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Information Theory and Knowledge Gathering

Information Theory and Knowledge Gathering

It takes nerve for an economist and computer scientist to leap into a world dominated by cognitive scientists and philosophers, and worse yet, propose yet another mathematical model for man’s capability to accumulate knowledge. My previous research in mathematical statistics, information theory and economic decision processes forced me pass down this dangerous path. It all started when Claude Shannon (1948) developed an original idea. In his paper, he introduced a rational measure for information based on the needs of the communication engineers at Bell Telephone Labs and thus launched the formal ideas we now fondly call “Information Theory.” In his original concept, Shannon considered all information-packets had equal value. Since his primary focus was on the efficiency of the transmission of electronic information over a
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The Determinant Effect of Theory of  Planned Behavior and Tax Knowledge on  Taxpayer Compliance

The Determinant Effect of Theory of Planned Behavior and Tax Knowledge on Taxpayer Compliance

Ajzen (1991) explains that the model of the Theory of Planned Behavior is a model that is very open to coupled with other predictor variables for memperdiksi intentions and behavior of the object under study, no exception for research tax compliance. Benk (2011) adds that the Theory of Planned Behavior is an important theory in the sphere of social psychology that attempts to explain human perliaku. Gangl (2015) explains that at the level of individual tax compliance framework is distinguished by the behavior of some motivation, among others, the motivation to comply with the tax law, the motivation to adhere to the policy and attitude of volunteerism pay. Further Gangl (2015) adds that the individual in a different country in the motivation to behave honestly based on the intensity of knowledge (knowledge) on the legal and tax rules as well as their understanding of the procedural aspects. The lower the higher the level of knowledge they are to avoid tax avoidance and finally non-compliant behavior so that the knowledge factor is one very important factor in motivating people to voluntarily comply with tax laws. Therefore, in this study adds a variable tax knowledge as a determining factor for taxpayer compliance.
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The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge

The Fundamental Theory of Knowledge

The sixth law is simple to understand. In a society where a human being can live in peace and express themselves freely, the more that society will draw other humans. That society will be dominant because it will attract the worlds knowledgable. Consider for exampleGreat Zimbabwe, Babylon, Egypt, China, Tyre all of whom, thousands of years ago, attracted scientists . In theory a society that adheres to this law does not need sheer numbers of knowledgable people to be recognized. However, the harsh political reality is that all too often societies prefer the “who you are” scenario rather than how capable you are, with the result that the society with the larger number will dominate as opposed to the one with the most knowledge.
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Knowledge Management: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

Knowledge Management: FROM THEORY TO PRACTICE

Knowledge management is a process that helps organizations to find important information, select, organize and publish them; and it’s a proficiency that will be necessary for actions like solving problems, dynamic learning, decision making. Knowledge management can improve a wide range of organization performance properties by enabling company to more intelligent performance, but it’s not enough alone; because knowledge management to be useful needs undertaking staff to organization and their job, that accept the knowledge management process with spirit and heart and perform it (Wiig, 1999:14).Knowledge management is the leveraging of collective wisdom to increase responsiveness and innovation. It is important that you discern from this definition three critical points. This definition implies that three criteria must be met before information can be considered knowledge. » Knowledge is connected. It exists in a collection (collective wisdom) of multiple experiences and perspectives Knowledge management is a catalyst. It is an action – leveraging. Knowledge is always relevant to environmental conditions, and stimulates action in response to these conditions. Information that does not precipitate action of some kind is not knowledge. In the words of Peter Drucker, ‘‘Knowledge for the most part exists only in application.’’ » Knowledge is applicable in un-encountered environments. Information becomes knowledge when it is used to address novel situations for which no direct precedent exists. Information that is merely ‘‘plugged in’’ to a previously encountered model is not knowledge and lacks innovation.
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Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

Theory and Application of Tacit Knowledge Transfer

In the product design field, the top ten factors in sketch composition contain 1) shape expression, 2) propor- tion accuracy, 3) prospective accuracy, 4) presentation from different angles, 5) color expression, 6) three-view drawing, 7) interface flow chart, 8) material expression, 9) exploded drawing, and 10) morphological change (Ou, 2008). In this study, the above factors are classified into three sketch professional competence indices, in- cluding Perspective Accuracy, Line Stability, and Form Expressivity. However, these three kinds of knowledge are the most difficult to be expressed clearly in the teaching of design and drafting, which are common indica- tors in the industry and the core of study. Therefore, we regard them as objects in the evaluation of students’ accomplishments in learning and practices.
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How To Prove The Theory Of The Plane Of Knowledge

How To Prove The Theory Of The Plane Of Knowledge

The following Lemmas have some interest of their own; they are formulated in greater generality than actually needed for our present purpose.. We shall prove the [r]

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The 'knowledge politics' of democratic peace theory

The 'knowledge politics' of democratic peace theory

conceptually and instrumentally influential principally because of catalytic events: the sudden cessation of the Cold War and the crisis in foreign policy thinking that ensued provided a permissive environment for ‘new’ thinking. The theory’s refinement and mobilisation led to its adoption in the 1990s by differing tendencies – liberal hawks and neoconservatives - and, most importantly, its securitisation – that is, “peace” theory was truncated and transmutated into a vital policy technology to confront external threats from non-democratic/rogue/failing/ and failed states by military and other coercive means. Designating zones of peace simultaneously delineated zones of turmoil, defining the latter as a threat to the former, redrawing intellectual maps (Wilson, 2000: 122). Liberal hawks and neocons alike were involved in this transformative process. The latter were joined after another catalytic event - 9-11 - by conservative nationalists who went on to justify the Bush doctrine in part by democratic peace theory. The Iraq War of 2003, and the failure to suppress quickly resistance to the US occupation, created a “crisis” seized upon by the bi-partisan Princeton Project on National Security. PPNS advanced their own version of DPT proposed for use to confront threats to security through democracy promotion and military intervention, among other things. According to Ikenberry and Slaughter (2006: 11; 16), as “the world seems a more menacing place than ever”, “it means safeguarding our alliances and promoting security cooperation among liberal democracies, ensuring the safety of Americans abroad as well as at home, avoiding the emergence of hostile great powers or balancing coalitions against the United States, and encouraging liberal democracy and responsible government
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Using the Knowledge to Action Framework in practice: a citation analysis and systematic review.

Using the Knowledge to Action Framework in practice: a citation analysis and systematic review.

Bartholomew and Mullen [42] suggest that the ‘pre- vailing wisdom in the field of health-related behaviour change is that well-designed and effective interventions are guided by theory’ (p. S20). Others argue that the ef- fectiveness and generalisability of implementation stud- ies are hindered by weak theoretical underpinnings [40,43,44]. Our review, and similar studies [39,40,43-45], consistently comments on the limited, haphazard use of theory, even though theories can be applied in many dif- ferent ways [41]. Primary studies, exploring the direct experience and perceptions of different stakeholders in implementation projects, which have been guided by conceptual frameworks, or theories, would add to our understanding of the utility and impact of these tools. A few authors have attempted this, such as McEvoy and colleagues [43] who examined benefits reported by au- thors using the Normalization Process Theory. A pro- spective design would strengthen research studies.
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A Post-Western Account of Critical Cosmopolitan Social Theory

A Post-Western Account of Critical Cosmopolitan Social Theory

stresses that global localities are not only a “geohistorical loca- tion of the knowing subject, but also an epistemological corre- lation with the sensing body, perceiving the world from a par- ticular locale and specific local history” (Tlostanova 2017: 38). At its most fundamental, aesthesis is about heightened alert- ness to the world as experienced through space and time combined; it involves “perception” beyond mere “recogni- tion” or representation. In stating such a multi-dimensional account of the access to knowledge as ontology draws our at- tention to the “perceptual abstraction” or “semblance” whereby through symbolic forms the human actor partakes- physically or imaginatively-through which the vital dynamics of a life are captured. Here the decolonial imagination aims to undercut reality through the enunciation of the real through an understanding of sensibility as heterogeneous and accentu- ates the opportunity for coexistence and the interaction of the pluriversal within a multi-spatial transmodern world (Dussel 2002). It is a conscious and self-reflective critical movement for the development of practices of subversion and the eman- cipation of experience (re-appropriation of identity) (Tlostanova 2017: 33).
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Introduction to Complexity Theory Lecture Notes   Oded Goldreich pdf

Introduction to Complexity Theory Lecture Notes Oded Goldreich pdf

Interactive proof systems were introduced by Goldwasser, Micali and Racko [5], with the explicit objective of capturing the most general notion of eciently veriable proof systems. The original motivation was the introduction of zero-knowledge proof systems, which in turn were supposed to provide (and indeed do provide) a powerful tool for the design of complex cryptographic schemes. First evidence that interactive proofs may be more powerful than NP-proofs was given by Gol- dreich, Micali and Wigderson [4], in the form of the interactive proof for Graph Non-Isomorphism presented above. The full power of interactive proof systems was discoved by Lund, Fortnow, Karlo, Nisan, and Shamir (in [7] and [8]). The basic technique was presented in [7] (where it was shown that co N P IP ) and the nal result ( PSPACE = IP ) in [8]. Our presentation follows [8].
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ENGINEERING/ARCHITECT SUPERVISOR Competency Profile

ENGINEERING/ARCHITECT SUPERVISOR Competency Profile

Professional Knowledge Considerable knowledge of professional engineering/architect theory, techniques, practices and procedures; considerable knowledge of the area of engineering/architect assignment and skills in applying this knowledge in a review; general knowledge of state and federal rules and regulations governing the program; general knowledge of agency/university practices, procedures and principles.

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An integrated approach : holistic assessment of vocational trainees in the NZ dairy farming industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Tertiary Education) at Massey University, Manawatu,

An integrated approach : holistic assessment of vocational trainees in the NZ dairy farming industry : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Education (Tertiary Education) at Massey University, Manawatu, New Zealand

Driessen (2009) to be one of the strengths of portfolios while Buckley et al (2010) found that a study of the use of portfolios across a range of professions showed they were effective in helping students to identify their learning needs; improve their knowledge and understanding; and to integrate theory with practice. Lai-Yeung (2011) found that the use of portfolios resulted in a more personalised or individualised learning approach with individual students having “unique, individual and personal” learning journeys (Lai-Yeung, 2011, p. 4). Askit (2016), in a study on the use of portfolios in teacher training, discovered that portfolios allow more choice or flexibility by allowing students freedom to express their individual differences. The study found that this freedom promoted the students “intellectual autonomy and self-respect” (Askit, 2016, p. 120). Portfolios are thus claimed to be a valid and authentic method of assessing professional workplace competency, in that they foster self-reflection and improve students’ abilities to integrate theory with practice. The specific characteristics of adult learners discussed in section 2.1 – such as the need for learning to be applicable to and integrated into learners’ daily lives, and the need for knowledge to be constructed rather than acquired – mean that the use of portfolios as an assessment method for adult learners is likely to also promote learning. The features of portfolios discussed above, particularly aspects such as the integration of theory and practice; peer collaboration and self- evaluation; greater student responsibility for their own learning; the ability to personalise or individualise a learning journey; and the enhanced choice and flexibility portfolios offer, indicate that portfolios are likely to offer adult learners a learning and assessment experience that is well suited to their needs.
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Sanjeev Arora, Boaz Barak Computational complexity  a modern approach Cambridge University Press(2009) pdf

Sanjeev Arora, Boaz Barak Computational complexity a modern approach Cambridge University Press(2009) pdf

Research on modern cryptography ledto significant insights that hadimpact and applications in complexity theory andbeyond. One is the notion of pseudorandomness. Philosophers andscientists have struggledfor years to quantify when a bit string is “random enough.” Cryptography’s answer to this question is that it suffices if this string is drawn from a distribution that “looks random” to all efficient (i.e., polynomial-time) observers (see Section 9.2.3). This notion is crucial for the construction of many cryp- tographic schemes, but it is also extremely useful in other areas where random bits are needed. For example, cryptographic pseudorandom generators can be used to reduce the randomness requirements of probabilistic algorithms such as the ones we saw in Chapter 7; see also Chapter 20. Another new insight is the notion of simulation. A natural question in cryptography is how one can demonstrate that an attacker cannot learn anything about some secret information from observing the behavior of parties holding this information. Cryptography’s answer is to show that the attacker’s observa- tions can be simulated without any access to the secret information. This is epitomized in the notion of zero knowledge proofs coveredin Section 9.4, andusedin many other cryptographic applications.
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Theory of Computation Lecture Notes   Abhijat Vichare pdf

Theory of Computation Lecture Notes Abhijat Vichare pdf

themselves ``naturally'' or we can try to simulate them. The former gives us ``live'' information, but we have no way of knowing if the information has a ``universal'' applicability - all we know is that it is applicable to at least one real life situation. The latter approach - simulation - permits us to experiment with the assumptions and collate information from a number of live observations so that good general, universal ``principles'' may be inferred. When we infer such principles, we gain knowledge of the issues that cause a traffic jam and we can then evolve a list of traffic rules that can avoid traffic jams. To simulate, we need a model of the phenomenon under study. We also need another well known
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The Computational Complexity of Machine Learning   Michael J  Kearns pdf

The Computational Complexity of Machine Learning Michael J Kearns pdf

A theory of learning with background information. One frequent complaint about the distribution-free model is its tabula rasa approach to learning, in the sense that the learning algorithm has no prior infor- mation or experience on which to draw. This is in contrast to human learning, where people often learn hierarchically by building on previ- ously learned concepts, by utilizing provided \background information" about the particular domain of interest, or by relying on a possibly \hard- wired" biological predisposition towards certain abilities. It would be interesting to formulate good models of ecient learning in the presence of these valuable and natural sources of information, and to compare the diculty of learning with and without such sources. Note that the demand for eciency forces any good model to carefully consider how such background information is represented and processed by a learning algorithm, and one might expect to see trade-os between the computa- tional expense of processing provided background information and the computational expense of learning using this information. For example, extensive knowledge of abstract algebra almost certainly eases the task of learning basic integer arithmetic, but the eort required to gain this knowledge is not worthwhile if basic arithmetic is the ultimate goal.
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"Building knowledge-based economy in the EU: methodological background and policy solutions"

"Building knowledge-based economy in the EU: methodological background and policy solutions"

this group of models shows (theoretically) the interdependence direction from social capital to human capital acquisition, then the opposite relationship. Propensity to cooperate, that is grounded in tradition and culture, brings the situation that individuals with lower than average for the community (at family, neighborhood or international level) amount of human capital accumulate this production input faster than an average member of the community. Therefore, individuals with relatively lower than average human capital experience stronger external effects of cooperation comparing to those with relatively higher human capital. However, countries with higher propensity to cooperation, or, in other words, with greater social capital, increase the human capital according to higher rates of growth, and generate greater increases in product in comparison to states with lower propensity to cooperation. Consequently, the theory of endogenous economic growth allows us to draw a conclusion about positive interdependence between human capital and social capital.
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Oded Goldreich Computational Complexity  A Conceptual Perspective(2008) pdf

Oded Goldreich Computational Complexity A Conceptual Perspective(2008) pdf

The inherent limitations of our scientific knowledgewe were articulated by Kant, who argued that our knowledge cannot transcend our way of understanding. The “ways of understanding” are predetermined; they precede any knowledge acquisition and are the precondition to such acquisition. In a sense, Wittgenstein refined the analysis, arguing that knowledge must be formulated in a language, and the latter must be subject to a (sound) mechanism of assigning meaning. Thus, the inherent limitations of any possible “meaning-assigning mechanism” impose limitations on what can be (meaningfully) said. Both philosophers spoke of the relation between the world and our thoughts. They took for granted (or rather assumed) that, in the domain of well-formulated thoughts (e.g., logic), every valid conclusion can be effectively reached (i.e., every valid assertion can be effectively proved). Indeed, this naive assumption was refuted by G¨odel. In a similar vain, Turing’s work asserts that there exist well-defined problems that cannot be solved by well-defined methods.
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Lecture Notes for Introduction to Theory of Computation   Robert Daley pdf

Lecture Notes for Introduction to Theory of Computation Robert Daley pdf

Next: 3.1 Semantics of LOOP Programs Up: Lecture Notes for CS 2110 Introduction to Theory Previous: 2.5 Regular Languages Bob Daley 2001-11-28 ©Copyright 1996 Permission is granted for p[r]

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Lecture Notes On Algorithm Analysis And Computation Complexity 4th ed   Ian Parberry pdf

Lecture Notes On Algorithm Analysis And Computation Complexity 4th ed Ian Parberry pdf

To prove correctness of a recursive algorithm: • Prove it by induction on the “size” of the problem being solved e.g.. size of array chunk, number of bits in an integer, etc.[r]

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