Organizational Commitment Among Management Teachers

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Organizational Commitment Among Management

Teachers

Dr. Nisha Chanana

Assistant Professor, School of Management Studies,

Baddi University of Emerging Sciences and Technology, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh (India) nishachanana@gmail.com

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Abstract: In the present study an attempt has been made to investigate the level of organizational commitment among management teachers working in state universities, private/deemed universities and affiliated management institutes of Haryana. The sample of 218 management teachers i.e. 65 from state universities, 61 from private/deemed universities and 92 from affiliated institutes were drawn using purposive sampling procedure. The Questionnaire is developed by Allen and Meyer in 1990 is used for the study. The level of organizational commitment is found high in state universities as compared with private/deemed universities and affiliated institutes management teachers who are moderately committed towards their respective universities/institutes.

Keywords: Organizational Commitment, Management, Teachers

1. INTRODUCTION

During the last four decades, the concept organizational commitment has grown in popularity in the literature of psychology. Initial studies on organizational commitment viewed the perception as a single dimension, based on an attitudinal perspective, embracing identification, involvement and loyalty [1]. An attitudinal perspective refers to the psychological attachment shaped by an employee in relation to his identification and involvement with the respective organization [1]. Organizational commitment as “an attachment to the organization, characterized by an intention to remain in it; an identification with the values and goals of the organization; and a willingness to exert extra effort” [1]. Individuals consider the extent to which their own values and goals relate to that of the organization as part of organizational commitment; therefore it is considered to be the linkage between the individual employee and the organization.

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opinion of the normative pressure” [5]. Initially viewed organizational commitment as two-dimensional, first is affective and second is continuance [9]. The first dimension is positive feelings of identification, attachment and involvement in the work organization, and the next dimension continuance commitment is the extent which employees feel committed to their organization by benefit of the costs that they feel are associated with leaving [6]. In the last, third dimension normative commitment added in organizational commitment [7, 8]. Three dimensional model to conceptualize organizational commitment in three dimensions namely, affective, continuance and normative commitments [9].

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

Goulet and Frank conducted a study to compare organizational commitment among employees working in public, non-profit and for-profit sectors. Organizational commitment was observed highest among for-profit sector employees followed by non-profit sector and public sector employees [10]. Sharma and Bajpai carried out a research to compare organizational commitment among 250 employees working in public and private sector. Data included managerial and non-managerial staff from both sector. The results revealed that public sector employees have greater degree of organizational commitment in comparison to private sector organizations. Further results reported a significant difference in public and private sector employees [11].

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2.1 Importance of the study

In recent years, many Universities and other educational institutions have been established in Haryana. All these Universities and Institutes are offering number of technical and professional courses like MBA. In this competitive era, emphasis is laid upon quality education which is entrusted in the hands of teachers. However, educational institutes need committed and satisfied teachers to achieve their objectives and cannot succeed without their efforts and commitment. Organizational commitment is critical in retaining and attracting well-qualified teachers. Review of literature made it evident that most of the studies have been conducted in Industrial and organizational setting. Thus, this study is an attempt to determine the level organizational commitment.

2.2 Statement of the problem

To understand the level of organizational commitment among management teachers of Haryana, this study was planned. This study compares the level organizational commitment among management teachers of state universities, private or deemed universities and affiliated institutes.

The present study has been stated as follows: “Organizational commitment among management teachers”.

2.3 Objectives of the study

To determine the level of organizational commitment among management teachers of state universities, private or deemed universities and affiliated institutes of Haryana.

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The present investigation has been designed to study organizational commitment among management teachers of state universities, private or deemed universities and affiliated institutes of Haryana. For the present study descriptive method is used. All management teachers of state universities, private or deemed universities and affiliated institutes of Haryana constituted the population of the study for the present investigation. The sample was drawn from state universities, private or deemed universities and affiliated institutes of Haryana. The sample of 218 management teachers i.e. 65 from state universities, 61 from private/deemed universities and 92 from affiliated institutes were drawn using purposive sampling procedure. Only the teachers having minimum 3 years of experience in the same institute were included in the study. An individual management teacher was the sample unit.

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affective commitment scale, continuance commitment scale and normative commitment scale. Several studies have examined the reliability of the OCQ. Allen & Meyer (1990) reported .87 for affective [7], .75 for continuance, and .79 for normative.

For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation (S.D.), and z test is used. The same is presented with the help of appropriate statistical tables, figures and charts.

4. DATA ANALYSIS

For the assessment of the organizational commitment level descriptive analysis has been presented below.

Table 1

Descriptive statistics and z values of organizational commitment dimensions Sr. No. STATE UNIVERSITIES (65) Observed Mean Standard

Mean SD SE z value

1 Affective Commitment 29.89 24 3.523 .437 13.49

2 Continuance Commitment 24.83 24 3.740 .464 1.79

3 Normative Commitment 26.55 24 2.979 .370 6.91

Overall Organizational

Commitment 81.28 72 6.191 .768 12.08

Sr. No. PRIVATE/DEEMED UNIVERSITIES (61) Observed Mean Standard

Mean SD SE z value

1 Affective Commitment 28.64 24 6.154 .788 5.89

2 Continuance Commitment 23.56 24 3.654 .468 -0.95

3 Normative Commitment 27.51 24 2.226 .285 12.31

Overall Organizational

Commitment 79.70 72 7.537 .965 7.98

Sr. No. AFFILIATED INSTITUTES (92) Observed Mean Standard

Mean SD SE z value

1 Affective Commitment 24.95 24 4.039 .421 2.25 2 Continuance Commitment 24.63 24 3.206 .334 1.89 3 Normative Commitment 26.52 24 2.260 .236 10.70

Overall Organizational

Commitment 76.10 72 6.908 .720 5.69

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Figure 1: Mean scores of organizational commitment dimensions

4.1 Affective Commitment

A perusal of the table 1 reveals that the affective commitment is significantly higher than the expected level in state universities’ management teachers. The observed mean score of 29.89 is higher than the standard mean score of 24. Further the departure from expectations was tested by applying z test. The value of z (13.49) is found significant at .01 level. Thus, the obtained finding reveals that management teachers of state universities have high level of affective commitment to their respective universities.

On the other hand, private/deemed universities and affiliated institutes management teachers hold moderate level of affective commitment towards their universities/institutes. z values reveals that the observed mean score is significantly different from the standard mean score (z=5.89, p<.01) in private/deemed universities as well as in affiliated institutes (z=2.25, p<.05). The observed mean score obtained by the management teachers of private/deemed universities (28.64) is higher than the standard mean score (24). And the same result has been found in the case of affiliated institutes, the observed mean score (24.95) is slightly higher than the standard mean score (24) suggesting thereby that their emotional attachment to their respective organization are of average level.

4.2 Continuance Commitment

The result reveals that the observed mean scores of state universities (24.83) is almost same as standard mean score (24). Further z value of state universities (z=1.79, p>.01) reveals that the observed mean score is not significantly different from the standard mean score. It means state universities’ teachers are moderately committed towards their universities.

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(-It is clear from the table 1, that affiliated institutes management teachers observed mean score (24.63) and standard mean score (24) is almost similar (z=1.89, p>.01). Hence, result found that the management teachers of state universities, private or deemed universities and affiliated institutes are moderately committed due to the cognizance of the costs associated with leaving the organization.

4.3 Normative Commitment

From the table 1 it is clear that the value of z (6.91) is significant at .01 level. The observed mean score of state university (26.55) is slightly higher than the standard mean score of 24. Hence, moderate level of normative commitment has been found among state universities’ management teachers.

It depicts that private/deemed universities management teachers (z=12.31, p<.01) observed mean score (27.51) is higher than the standard mean score (24). Result reveals that management teachers of private/deemed universities are higher on normative commitment because they feel highly obliged to continue employment.

Affiliated institutes management teachers observed mean score (26.52) is higher than the standard mean score of 24. Further the departure from expectation was tested by applying z test, z value (10.70) is significant at .01 level suggesting thereby that obligation to continue employment to their organization are of higher level.

4.4 Overall Organizational Commitment

A perusal of the table 1 reveals that the overall organizational commitment is significantly higher than the expected level in state universities’ management teachers. The observed mean score (81.28) is higher than the standard mean score of 72. Further the departure from expectations was tested by applying z test. The value of z (12.08) is found significant at .01 level. Thus, the obtained finding reveals that management teachers of State Universities are highly committed to their respective universities.

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private/deemed universities and affiliated institutes management teachers are moderately committed towards their respective universities/institutes.

5. MAIN FINDINGS

 Management teachers of state universities have high level and, private/deemed universities and

affiliated institutes management teachers hold moderate level of affective commitment towards their universities/institutes respectively.

 Continuance commitment level is found moderate level in state universities, private or deemed

universities and affiliated institutes.

 Moderate level of normative commitment has been found among state universities’ management

teachers and higher level found among private/deemed universities and affiliated institute management teacher.

 Overall organizational commitment is found high in state as compared with private/deemed

universities and affiliated institutes management teachers who are moderately committed towards their respective universities/institutes.

6. CONCLUSION & DISCUSSION

State universities’ management teachers more committed towards their organizations followed by private/deemed universities and affiliated institutes. The obtained findings of the present study are in conformity with the findings of Sharma and Bajpai [11] who found public sector organizations have high organizational commitment in comparison to private sector organization. Hashim and Mahmood [13] and Tufail and Farooq [15] also reported that public universities’ teachers have high organizational commitment as compared to private universities’ teachers.

7. SCOPE FOR FURTHER RESEARCHES

The present study was limited to Management colleges only. An attempt may be made to investigate organizational commitment among other degree colleges. A similar study of comparison between Management teachers and other subject teachers may also be taken up. Demographic variables such as age, experience, marital status, qualifications etc. in relation to organizational commitment of Management teachers may also be included to enhance the scope of the study.

REFERENCES

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[5] Wiener,Y. and Vardi,Y. “Relationship between job, organization and career commitments and work outcomes: An integrative approach”.Organizational behavior and Human Performance, (1980), 26, 81-96

[6] Meyer, J.P. and Allen, N.J. “Testing the side bet theory of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations”.Journal of Applied Psychology, (1984), 69, 372-378.

[7] Allen, N.J. and Meyer, J.P. “The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization”.Journal of Occupational Psychology, (1990), 63, 1-18.

[8] Meyer, J. P. and Allen, N. J. and Gellatly, I. R. “Affective and continuance commitment to the organization: evaluation of measures and analysis of concurrent and time-lagged relations”.Journal of Applied Psychology, (1990), 75, 710-720.

[9] Meyer, J. P. and Allen, N. J. “Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research and application”. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage,(1997).

[10] Goulet, Laurel R. and Frank, Margaret L. “Organizational commitment across three sectors: public, non-profit and for-profit”. (2009). http://nonprofitpeople.monster.com/news/articles/9-organizational-commitment-across-three-sectors-public-non-profit-and-for-profit?page=2

[11] Sharma, Jai Prakash and Bajpai, Naval. “Organizational commitment and its impact on job satisfaction of employees: a comparative study in public and private sector in India”.International Bulletin of Business Administration, (2010), Euro Journals, 9.

[12] Ziauddin, Khan Muhammad Riaz, Jam, Farooq Ahmed and Hijazi, Syed Tahir. “The impacts of employees job stress on organizational commitment”.European Journal of Social Sciences, (2010), 13 (4).

[13] Hashim, Raemah Abdullah and Mahmood, Rosli. “Comparing commitment to service quality among academic staffs’ in private and public Malaysian universities”. (2011). http://www.jimsjournal.org/25%20Raemah%20Abdullah%20Hashim.pdf

[14] Mehri, Kazem, Nasiri, Mohammad and Salehian, Mir Hamid. “Comparison of career anchors and organizational commitment among physical education and non-physical education faculties of Iran Islamic Azad universities”.Annals of Biological Research, (2011), 2 (5), 232-239.

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Table 1

Table 1

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Figure 1: Mean scores of organizational commitment dimensions

Figure 1:

Mean scores of organizational commitment dimensions p.5