Equipment attributes should satisfy the necessary conditions; therefore, cost levels cannot be at minimum. Standard devices can be put to level one, but devices with additional features cannot be lower than level three.
By multiplying the amounts with the cost levels and combining them with the weights, the minimum cost level to obtain the highest performance value is, . The upper limit is evaluated using the data obtained from EDs with better opportunities in Turkey, located in private hospitals. Private hospitals provide services with better quality; but with higher cost, since they can charge its patients with higher prices. Therefore, even they cannot charge ED patients; they still provide high quality services to obtain the integrity of the hospital and for marketing purposes. On average, total level of equipment cost in these EDs are 175. This level is accepted to be the lowest performance, . In addition, for the average, the evaluation measure is determined as 60, since equipments with too many attributes have high costs and they are not necessary for EDs. The result of determining is , and the transformation function and its graphical illustration would be:
c) Conservation requirements: requirements for avoidance of soil erosion and degradation.
In summary, the FAO framework evaluating land suitability for crops has been selected as the most suitable and simple method with which to design land suitability model for the study area in question based on the following rationale. In the first instance, FAO framework uses a large array of natural resource databases and integrates them to obtain comprehensive land classes. This is very important because it represents the integration and compilation of a wide variety of different types of data. Second, data obtained can be analysed either quantitatively or qualitatively. As some regional data may be limited in terms of their quantifiability, the FAO framework is useful in that the user has the option to choose the method of analysis. It should, however, be recalled that the FAO Framework allows for the rating'method to be selected; since land quality rating largely depends on individual judgment based on an understanding of the study area. This process also allows for the validation of results in the field. Third, FAO framework for land evaluation allow
user HW and behaviour. Finally, section 6.4 defines the system interaction of the deployed software.
Chapter seven analyses and evaluates the HAUP proto- type results to explore the advantage of using HW information in profile the user in MFA. This chapter determines evaluationcriteria in section 7.1. This evaluationcriteria compare between current profilinguser behaviour in authentication approaches and using HW information as profiling factor. Section 7.2 pro- vides data analysis for user behaviour in typing “username and password” keys. Section 7.3 presents set of experiments using two different HW to illustrate user behaviour analysis result in every particular HW. Section 7.4 illustrates log-in time to sup- port analysing users HW by to explore the difference in user’s behaviour recognition when the user moves between more than one piece of HW. Section 7.5 the ability of using priority class base on profiling HW information to illustrate trust improve- ment based on HAUP approach factors. Finally, the chapter ends with using neural network for the analysis of user be- haviour when a variety of hardware are used to evaluate the result of HW approach in section 7.6.
Figure 3 - Hierarchical Model for SSCM performance evaluation
After determining the local weight-age for each of the items at levels 2, 3 and 4 (as shown in Figure 3), the global weightages for all KPIs are calculated. However, due to chaos and personal judgment bias during the pair-wise comparison (Snowden & Boone 2007), utilization of fuzzy set theories are required to eradicate the involved vagueness. Accordingly, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) is utilized in order to assign priority for these KPIs in level 3 and 4. The acquired weightage after performing FAHP are utilized to evaluate the best alternative by employing FTOPSIS. Subsequently, a Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) based hierarchical structure model was devised in order to delineate inter-relationship among all the identified KPIs within level 4. Alternatively, the acquired rank for the identified KPIs (as determined by FAHP) also endorses the attained level of KPIs in the TISM-based model. Eventually, identification of the best possible alternative, and the cumulative performance scores, is exercised by employing Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (FTOPSIS).
is treated as a different UNIX user, by the Android’s underlying Linux kernel. The iso- lation ensures that malicious applications do not interfere with the activity of the good ones. The permission system is a mechanism of access control to protect resources and critical operations. At install-time, permissions required by an application are shown to the user, which can decide whether to grant or to deny them. However, several criti- cisms have been raised against this system, which results too coarse-grained  and too much reliant on user knowledge and expertise . The main problem of this approach is that the acceptance policy for an application’s requested permission is “all or noth- ing”, that is, the user cannot accept only a subset of the required permissions. Then, if the user does not agree even with a single permission, the installation is not performed. Furthermore, due to the large number of existing permissions, even an expert user may not fully understand all of them and, as a consequence, several users install applications without caring about the required permissions and without questioning about the poten- tial security threats . Hence, a simpler mechanism to guide average users in the job of deciding whether to install or not an application is necessary, without the burden of reading (and understanding) all the declared permissions.
Efficient supply chain management is based on the strategic cooperation of many companies (suppliers and consumers), which involves long-term interaction with business partners. To ensure a reliable supply, most of the modern companies simultaneously interact with multiple suppliers of identical products, distributing the orders between them depending on many factors characterising suppliers, their products, and supply processes in previous periods. Under these conditions, the solution of the problem of multi-criteria selection of traditional suppliers is carried out by optimising purchase amounts of different product types in accordance with the needs of the consumer company based on many criteria. The main selection criteria are supply reliability and logistics costs of the purchase and product delivery. The generalised criterion for the assessment of supply reliability reflects the results of the interaction with suppliers in previous periods and includes assessment of completeness, package contents, timeliness of supply, and quality of supplied products. The logistics costs criterion shows the rejection of product prices offered by traditional suppliers and delivery costs from the minimum values of these indicators in the markets at the time of making procurement decisions. The paper contains the developed linear programming model, which allows optimising the procurement of different types of products from several traditional suppliers under the objective function, combining the evaluationcriteria of supply reliability and logistics costs. The list of suppliers for each type of product is determined by the optimisation results. The method for selection of traditional suppliers is based on the proposed mathematical model and has a numerical example illustrating its application.
In the last decade, the citrus fruits farming at the international level has experienced an upward trend that has modified the traditional scenarios of the offer, that have been characterized by an increase in the surface involved in the South and Central America, North Africa and Asia, thanks to the upgrade of the production techniques on the field, the evolution of logistics, the abolition and reduction of fare barriers with the exchange of goods and vegetable products from all areas of the world. The exchange of goods is causing spreading of diseases that means a limited damage in the area of origin, while in other countries, characterized by different pedoclimatic conditions, is causing epidemics, culture extinction, affecting the economy, health, environment and society. In such a context, the definition of the possible methods to face the phytosanitary emergencies is absolutely necessary. This research suggests the adoption of an evaluationmodel for the phytosanitary emergencies, a model that is sustainable from the economic, social, biotic and phytosanitary perspective, to be applied to different species and other citrus fruits farming areas. It is an integrated model that considers the
Today, all GIS software provide a basic tool for using the MCE approach, such as Boolean overlay, union, intersect, weighted and fuzzy overlay tool. In addition, the output models should have as much information as possible in order to help users to assess the confidence of the output. It is important that a GIS model is built based on the purpose of the study, understanding the method of processing, and the availability of GIS components such as software, as well as the quality of the data. As such, this study has been using fuzzy logic approach to develop an elephant habitat suitability model in order to deal with uncertain geographic information on habitat parameters such as imprecise animal behaviour and the absence of fixed boundaries. This study is capable of offering another feasible analysis with a reasonably high level of reliability to stakeholders in order to identify highly suitability habitat for Asian elephant conservation particularly in translocation areas and to maintain the sustainability of the forests including PAs. Perhaps the applied approach of habitat suitability model using geoinformation tools (RS, GIS: MCE through fuzzy logic approach) will be able to support the administrative actions for effective management and conservation of biodiversity resources in the country. Thus, for the continued survival of Asian elephants, the establishment of suitable habitats both within and outside of the PA is most important in order to support a new population of Asian elephants in the relocation site. Conversely, the study approach will be able to provide the GIS community with the flexibility needed and required by their field and effectively represent and handle uncertain data.
2012) for example, this hierarchy is motivated by the identification of multiple tasks that the robot can carry out and for which multiple SMDP agents are defined. In every step of the interaction, control lies with a single SMDP agent somewhere in the hierarchy; once it arrives at its final state it returns control to its parent SMDP. An additional transi- tion model is introduced to permit switching from an incomplete SMDP to another SMDP at the same level, making interactions more flexible. In our ap- proach, control always starts at the top level MDP and lower level MDPs are triggered depending on the action taken by their parent MDP. For social interaction with multiple users, flexible switching between interactions with different users is impor- tant, so an arguably more sophisticated HRL ap- proach to multi-user interaction will rely heavily on the transition model. Another approach to mod- ularising the task domain through multiple policies is described in (Lison, 2011), where ‘meta-control’
Abstract. The common use of IP networking structures implies the increasing demand of resources by users and applications. For this reason, organizations must guarantee adequate conditions for critical traffic. To face this problem, network administrators constantly need to make decisions regarding this situation by means of using different strategies and tools of Quality of Service (QoS), such as Traffic Control (TC). Such decisions can be modeled by a decision support system that handles subjective information about decision maker’s perceptions. This information involves uncertainty and requires precise evaluation of traffic quality demanded. Subjectivity is modeled by using linguistic information (LI) in order to choose adequate solution to networking performance problems. This paper proposes a Multi-Expert (ME) Multi-Criteria (MC) Linguistic Decision Making (LDM) Model for TC in networking. Finally, an application example to show the model’s benefits is presented.
The evolution of land surface models (LSMs) towards in- creasingly complex representations of hydrologic and bio- physical processes requires special attention to the fidelity of the models in partitioning water and energy budget com- ponents. The traditional validation of models using observa- tions of a single prognostic variable can result in model pre- dictions that are inherently biased towards that variable (Mc- Cabe et al., 2005). The evaluation of multiple model outputs (as opposed to single-output analysis, such as streamflow) has received increasing attention (e.g. Gupta et al., 1999; Crow et al., 2003; McCabe et al., 2005; Khu et al., 2008; Werth and G¨untner, 2010; Milzow et al., 2011). Among the variables other than streamflow that have been used for LSM evaluation are evapotranspiration (Nandagiri, 2007), surface heat fluxes (Gupta et al., 1999; McCabe et al., 2005), hy- drochemical and isotope tracers (Son and Sivapalan, 2007; Lischeid, 2008; Birkel et al., 2010), land surface temperature (Crow et al., 2003; McCabe et al., 2005), remotely sensed soil moisture (Brocca et al., 2010; Milzow et al., 2011), snow water equivalent (MacLean et al., 2010), terrestrial water storage (Werth and G¨untner, 2010; Milzow et al., 2010), and water table level (Khu et al., 2008). The more frequent use of multivariate observations is attributable in part to their grow- ing availability. Some satellite-based observations now have periods of record exceeding a decade for single sensors, and multiple decades for some multi-sensor merged records.
To assess the quality of the supply of tourist farms a decision making model with a number of criteria, based on the DEX-i method, has been developed. In the research thesis we will further define the tourist farm and the regulatory standards, since this will help us to form criteria, which will present an integral part of the DEX-i system. Based on preliminary data obtained from surveys and the developed multi-criterion tool we want to find the best tourist farm provider, who will maximally meet the criteria and reach the highest rating in the evaluation of tourist farms. Parallel to the survey we will also make an assessment of the analyzed tourist farms. The developed tool will be particularly useful in practice to measure the quality of tourism farm offers. The developed tool will offer best assistance to consumers who are deciding to spend their holidays at a tourist farm.
After agreeing about the retrofit system a retrofit strategy of that has to be designed. This ‘implementability’ evaluation calls for an impact study spanning between quality improve- ment, legal frame, potential acceptance and level of action as constraints and aiming at choosing a site for implementa- tion, a corresponding implementation program and adequate resources. On the left side categories of actors and their ways of acting when dealing with the problem ‘retrofit of existing buildings’ can be seen at the same three levels sketched in the zooming diagram on the right side. An “image” can be mar- keted to the wide public. This means on urban level setting landmarks (Lynch, 1960). On building level there are more specific views and the accent in marketing actions moves to- wards the silhouette and the interaction of a certain building with the built context. On the level of a building element re- lated differences are given by texture and building material.
The experiments for the KRM and Category models is to compare the pro- posed model to the state-of-the-art automated userprofiling techniques. Ac- cording to the experimental results, the KRM model outperforms the Category model and has improved the performance of the Category by 6.5% in terms of M acro F 1 Measure and by 6.2% in terms of M icro F 1 Measure. The KRM model specifies the retrieved knowledge in a subject ontology by using the com- plex semantic relationships of kindOf, partOf and relatedTo, and analyzes the subjects by using the multi-dimensional ontology mining schemes of specificity and exhaustivity. In contrast, the Category model specifies only the simple re- lationships of “super-” and “sub-class”. The KRM performs in more technical depth in comparison with the Category model, and moves far beyond the simple
This study focused on the Flood Susceptibility Analysis (FSA) of the Kota Kinabalu area, Sabah by using MultiCriteriaEvaluationModel (MCE). The study area had been affected by flood throughout the years. The aims of this study are to determine the flood susceptibility level of the study area and to identify the contributing factors that leads to the flood disaster. Thus, a few mitigation measures can be recommended. The contibuting factors that leads to flood disaster had been identified through desk studies and fieldwork. The data were obtained and digitized using ArcGIS software and the thematic maps were produced. The factors that contributing to flood disaster such as slope gradient, elevation, topographic curvature, flow accumulation and drainage distance were retrieved from the topographic database, whereas the land use, rainfall and soil types from various agencies. Several areas are considered as susceptible, such as areas of Taman Kingfisher, Kg. Bantayan, Menggatal area, and Kg. Tebobon. To avoid or minimize the flood disasters, the Flood Susceptibility Level Map can be used in future development planning and a few structural control can be implemented such as the reconstruction of drainage in the study area and a warning system. This study can be used as a resource for consulting, planning agencies and local governments in managing risk, land-use zoning and remediation efforts to mitigate risks.
N. Körber et al. Preprint A chromosome as equivalent to an individual in the population consists of two separate sections. 1.) The first section encodes the routing of the DHN. The required route data is available to the model in georeferenced format. A gene in this section thus carries the information as to whether a specific pipeline is built or not built - a binary decision. The chosen encoding has the disadvantage that genetic defects can occur, which happens, for example, in the case that interrupted DHN are created by the random mutation. This is prevented by a repair function, which could also be implemented equivalently through a penalty cost function as part of the fitness evaluation. 2.) The second section encodes the spatial expansion of energy sharing. Here, a gene associates a group with each building in the area of the DMES – a discrete decision. Building are also available to the model in georeferenced format. Similarly, to the first section, genetic defects can occur within random mutation. This can be the case when groups with more than one associated building do not have a spatial context but is similarly prevented by the repair function. Even though there might be a spatial context, a broad spatial expansion of the balancing structure might also be the reason for a genetic defect. This is measured by an adjustable threshold that restricts the spatial diameter of the groups, thus representing restrictions by the energy political framework.
Jagat Sesh Challa*, Arindam Paul*, Yogesh Dada*, Venkatesh Nerella*, Praveen Ranjan Srivastava** and Ajit Pratap Singh***
Abstract—Software measurement is a key factor in managing, controlling, and improving the software development processes. Software quality is one of the most important factors for assessing the global competitive position of any software company. Thus the quantification of quality parameters and integrating them into quality models is very essential. Software quality criteria are not very easily measured and quantified. Many attempts have been made to exactly quantify the software quality parameters using various models such as ISO/IEC 9126 Quality Model, Boehm’s Model, McCall’s model, etc. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide a tool for precisely quantifying software quality factors with the help of quality factors stated in ISO/IEC 9126 model. Due to the unpredictable nature of the software quality attributes, the fuzzy multicriteria approach has been used to evolve the quality of the software.
A case study has been taken into account from oil and gas industry. The case study is based on the risk evaluation of failed equipment. An Excel-based template has been created for data collection. The template has been sent to five risk assessors in oil and gas industry for input and filling up the template. Assessors assessed individually the effects of failed vessel as likelihood and consequence of four categories; people, environment, asset, and reputation as shown in Table-4.
7.1. Evaluation of the Model
In Section 2.2., a set of requirements for a task distribution model was formulated.
The TAMRI model addresses them in the following manner:
REQ1. Evaluation of assignments: The Bayesian networks are able to evaluate task assignments with respect to individual goals and influencing factors. The assignment suggestions made by TAMRI are based on this evaluation. However, the evaluation is not very transparent to the user, since it is based on abstract aggregated numbers. The TAMRI tool also does not present the evaluation to the user, working as a black box that presents only the final assignment suggestions to the user. The model can therefore not be used to transparently evaluate different assignment alternatives.
The model still has some limitations such as not mak- ing the evaluation of assignments transparent. We are ad- dressing some of these limitations by embedding the model into a larger process for systematic task assignment that in- cludes other evaluation models. Others, such as the ability to identify and characterize influencing factors before the task assignment decision, may still hinder the application of the approach in every context. However, we see the princi- ple of having various influencing factors that determine the applicability of a certain task allocation alternative as a gen- eral basis for systematic task allocation and for planning and managing global software development projects.