interactional justice and performance appraisal satisfaction Based on the literature review of previous studies, there is a clear difference in result obtained between all dimensions of appraisal justice and performance appraisal satisfaction. This indicates that there are other variables that are expected to be moderate the relationship between appraisal justice and appraisal satisfaction. The variables that often influence teacher behavior in assessing performance are leadership ,. Principals are the top officials of teachers responsible for assessing the performance of all teachers under their supervision . Principals are high-level executives who are often held accountable for the performance of their subordinate teachers. The principals leadership styles will form the basis for organizational performance . Leadership is a process that influencing others to guide, build and show ways in group or organizational relationships . There are various approaches to leadership style, but in performance appraisal, the most important is the leadership style that focused on employee confidence, transparency, trust and ethics . Leadership styles that emphasize confidence, transparency, trust and sincerity are authentic leadership . Furthermore, authentic leadership styles are more consistent with Asian culture . Authentic Leadership is an ethical, integrity, trustworthy and high level of awareness leadership style . Authentic leaders are generally leaders who are able to prove to others naturally that they understand their leadership style and are able to effectively lead others . Authentic leadership consists of four dimensions which known as self- awareness (SA); relational transparency (RT); internalized moral perspective (IMP) and; balanced processing (BP). This study will see the ability of authentic leadership to act as a moderating variable in the relationship between appraisal justice and appraisal satisfaction. Thus, three hypotheses involving the role of authentic leadership as a moderating variable were developed as follows:
The ‘policy beneficiary’ BPP is essentially a global application of the principle of ‘fair reciprocity’ (Page 2007, pp. 227–228; Armstrong 2015, p. 4). According to this principle, no agent can reasonably refuse to pay their fair share of the costs of realizing a policy goal, or endeavor, that they and other agents have freely endorsed so long as (1) other agents pay their fair share (or more than their fair share) and (2) each agent continues to benefit, and other agents can reasonably assume that they continue to benefit, from the realization of the policy goal or endeavor. The burdens associated with undertaking measures of avoided deforestation, here, should be shared out amongst states fairly and the extent to which each state is expected to benefit from these measures is a key indicator, if not the only indicator, of how much they should be prepared to pay. The basis of the duty to act is the connection between the mitigation benefits delivered by avoided deforestation and the burdens that these policies impose on those states that finance, and implement, these policies. If, as in the case of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, (UNFCCC 1992), a number of agents have come together and declared that they wish to contribute to a mutually valued cooperative venture then it would be unfair for one or more of their number not to bear a fair share of the cost of pursuing this venture while simultaneously benefiting from their international partners paying their fair share. The geographical location of tropical forests is not, on this view, a normatively relevant factor in the way that fair shares of costs of avoided deforestation are distributed since duties are allocated by the ‘policy beneficiary’ BPP on the basis of benefits predictably received, and presumptively welcomed, rather than on the location of the benefit producing practice.
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Whilst this Rosneft judgment has clarified the scope of the Court’s jurisdiction on preliminary reference cases dealing with CFSP-related matters, one has to ask why the litigant did not instead seek to go straight to the EU’s General Court with an action for annulment claim, seeking the annulment of the sanctions applying Union-wide. The Court of Justice said that the basis for actions for annulment through direct actions from the treaties do not constitute the only means for which sanctions are challengea- ble. 37 Thus, from this, we can deduce that Rosneft opens the basis for future forum
One of the most striking aspects of the judgment is that, although the Court largely relied on Art. 31, para. 3, let. c), VCLT in order to interpret the territorial scope of the agreements at bar, it refrained from identifying and setting out its own understanding of the elements contained in that provision. More problematically, it failed to test the rules it invoked against the background of those elements in order to ensure that, indeed, these rules constitute “relevant rules of international law applicable in the relations between the par- ties”. This omission renders the Court’s interpretation of the territorial scope of the Asso- ciation Agreement on the basis of the right to self-determination of the peoples of West- ern Sahara, as a non-self-governing territory, particularly problematic.
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The aim of this research is to ascertain relationship between perceived social functioning of secondary school principals and interactional justice as perceived by secondary school teachers. Survey correlational method was employed. 597 secondary school teachers from Mumbai were the respondents. For gathering data rating scales were used. The obtained data were analysed using the MS Excel and Vassar stats.The findings from the research revealed that there is a direct positive relation between social functioning and interactional justice as perceived by of secondary school teachers on the basis of school type and gender.
To promote justice, on a basis of equal opportunity and to provide free legal aid by suitable legislation or scheme or in any other way to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities [Article 39A) The State to make provision for securing just and
have now put forward a draft political Resolution for agreement, at least in the interim. 97 In today’s security climate, politicians tend to focus on the effective and efficient prosecution of crime in defence of ‘the public interest.’ Enhancing, or indeed even securing rights for individual suspects and defendants is less of a priority. We have seen this in the UK in recent years with the speedy adoption of sometimes draconian legislation in direct response to the ‘terrorist threat.’ In such a context, the role played by the judiciary is crucial. In the UK, the courts have curtailed the ambitions of the legislature with reference to the need to take account of human rights guarantees. Similarly, one might hope and expect the European Court of Justice to be bold in its endorsement of rights protection, even if that is to pursue a path of greatest resistance from the national governments. Of course, a failure to do so might result in a backlash from national constitutional courts themselves. The behaviour of the ECJ is watched with close interest by both national constitutional courts. The willingness of some national constitutional courts not to subject EC legislative acts to review on the basis of national constitutional standards is by no means unconditional. Rather it is dependent upon the EU legal order securing an adequate level of rights protection (the “Solange” jurisprudence). In a system of cooperation based upon mutual recognition which all but prohibits judicial testing on the merits in the country of execution and considerably reduces the grounds for refusal – the scope for legal unrest is high. It is perhaps inevitable that the room for manoeuvre left to the Member States by the mutual recognition legislation will be tested in the national courts – and as we have witnessed in respect of the implementation of the EAW framework decision, this will often raise questions about constitutionally protected fundamental rights. If and when
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When responding to the viewpoints and arguments of Justices Scalia and Thomas, it is necessary to view diversity through the lens of achieving racial equity—a genuinely non-racist society where the “distribution of society’s benefits and burdens would not be skewed by race.” 69 The holistic review of diversity admissions, including those that consider race, is a form of inclusion, not exclusion or racial discrimination, as Justice Thomas would have us believe. Nor does it operate to provide racial preference, as Justice Scalia suggests. Simply stated, a holistic approach, by its very nature, considers the whole individual, attempts to obtain a “critical mass” representing all types diversity, and is a necessary step in the direction of obtaining racial equity in public education. The segregation Justice Thomas attempts to analogize to considering diversity in admissions processes excluded individuals solely on the basis of race/ethnicity and is therefore distinguishable from holistic diversity, which considers race as one of many factors in the decision-making process.
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Art15(4) enables the state to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and education only backward classes, there is no uniformity in the classification of socially and educationally backward classes ,there is no definition of socially backward classes, It is very difficult to deter mine them ,here president has power to specify these classes on the basis of report of the commission , it is up to the state to first identify which classes are socially and economically backward and then ask the commission to investigate the difficulties they are suffering from and the methods to remove those difficulties . some of the backward classes commissions , which examine the matter , have adopted different criteria.
Manager generally create environment that boost employee perception of justice because employee’s internal motivation depend on his belief that how fair treatment he get in the organization compare to other (Tanner, 2015). If people feel justice and fairness in organization distribution procedure and interaction of the organization they feel more satisfied. It is the justice perception that leads to positive work related attitude of employee that leads to employee satisfaction ( Demir, 2016). Employee satisfaction have two way correlations between organization justice perception, as the organization justice perception of employee raises their job satisfaction raise and with the raise of job satisfaction organization justice perception also rises (Dundar and Tabancali, 2012). In more clear term employee job satisfaction depends on organization justice.( Hasan Ali Al-Zu’bi, 2010).
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This study specifically concentrated on the relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction and organizational commitment. As the previous discussion suggest, the job satisfaction among the employees at the healthcare sector is important to improve job quality and loyalty among their staffs. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment was also being given special focus into searching the answer to understand why some people are more satisfied with their job than others. There are two lines of research in this study, which are organizational justice and job satisfaction and organizational justice and organizational commitment. This study investigate the components of organizational justice on job satisfaction (Procedural, distributive and interactional justice) and this study investigate the components of organizational justice (procedural, distributive and interactional justice) on organization commitment.
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decision-making processes, employee incentives, perform- ance evaluations, and interactions between managers and employees. The organizational justice scale developed by Niehoff and Moorman was modified to include the vari- ables investigated in this study . The scales developed by Hubbell and Chory-Assad  and by Niehoff and Moorman  were used for the questionnaire items. Considering the goals of this study and the cultural and industrial characteristics of the study population, a pretest was developed by three professors of nursing science, four medical experts, and seven nurses. After obtaining satis- factory results in a pilot study of 38 nurses, the question- naire was administered in the full study population. In the principal component analysis of the sample data collected in this study, varimax orthogonal rotation revealed the same three factors reported by Niehoff and Moorman : distributive justice, procedural justice, and inter- actional justice. Each factor had three questions. After fac- tor analysis, distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice had Cronbach α values of 0.892, 0.865, and 0.820, respectively. After rotation, the explained variances for distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice were 31.616 %, 24.520 %, and 23.099 % respectively. Cumulative explained variance was 79.235 %. Because reliability refers to the reliability of the results ob- tained from the data measurements, the Cronback α value is generally used to test “consistency” or “stability” among items used for measuring variables. According to Nunnally , Cronbach α values greater than 0.70 indicate high re- liability, values between 0.35 and 0.70 indicate acceptable reliability, and values lower than 0.35 indicate low reli- ability. Therefore, the scale in this study had extremely high reliability.
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An issue of central concern in the transitional justice literature is the problem of ‘the past,’ and how it might best be ‘reconciled,’ ‘acknowledged,’ or ‘dealt with.’ And yet, efforts to historicize transitional justice itself, as a coherent and bounded discipline, have been rather scant. There is a transitional justice ‘origin story,’ that is often taken at face value. As this orthodox narrative of the emergence of transitional justice is intimately tied to its normative aims, it is incredibly important to subject this origin story to scrutiny. Transitional justice literature anchors itself in seminal moments in the evolution of the modern state system, such as the Nuremberg trials. This origin story serves an important legitimizing function for the discipline, as it can then refer to the creation of the contemporary international system for its precedent. With further analysis, this orthodox narrative proves to be ahistorical in nature, as it relies on a revisionist interpretation of the motives and actions of states and policymakers in the post-World War II era. Rather than relying on this interpretation of transitional justice history, this chapter argues that transitional justice as a field is a much more recent invention, becoming a concretized field only in the immediate post-Cold War era. Situating transitional justice in the post-Cold War era offers the opportunity to analyze its emergence in conjunction with other concurrent hegemonic discourses that captured the international spotlight at the same moment.
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Judges are after all obliged to apply the laws passed by parliament and follow binding precedent no matter what their personal views may be. Justice should be dispensed for women, not just by women. The rights of all citizens free of irrelevant bias, such as gender bias, can only be protected if those rights are able to be vindicated by the substantive law. In Canada, for example, in common with most democratic and developed countries, a citizen’s right to be free of sex discrimination is constitutionally protected. The effect of this can be seen in the analysis of the court in the case to which I have referred when Madam Justice L’Heureux–Dubé said: 37
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Organisational justice is the employees' perception of the fairness with which they have been treated by an organization. The present study was an attempt to study the perception of organizational justice and job satisfaction among the employees of an auto component manufacturing company. A convenience sample consisting of forty five employees working in an auto component manufacturing company participated in the study. Questionnaire method was used for data collection. The collected data was analysed with mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, correlation and regression tests. Results indicated that there was a significant correlation between procedural justice and distributive justice; interactional justice and distributive justice; interactional justice and procedural justice; and between job satisfaction and distributive justice. Approximately thirty three per cent of the variance of job satisfaction was explained by the predictor variables, that is, distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice.
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The results showed that there is a positively significant influence between distributive justice compensation to employee job satisfaction in PG-PS Madubaru Yogyakarta. The results of this study support the results of research Kadarudin, Kadir, and Mardiana (2012): Fatt et al (2010); Tjahjono (2008): and Tjahjono (2006). An employee who feels that the compensation he receives is in accordance with the burden and work of his work, will feel that what he does is valued by the company. This will improve the attitude and perception of the better the profession and work done, so that increased job satisfaction. The results showed that there was no influence between the procedural justice compensation to employee job satisfaction in PG-PS Madubaru, Yogyakarta. The results of this study different from research results Kadarudin, Kadir, and Mardiana (2012): Fatt et al (2010); Tjahjono (2008): and Tjahjono (2006), which shows the procedural justice compensation has a significant positive effect on job satisfaction. This is influenced by the minimum wage set by the local government, so that the high perception of procedural justice compensation will not affect employees job satisfaction.
concept of an ‘ideology-infused’ psychological contract, in which three, versus the usual two, currencies of exchange are recognized: ideology, economic and socio- emotional. In this concept, ideological currency is defined very broadly as ‘credible commitments to pursue a valued cause or principle (not limited to self-interest) that are implicitly exchanged at the nexus of the individual/organisation relationship’ (Thompson & Bunderson 2003: 574). While the broad concept of an ‘ideology- infused’ psychological contract has yet to be examined in detail, there is a line of research starting to appear that points to the possibility that occupational ideologies, and specifically those that characterize professions, may form a basis for an
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as the conflict. I called this the good conflict, however, because the teacher, Preda, was represented in multiple ways and also guided the conflict in a way that could lead to resolution. For instance, not only did he cause the conflict or provoke the conflict in the form of a verbal confrontation, he also illuminated an internal conflict. Preda was not just engaging in verbal confrontation; he was also addressing a life at conflict. Jineyda described herself as an angry kid but also indicated she was determined to eliminate drama that distracted her and identified groups of people she was hanging out with at high school she probably shouldn’t have hung out with. Yet we had already seen that Jineyda was also able to keep those friendships and avoid them, seeking solace in the library. Similarly, Preda inserted himself into Jineyda’s story when she was on the cusp of choosing a path, and he contributed to resolving the confrontation and conflict by elevating Jineyda’s growing interest in social justice, by offering her deeply personal guidance, and by recommending texts that had personal import to Jineyda. Thus, the Good Conflict was resolved by making visible a vision of hope for the future, and specifically, for Jineyda’s future. The vision of hope, however, was a personal construct and one Jineyda alone could be credited with making. While Preda did not tell her what the vision of hope was, his jarring accusations reached Jineyda and made an impact that led her to take immediate direct action.
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pretend to be fair but on the other hand their model is imposed. Critical theory claims that Organizations are a source of production in the wider perspective while the critical theory made criticism that “economic structures are socially unfair”(Benson, 1977) as injustice is inheritance of organizational life. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had been given the impression for justice to be as “bourgeois construct” (Evans, 1993). Marxist approach of justice gives the sight that conflict and exploitation meet with the domination by authoritarian (Lambert, 2003) (Cullinane & Dundon, 2006). Marxists conflictuality could be seen roommate within cooperation in a contradictory unity like control and exploitation.
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The Founding Fathers and the Framer of the Constitution, when discussing the basic concepts of the 1945 Constitution, agreed to reject all forms of capitalism, liberalism, and individualism. Sukarno did not want the western democracy but life-giving deliberation, which is able to bring about social welfare. Mohammad Hatta argued that political democracy alone could not carry out the equality and brotherhood. This did not mean that the 1945 Constitution required Marxism in achieving social justice. It was based on Mohammad Hatta’s argument that there were three concepts underlying the social democracy in achieving the social justice. Those three concepts are (1) western socialism concept, which is attractive because it’s goal is defending the humanity, (2) the Islamic teaching, which demands the divine truth and justice within the society as well as the brotherhood among the people as the God’s creatures according to the loving nature of Allah (3) the knowledge that Indonesian society is based on collectivism .