relieve the resources as and when required and on demand.

2. The system should have real time back up facility in case of urgent requirements.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

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The expansion can be very small and can even be compared to writing a small program to execute your business logic. The required software will be available on the centralized server and you can use it in all your client side computers without any hassle. A personal copy of the proceedings will be saved in the server for every individual users. Cloud computing helps your employees to telecommute with each other. The resources can be shared and used from any part of the world and it allows people to work from home. This will save their time, fuel, transportation charges which will be highly beneficial in the long run.

There are great benefits that come with cloud computing concepts. Remote accessibility is a major advantage that should be capitalized by all the companies. The business operations cannot be restricted to the development centre or premises. Your employees can be given a free hand to work from their favourite spot and deliver the expected. The easy expansion of resources is feasible at minimal expenses. The resources are tailor made for the customers and can be used instantly. This will help to save electricity bills and reduce emissions. The real time back up of the servers is a great advantage when it comes to cloud computing.

II. CLOUD COMPUTING

Cloud computing[10] is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.

Figure 1 - NIST Visual Model of Cloud Computing definition.

A. Essential Characteristics

On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider.

Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations).

Resource pooling: The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenter). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth.

Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time.

Measured service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability1 at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.

B. Service Models

[image:2.612.55.276.572.667.2]
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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

85

The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating

systems, storage, or even individual application

capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.

Platform as a Service (PaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired applications created using programming languages, libraries, services, and tools supported by the provider.3 The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure including network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but has control over the deployed applications and possibly

configuration settings for the application-hosting

environment.

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, and deployed applications; and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls).

C. Deployment Models

Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple consumers (e.g., business units). It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off premises.

Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public.

It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business,

academic, or government organization, or some

combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider.

Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds).

III. GREEN BUSINESS TREND

A new report [2] examines the energy savings benefits of cloud computing. Change is a given in the Information Technology (IT) world and a growing trend in the IT industry is cloud computing. A new study by the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) examines several financial benefits of cloud computing, including an environmental benefit: reduced energy consumption.

So what is cloud computing? According to Investopedia, cloud computing is ―a model for delivering information technology services in which resources are retrieved from the internet through web-based tools and applications, rather than a direct connection to a server. Data and software packages are stored in servers.‖ The primary motivator for choosing cloud computing was cost savings, the study shows that other benefits were also realized.

The additional benefits identified include:

 Reducing or avoiding up-front capital investments

 Increased flexibility

 Improved automation and process efficiencies

 Reduced carbon emissions due to reduced energy

consumption

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

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A. 3 Things That Make Cloud Computing Green

Cloud computing is giving the green revolution a new boost. Although there are debates over how green cloud computing can actually be, there is no doubt that cloud computing, especially long term, can potentially result in a lot of energy savings. There are three ways [6] in which the cloud manifests itself as ―green:‖ remote access, energy savings and virtualization. These three factors, explained below, all contribute to helping companies become greener and more energy efficient.

1) Energy Savings: Cloud computing is very often done through the use of a ―zero client monitor,‖ or a network monitor that allows you to connect to your cloud desktop. The zero client monitor has USB ports on the side where you plug in your keyboard and mouse. Secure access to your cloud desktop is done through the Ethernet port on the back of the monitor. There is no longer a need for an entire PC. This monitor altogether consumes 30-35 watts of energy per hour whereas a standard PC consumes 100 watts of energy per hour. Saving 65% of energy. This results in significant energy savings especially when looked at long term.

2) Less Waste: If a company recently purchased new workstations, by switching to the cloud, they can save money by extending the life expectancy of their new equipment. By running an application on the workstation, a user can securely log in to their desktop in the cloud. Since the local workstation is simply showing screenshots of the processes occurring on the cloud desktop, the local workstation uses fewer resources which in turn substantially expand the life expectancy of the device being worked on. This results in less equipment and technological waste produced.

3) Virtualization: The basis of cloud computing is virtualized infrastructure. The equipment you have in your office such as your PC, server, and backup devices are no longer needed. All your data is moved to a secure off site location (data centers) and is accessible through an encrypted connection. This translates into an IT system which is more cost-effective, has higher levels of data security and can be accessed from any device at any time.

Through virtualization, perhaps the most important point, cloud computing becomes highly efficient since resources are given to users on an on-demand basis. Any loose equipment, such as extra PC’s are eliminated, resulting in less product purchasing.

This saves on things like transportation and garbage, further decreasing your footprint. Cloud computing is a unique way to pay only for the processing power and storage space you need today, saving further costs for the company. Using the cloud is just one way to help your business go green and used the saved fund for other projects like hiring new employees or hosting a party for every holiday!

B. Green Data Centre Offering For Cloud Computing Information and communications technology (ICT) offerings provider Huawei[4] has introduced its next-generation green modular data centre offerings for cloud computing.

With the next-generation intelligent data-centre solution (IDS) series, customers can realise on-demand access to IT resources and conduct business operations efficiently and the data-centre solution (IDS) series allows customers to avoid high capital expenditure and operating expenses caused by increased power consumption. The IDS1000 helps customers to reduce the duration of construction phase to 2 months and the power consumption of the IDS1000 is 50% less than that of traditional equipment rooms. IDS1000 can support disaster relief, large events, and military operations.IDS2000 uses advanced cooling technology, and features Huawei's iFOS intelligent management system, constructed based on a visible expert system, which dynamically adjusts the power supply and cooling capacity based on the workload of the cloud platform.

The IDS2000 delivers a power usage effectiveness (PUE) value of less than 1.2 and is suitable for the modularised construction and expansion of medium and large data centres, said the company. This new generation will help customers reduce the cost of operation by more than 30 per cent, ushering in a new era in cloud computing.

C. Powering An Email System

When a user checks their email, energy is consumed in three places:

1) The client: The PC, laptop, phone or other device directly accessing email is called the client. It’s using electricity as it fetches and displays email.

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

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In a larger enterprise, networking equipment could involve dozens of devices spanning continents.

3) The server: The computer or group of computers receiving, sending and storing email is called the email server. This machine or group of machines is constantly on and consuming electricity. Although switching from a locally hosted email system to a cloud-based email system can affect the energy usage of all three, it primarily affects the server level energy usage.1 This paper examines server energy only. Servers in locally hosted email systems are often underutilized and installed in facilities that aren’t optimized for energy efficiency. Servers in cloud-based email systems are located in large, efficient data centers which can provision more servers as needed. A cloud-based email system saves considerable amounts of per-user energy costs once provisioning email servers, providing redundancy, and cooling costs are taken into account.

D. Provisioning Email Servers

An email server is a computer that sends outgoing messages to the external network and stores incoming messages until a user downloads or deletes them. Servers can be very large, powerful machines for handling many simultaneous users or smaller machines for handling only a few. Consider three typical businesses that choose to host their mail locally and their hypothetical server requirements given in Table1. The small organization is at a distinct disadvantage, having to purchase a server that can host 300 users when it only needs capacity for 50. An organization can’t purchase and power half a server if that’s all they need. Moreover, the energy consumption of a fully-utilized server is not much higher than a partly-utilized one.

E. Redundancy and Reliability

A modern day business relies on email servers 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year and endeavours to make them as reliable as possible.

Depending on the size and type of the organization, this could mean:

 Additional backup email servers

 Redundant email storage, like networked hard

drives or other storage technology

 Backup networking links

 Co-locating email servers in multiple separate physical locations

―N‖ shorthand is sometimes used to describe the number of redundant servers needed for an organization’s email.

If ―N‖ number of servers are need to handle an organization’s users, ―N+1‖ redundancy means there is one spare server on hand. If a company requires two servers to host all of their email, then they have a third on hand in case one fails. ―2N‖ redundancy would mean having one spare for every required server.

Redundancy means more reliability and more energy use. Modelling modest redundancy requirements for a small, medium and large business provides an estimated number of servers each business will need for their email system as shown in Table II.

From the number of servers, the annual energy usage can be roughly calculated as such shown in Table III.

The disadvantages faced by small and medium businesses are magnified once redundancy requirements are added. The larger the organization, the more efficiently servers can be provisioned. When comparing server power per user, the large organization uses 1/15th as much energy per user as the small organization.

F. Computer Housing and Cooling

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

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Once again, small setups underperform, with both larger per-user energy costs and carbon footprints. When cooling and housing costs are taken into account, the total power per user for a large organization can be 1/20th that of a small business.

G. Carbon Costs

Since 2007, Google has been a carbon neutral company, utilizing energy efficient improvements, green power and carbon offsets to bring our footprint down to zero. Users of Gmail also enjoy this benefit of zero carbon emission email. However, to form an accurate comparison of cloud-based versus locally hosted services, we calculated our per-user carbon emissions before offsets. Using the EPA US average emissions intensity for locally hosted email servers10, and using Google’s own calculated emissions intensity for its operations, the annual carbon footprint of a Gmail user is about 1/80th that of a small business with locally hosted email servers.

IV. CONCLUSION

Growth in cloud computing has some important consequences for both greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sustainability. Simply put, clouds are better utilized and less expensive to operate than traditional data centers. The very largest of organizations – both commercial and governmental – will have the capital and expertise to achieve a similar level of efficiency at a comparable cost. As a result, we anticipate that much of the work done today in internal data centers will be outsourced to the cloud by 2020, resulting in significant reductions in energy consumption, associated energy expenses, and GHG emissions from data center operations versus a business as usual (BAU) scenario.

If companies adopt cloud computing, they can reduce the energy consumption of their IT and save money on energy bills. Last year Pike Research found that cloud computing could lead to a 38 percent reduction in worldwide data center energy use by 2020, compared to what the growth of data center energy consumption would be without cloud computing. Cloud computing is one of the most disruptive Internet infrastructure shifts to happen in recent years. Web companies have been embracing cloud computing in order to buy flexible, lower cost, on-demand computing power from companies like Amazon. And these cloud computing services generally replace the computing that would have been done by companies’ own in-house computing resources.

Companies using outsourced data centers can save thousands of dollars per year in energy costs, as well as make significant cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, according to a recent study[7][8].

Cloud computing providers are able to focus their efforts on maximizing the performance and efficiency of their computing operations, and as a result are often able to perform at much higher levels of utilization than individual companies, especially smaller firms with fewer IT resources.

Microsoft announced that its 2010 version of its Office software suite would be available in an online version for free, similar to Google's Google Docs service. These two companies highlight how efficient cloud computing services can be, with both Microsoft and Google having achieved industry-leading energy efficiency levels for their data centers. As a service, cloud computing allows users to access their hardware and software via the Internet, enabling them to unload on-site equipment and the

resources necessary to maintain it.

Cloud providers, by contrast, control their energy usage by reducing waste of computer resources, lowering their needs for cooling and power and matching server capacity with actual demand to maintain higher server usage rates. The type of advanced cooling systems used by cloud providers further reduces their energy demands.

Research shows that companies relying on their own infrastructure instead of the cloud tend to lose efficiency as they cool their data centers and servers and keep servers idle. Companies can reduce that idle time significantly by switching to cloud computing. In fact, the firms with the smallest workloads can expect the biggest savings.

TABLE1:HYPOTHETICAL SERVER REQUIREMENTS Business Size Email

Users

Server Requirement

Small 50 A single, mid-range multi-core server with local disk that can serve 3003 users and draws 2004 Watts.

Medium 500 A single, large, many core server with combinations of local and network storage, which can host 1,000 users and which draws 450 Watts. Large 10,000 Several, large, many-core

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International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, Volume 2, Issue 3, March 2012)

[image:7.612.48.279.197.324.2]

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TABLE II: ESTIMATED NUMBER OF SERVERS EACH BUSINESS

Business Type

Minimum servers required without redundancy

Redundancy plan

Total servers Required

Small 1 N+1 2

Medium 1 N+1 2

[image:7.612.47.272.361.484.2]

Large 10 N+0.6N 12

TABLE III: THE ANNUAL ENERGY USAGE

Business type

Individual server power

Total server power

Server power per user

Annual server energy required per user

Small 200W 400W 8W 70kWh

Medium 450W 900W 1.8W 16kWh

Large 450W 5400 W

.54W 4.7kWh

TABLE IV: ENERGY USES PER USER

Business Type

IT power per user

PUE Total

power per user

Annual energy per user

Small 8W 2.5 20W 175kWh

Medium 1.8W 1.8 3.2W 28.4kWh

Large 0.54W 1.6 0.9W 7.6kWh

References

[1] 5- Tips to go green with cloud computing , http://www.allthingscrm.com/crm-news/cloud-computing/5-tips-to-go-green-with-cloud-computing/

[2]

http://greenblog.pgi.com/2011/green-business-trend-cloud-computing/

[3]

http://www.bdtechie.com/cloud-computing-ways-to-achieve-green-computing.html

[4] Huawei introduces green data center offering for cloud

computing,

http://servers.cbronline.com/news/huawei- introduces-green-data-centre-offering-for-cloud-computing-091111

[5] Google’s Green Computing: Efficiency at Scale

[6]

http://www.adarit.com/2011/09/21/3things-that-make-cloud computing-green/

[7] http://www.rbj.net/print_article.asp?aID=189110

[8] http://cloudtechsite.com/blogposts/cloud- computing-save-several-from-excessive-energy-consumption.html [9] http://www.thecloudcomputingaustralia.com/2011/08/25/thre

e-main-service-models-of-cloud-computing/print/

[10]NIST Visual Model of Cloud Computing Definition,

[image:7.612.45.274.533.647.2]

Figure

Figure 1 - NIST Visual Model of Cloud Computing definition.
TABLE II: ESTIMATED NUMBER OF SERVERS EACH BUSINESS

References

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