The increased emergence of multidrug resistant organisms makes the treatment of numerous infectious diseases difficult. Hence, the development of novel effective drugs against the abovementioned organisms is needed. For this, the exploration of untapped and extreme habitats can lead to the isolation of novel microorganisms to produce novel bioactive compounds, recently several researchers have shown the potential of extreme habitats as reservoirs of promising antimicrobial compounds producers (4,7,21, 22-26). Taking into account the results exposed above, the isolation of microorganisms with promising antimicrobial activities from Algerian Sahara soils as a model of an extreme ecosystem was pursued. Among the 32 actinomycetes isolated from Algerian Sahara soils, 3 of them (named as C, MS1 and 10) exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activities against different pathogenic bacteria, yeasts and even fungi. These C, MS1 and 10 isolates were identified by combining the results obtained via conventional and molecular methods, as Streptomyces violaceoruber, Streptomyces albus and Streptomycete badius, respectively. This is not
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In addition to the insights on the biodiversity of Algerian Sahara Desert, to our knowledge, this is the first time to use the molecular screening of these genes coding for putative antitumor compounds to analyse Algerian strains. In this study, we have highlighted the interesting presence of diverse haloalkalitolerant and haloalkaliphilic strains with potential antitumorigenic, bioactive, and other interesting enzymes. Future work will concentrate on more cloning and sequenc- ing for whole clusters, chemical characteristics, identification by application of mass spectrum, and other enzymatic and biochemical techniques that would be more suitable for better determination of the nature of the elaborated compounds produced by the strains identified in this study particu- larly of Nocardia sp. Bisk2, Actinopolyspora sp. M5A, and Streptomyces sp. Ig6.
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Background: The area of Oued Righ is one of the important geothermal areas in northeastern Algerian Sahara. It is characterized by a hot arid climate with intense dryness and very high evaporation rates. The water requirements of the Oued Righ region are provided by groundwater resources contained in the two aquifers: the complex terminal and the deeper confined continental intercalaire aquifer.
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In general, soil properties of truffles biota in Northern Algerian Sahara are very similar to those reported in some truffle autoecological studies, whether in North Africa (Fortas, 1990; Khabar et al., 2001; Slama et al., 2006) or in the Middle East (Abd-Allah et al., 1989; Hashem and Al-Obaid, 1996; Al-Ruqaie, 2002; Mandeel and Al-Laith, 2007). However, our results are different from those observed in the Kalahari Desert, where the soil of truffle habitats had a low pH values ranging from 5.5 to 6.5; as well low total CaCO3 content (0.3 and 3.1%) (Taylor et al., 1995). This difference is probably due to multiple dissimilarities of regional landscape-type (geomorphology, hydrology and the type of habitat); climate patterns (temperature, precipitation and seasonality); soil traits (soil type and evolution); and the type of host plants (Díez et al., 2002).
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Zygophyllum cornutum Coss. is an endemic plant growing in the northern Sahara of Algeria. It is used in traditional medicine against diabetes, hypertension and dermatitis. The antioxidant activities of the crude hydro- alcoholic extract and the organic fractions of Z. cornutum were investigated by DPPH test, ferric reducing activity and phosphomolybdenum assay. Also the content of phenols, flavonoids and tannins was estimated by spectrophotometric methods. The best DPPH scavenging activity was found in water fraction followed by chloroform fraction (IC 50 = 25 and 38.5 µg/ml, respectively), more effective than BHT. For the ferric reducing
Natural products have served as an important source of drugs since ancient times and about half of the useful drugs today have been derived from plants. Recently, the search for drugs derived from plants has accelerated. South Algeria with its rich floral resources and ethnobotanical history is an ideal place to screen plants for biological activity and as a source of new pharmacological compounds [A. Cheriti, 2000; A.Gurib-Fakim, 2006, Cheriti et al, 2012].Brassicaceae is one of the ten most economically important plant families in the world, itcontain a number of nutrients and phytochemicals and have been used to treat a wide range of human diseases[Bellakhdar, 1997;Nostroetal., 2000;Berreghiouaetal., 2009].Among the species belonging to this family,Zillamacropterawhich is a herbaceous medicinal plant widely distributed in Algerian Sahara [Ozenda, 1991], locally known by the common name “Boukhlala”.
Ouargla’s region and the entire lower Sahara has expe- rienced during its long geological history alternating ma- rine and continental sedimentation phases. During Secondary era, vertical movements affected the Precambrian basement, causing, in particular, collapse of its central part, along an axis passing approximately through the Oued Righ Valley and the upper portion of the Oued Mya Valley. According to Furon (1960), a epicontinental sea spread to the Lower Eocene of northern Sahara. After the Oligocene, the sea grad- ually withdrew. It is estimated at present that this sea did not reach Ouargla and transgression stopped at the edge of the bowl (Furon, 1960; Lelièvre, 1969). The basin is carved into Mio-Pliocene (MP) deposits, which alternate with red sands, clays and sometimes marls; gypsum is not abundant and dated from the Pontian era (during the MP) (Cornet and Gouscov, 1952; Dubief, 1953; Ould Baba Sy and Besbes, 2006). The continental Pliocene consists of a local limestone crust with puddingstone or lacustrine limestone (Fig. 2), shaped by eolian erosion into flat areas (regs). The Quater- nary formations are lithologically composed of alternating layers of permeable sand and relatively impermeable marl (Aumassip et al., 1972; Chellat et al., 2014).
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Similar to the Monument Valley, the Hoggar Mountain range is chiefly volcanic rock where rainfall is rare, the weather is very hot in summer, and very cold in winter. A population of the endangered Painted Hunting Dog used to exist till the twentieth century. These elusive and very rare carnivores are also said to have existed in the Monument Valley.The panoramic resemblance attracted previous writers ‗attention like Douchan Gersi 23 who wrote ―Then comes the red and brown of the Hoggar dry Rocky Mountains and peaks much like those of America’ Monument Valley, but more massive and higher‖ (Gersi 1991: 223). Gautier was so impressed by the visible commonness that he wrote “I think the American desert and the Algerian Sahara are, among the planetary deserts, the ones which necessitate a study…. the accustomed eye to the Algerian Sahara, finds in the American desert familiar impressions. Whether in the Gila Valley and in its afflunets of Arizona, ….. in Utah, …..Green River,….in Algeria, with a small effort of imagination, we could believe we have not left Africa.” (Gautier 1925: 147).
In the Saharan zone, it is known that the presence of various mountain ranges proves to be crucial to the locust by the wadis networks associated . These wadis concentrate rainwater and can create conditions for locusts breeding, and this even in case of light rains. Thus, the main mountain ranges that form the main water supply of breeding areas for solitary populations of desert locust in southern Algeria were first mapped by using MODIS images at 250 m resolution. The technique of equal density classes was applied to the MODIS image in order to transform grayscale areas into colour ranges. This treatment transforms the image into RGB (red, green, blue) areas where similar spectral behavior appears in the same color. The highest mountain ranges were displayed with the same color. This color was transformed into a vector, exported and overlaid on a topographic map for identification of mountains (6 in total: 4 in the center of the Algerian Sahara, 1 at the border with Mali and 1 at the border with Niger) (Figure 4).
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A second species of Spinachitina, here named Spinachitina verniersi n. sp., has been recovered from the Soom Shale Member. This form has also been found (under various names, see below in the systematics section) in the M’Kratta Formation of the NE Algerian Sahara (Paris et al., 2000), the Hirnantian lower Second Bani Formation of the central Anti-Atlas of Morocco (Bourahrouh et al., 2004), the Hirnantian Ashgill Shales Formation in the type area of the British Ashgill Series in Northern England (Vandenbroucke et al., 2005; Vanden- broucke, 2008), and in the lower ‘hot shale’ (Mudawwara Shale Formation) of Rhuddanian age in Jordan, where it co-occurs with S. fragilis in the upper ascensus–acuminatus graptolite biozonal interval (Butcher, 2009). Spinachitina verniersi n. sp. is also reported from the Moussegouda Shale in Chad (Paris, unpublished data). The latter is sedimentologically very similar to the Soom Shale, and immediately overlies diamictites which yielded Armoricochitina nigerica, one of the key elements of the T. elongata Biozone fauna.
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resources to survive, and the position of exile and isolation of the developed world. The Saharawi people persist in the search for cohesion, creating conditions of security, hygiene, food and social stability for the inhabitants of the camps, displaced towards the desert. All this with the help of NGOs and humanitarian cooperation groups. My research aims to understand the complex situation of political pressure to increase procreation in the Western Sahara and how generations of women have reacted to this pressure. I argue that efforts to integrate Western and traditional health systems in the exiled communities of the Sahara require an understanding of the cultural context of the past and the present. My fieldwork was conducted in Tindouf, El Ayoun, Smara, Tifariti, and the region of Zemmour. Through this paper I will investigate the concepts of identity within the Saharawi population, specifically Saharawi women, and how these identities have been educated by the past and now shaped by the present.
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The imposing digital divide faced by smallholder farmers, especially in rural sub-Sahara African communities is a major cause for concern. This is because farmers lacking access to ICTs may experience digital poverty, increasing their risks which may also prevent them from adopting additional agriculture-based technologies (Okello et al. 2014; Freeman and Mubichi, 2017). All of which reinforces their vulnerability to the acclaimed poverty trap (Barrett and Carter, 2013). This poverty limits access to information due to the costs involved in gathering information, and the remote rural environment where smallholder farmers reside is characterised by unequal and inequitable distribution of information (Magesa et al., 2014; Svensson and Yanagizawa, 2009). Khalil-Moghaddam and Khalia-Abadi (2013) declared that the identification of factors which foster adoption of ICTs is among the important challenges for alleviating a potential digital divide. They argued that availability- regarded as the existence of a system, worked towards reinforcing adoption attributes in the population and also affirmed the influence of certain socio-economic variables in the adoption of ICTs.
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Par ailleurs, il ne faut pas négliger les observations hivernales dans le Sud du Sahara comme, par exemple, dans le Sahara Atlantique Marocain où l’espèce a été signalée une vingtaine de fois entre début décembre et début février (Bergier et al., 2017). A ce propos, entre le Sahara Atlantique Marocain et le Sénégal, il reste à trouver les éventuelles observations hivernales vraisemblables en Mauritanie mais qui font encore défaut ! Les quelques mentions récentes de décembre et janvier rapportées de Nouakchott notamment n’ont pu être confirmées en
The shipping Casualties Reporting Regulations, made pursuant to Article 604 of the Algerian Maritime Code, make mandatory the reporting of shipping casualties and other marine accidents by the master. Reports received in compliance with these regulations are the primary source of information. However, the liaison between Coast Guard Marine Board Investigations, Pilotage and Vessel Traffic Service, Coastal Radio Stations, provides an important source of information.
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In terms of the interventions offered by the Sahara project it was apparent that two in particular - the drop-ins and Independent Women’s Forum (IWF) - were particularly critical in helping women to develop and increase their social capital; both collectively and individually. Each intervention acted as a mechanism to enable women to share skills and strengths, enhancing resilience, offering inclusion and friendship. As such, these structures had incorporated an asset-based approach from which women reported to benefit in numerous ways (IDeA, 2010). The drop-in session clearly imbued the principles of an asset-based model but the potential for the IWF is clear in terms of the general principles of this (of mutual support, coping, health and well-being improvement, and so on) (IDeA, 2010) but also in terms of the individual benefits of preparing women for independent futures and employment potential. It is the opportunities
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growth rate which registered negative values. This, in turn, led to the collapse of the currency reserve and increasing the level of external debt and the debt service. In light of these realities, it was necessary, making a set of reforms touching the majority of economic sectors among them the banking sector. The Algerian banks have suffered from the insolvency problem that was aggravated by the critical situation of the state-owned-enterprises that failed to attain their objectives and hence impeded the banks' performance. Therefore, the law of bank and credit of 1986 was issued in order to include radical changes in the banking sector. Algerian authorities also sought to determine the legal framework that defines the activities of the different financial institutions.
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The eruption of the COVID-19 pandemic has affected every sphere of life and may forever change how we have always lived and conducted our businesses, and no one can resist the wind of change that is blowing. Of all the sectors of governance, the educational sector, particularly at the tertiary level, appears to have been most greatly affected and therefore requires a more pragmatic approach to resolution. As of 29 th June, Sub-Sahara Africa has reported 382,190 cases of COVID-19. In rejoinder to the virus epidemic, several Sub Sahara African governments implement the resolution to slam learning institutions to enclose the infection. Consequently, advanced schooling institutions obliged to reorganize their loom, becoming more digitally become forward, and changing to online platforms.
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The Arabic language today is characterized by a complex state of polyglossia. Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is the official variety of Arabic used primarily in written literal contexts. There is also a large number of dialects whose dominant features are noticeable to Arab-speaking people. The Arabic dialects differ from Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) on all levels of linguistic repre- sentation, from phonology and morphology to lexicon and syntax. MSA is classified as a high variety as is contains lot of normalization and standardization. It is generally considered as a prestigious, valued and official language; hence it is used for training (media and education). Ar- abic Dialects (DA) are considered a low variety which includes languages with less normaliza- tion and standardization. These languages are used in daily life, interviews and for informal conversations. Algerian Arabic (henceforth, ALG) is one of the Western group of Arabic dia- lects spoken in Algeria. ALG differs from other Arabic dialects, neighboring or far ones by hav-
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hangars were characterized by the weakest efforts. In an agricultural area located in the region of Souf (Algerian Sahara), Alia et al. (2015) indicated abundances ranging between 5 and 17.6%. In Morocco, Echchakery et al. (2017) found that black rats have the majority (40.61%) of the captured rodents. On the other hand, in a study carried out in the palm groves of the same study area, Hadjoudj et al. (2015) reported that the black rat occupies the second place (23%) after Gerbillus nanus (32.3%). While in a forest environment in Hawaii, the black rat had a very high average of abundance (25.5 ind./trap night) (Shiels et al., 2017).
The Southern Sahara Desert was at one time a lush wetland that supported numerous species. A change in climate about 12,000 years ago caused significant rainfall in the region (Gwin 2008). In the location of present day Gobero, Nigeria, there is evidence for a culture of people who dwelled in the fertile lands for a period of time spanning approximately 12,000 to 8,000 years ago. This group of people, known as Kiffian, was a hunting and fishing society that stood as tall as two meters (Gwin 2008). Their diet was rich in protein which supported and allowed for their large, muscular stature (Gwin 2008).