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Near-Earth Asteroids 2006 RH120 And 2009 BD: Proxies For Maximally Accessible Objects?

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Near-Earth Asteroids 2006 RH

120

and 2009 BD:

Proxies For Maximally Accessible Objects?

Paper AAS 15-526

Presented to the 2015 AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Specialist Conference

Brent W. Barbee

Paul W. Chodas

NASA/GSFC

NASA/JPL

August 11

th

, 2015

https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20150020912 2019-08-31T05:35:36+00:00Z

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Introduction

I

Near-Earth Object Human Space Flight Accessible Targets Study

(NHATS):

I

http://neo.jpl.nasa.gov/nhats/

I

As of mid-July 2015: 1,434 of the 12,778 currently known NEAs are more

astrodynamically accessible than is Mars (requiring less ∆v and or less

flight time for round-trip missions)

I

Within those 1,434 NEAs:

I

605 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less ∆v (9 km/s) than the lunar

surface

I

51 NEAs can be visited round-trip for less ∆v (5 km/s) than low circular

lunar orbit

I

NEO population statistical models:

I

Tens of thousands of NEAs >100 m yet to be discovered

I

At least several million NEAs ≤100 m in size (down to ∼3 m in size) yet

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Highly Accessible NEAs

I

The NHATS system evaluates NEA accessibility for Earth departure

dates between 2015 and 2040

I

However, some of the most accessible of the NHATS-compliant NEAs

were at their most accessible when they were discovered

I

Two NEAs that appear to have very high prior accessibility: 2006 RH

120

and 2009 BD

I

2006 RH

120

I

∼2–3 m in size

I

Captured by Earth June 2006 to September 2007

I

2009 BD

I

∼4 m in size

I

Not captured by Earth, but still highly accessible in the past

Might these be suitable proxies for the most accessible of the not yet

discovered NEAs?

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Motion Relative to Earth: 2006 RH

120

−0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 −1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 Radial, AU Along−Track, AU Sun Earth 2006RH120 start end

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Motion Relative to Earth: 2009 BD

−0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 −1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2 0 0.2 Radial, AU Along−Track, AU Sun Earth 2009BD start end

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PCC Comparison: 2006 RH

120

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PCC Comparison: 2009 BD

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Mission Trajectories Comparison

2006 RH

120

∆v ≤ 12 km/s, Dur ≤ 450 d ∆v ≤ 4.5 km/s, Dur ≤ 150 d

2015–2040 2006–2007 2015–2040 2006–2007

Min. ∆v Min. Dur. Min. ∆v Min. Dur. Min. ∆v Min. Dur. Min. ∆v Min. Dur.

Total ∆v (km/s) 3.972 11.942 3.501 9.147 4.711 4.993 3.843 4.451

Total Duration (days) 450 34 386 18 146 122 146 58

Earth Dep Date 18-Aug-2027 4-Aug-2028 18-Jun-2006 9-Mar-2007 3-Jul-2028 3-Jul-2028 1-Mar-2007 12-Jan-2007

Return Entry Speed (km/s) 11.083 12.000 11.085 11.811 11.101 11.112 11.075 11.091

2009 BD

∆v ≤ 12 km/s, Dur ≤ 450 d ∆v ≤ 6.0 km/s, Dur ≤ 270 d

2015–2040 2008–2012 2015–2040 2008–2012

Min. ∆v Min. Dur. Min. ∆v Min. Dur. Min. ∆v Min. Dur. Min. ∆v Min. Dur.

Total ∆v (km/s) 4.978 11.876 3.464 11.054 5.876 5.964 3.843 5.998

Total Duration (days) 370 114 354 18 266 258 258 50

Earth Dep Date 30-Nov-2033 25-May-2034 15-Jun-2010 17-May-2011 10-Feb-2034 10-Feb-2034 8-Sep-2009 15-Apr-2011

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58 Day Mission to 2006 RH

120

−10 1 2 3 x 10−3 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 x 10−3 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 x 10−3 X − ECI, AU Y − ECI, AU Z − ECI, AU S/C Traj 2006RH120 Dep1 Arr1 Dep2 Arr2

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50 Day Mission to 2009 BD

0 5 10 x 10−3 0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03 0 5 10 15 x 10−3 X − ECI, AU Y − ECI, AU Z − ECI, AU S/C Traj 2009BD Dep1 Arr1 Dep2 Arr2

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Conclusion

I

Missions to 2006 RH

120

during 2006 and 2007 would not have been feasible, in

part because the object was not immediately recognized as a genuine NEA

I

2006 RH

120

did not receive its minor planet designation until February 2008, a

full year after its peak mission accessibility season

I

A sufficiently long arc of observations is required in order to ascertain whether an

object is natural or artificial

I

During their discovery time frames, 2006 RH

120

and 2009 BD were considerably

more accessible than even the most accessible of the currently known NEAs

I

The discovery time frame accessibilities of 2006 RH

120

and 2009 BD approach

the accessibility of an object on a lunar DRO

I

Thus, it is reasonable to treat 2006 RH

120

and 2009 BD as proxies for

maximally accessible objects

I

In future work we may investigate further by applying the NHATS algorithms to

large set of simulated NEAs from current population models

A dedicated space-based NEA survey telescope located away from Earth

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References

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