MRI analysis has become a powerful tool in the diagnosis of brain disease. Pixel intensity variations between the same and consecutive MRI scans i.e. intra-scan and inter-scan variations, complicate the method of quantitative MRI analysis. Improvements in the measurement and pre- processing of the image may therefore have a significant impact in the clinical diagnosis, image analysis, and computer aided diagnosis. In the current case study of MS patients, it was shown that the simple AM-FM method of histogram intensity normalization proposed can help in this direction. This will enable a more accurate computation of texture features that may provide information for the earlier differentiation between normal tissue and MS lesions and in assessing disease progression
The first step in developing new AM-FM methods was to design a new multiscale filterbank. The almost flat response in the bandpass frequency of the 1-D filters eliminated errors due to the use of an amplitude correction as in the case of using Gabor filterbanks. The use of these filters in the AM-FM demodulation problem produced big improvements in the IA and IF estimations. We developed a new method for accurate IF estimation: VS-LLP. For noisy signals, VS-LLP produced significantly better results than other methods such as QEA or QLM. We have also developed new QLM methods for IA and IF estimation for digital images.
This paper proposes a new amplitude and phase demodulation scheme different from the traditional method for AM-FM signals. We assume that the amplitude is signed (zero, positive or negative), and the phase is obtained under the case of signed amplitude by optimization, as is called signed demodulation. The main merit of the signed demodulation lies in the revelation of senseful physical meaning on phase and frequency. Experiments on the real-world data show the efficiency of the method.
AM-FM signals are widely used in various signal proc- essing fields. When multiple AM-FM components are blended in noises, how to separate them is still a chal- lenge. The tasks in the separation of multiple AM-FM components blended in noises are twofold: one is the de- noising and another is the decomposition of these com- ponents. Especially when the frequency spectra of these components have overlapped regions in Fourier trans- form domain and even their instantaneous frequencies have crossed points in TFD, how to extract every AM- FM component is nearly an open question to our knowl- edge. In this paper, we merge the two tasks (filtering the noises and decomposition of these components) to one new derived method.
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The second half of the paper handles the decomposi- tion of amplitude modulated and frequency modulated signals. Previous works done [3,4] on AM-FM decompo- sition deal with separating AM and FM harmonics pre- sented in audio signals which contribute to applications like audio coding, singer segregation etc. On the other hand, we have realized AM or FM modulated schemes used by the primary users and also their corresponding bandwidths.
The main objective of this work is to propose and evaluate AM-FM, a semantic framework for assessing translation quality without the need for reference translations. The proposed framework is theoretically grounded on the classical concepts of adequacy and fluency, and it is designed to account for these two components of translation quality in an independent manner. First, a cross-language la- tent semantic indexing model is used for assessing the adequacy component by directly comparing the output translation with the input sentence it was generated from. Second, an n-gram based language model of the target language is used for assessing the fluency component.
9. Digital Display - The display indicates station frequency and other functions. 10. Band Button - Each time the BAND switch is pressed, the radio frequen- cy band will be switched in the following sequence: FM1, FM2, FM3,AM and then it will repeat the sequence.
Es wurde ein analytisches Simulationsmodell für Inversionsmode-MOS-Varaktoren vorgestellt. Dieses Modell basiert ausschließlich auf Prozess- und Designpa- rametern und benötigt keine empirischen Faktoren, die im Vorfeld durch Simulation oder durch Messungen bestimmt werden müssen. Die Gültigkeit und Genauigkeit des Si- mulationsmodells wurde anhand von Spectre (Cadence) Simulationen auf Basis eines 0.25 µm CMOS Prozesses der Firma IHP und eines 0.35 µm CMOS Prozesses der Firma AMS verifiziert. Die Simulationsergebnisse zeigten in allen Transistorbetriebsbereichen, sowohl für NMOS als auch PMOS Varaktoren, eine gute Übereinstimmung der CV-Charakteristik mit den Spectre (Cadence) Si- mulationsergebnissen. Abschließend wurden vielfältige Anwendungsmöglichkeiten für das Varaktorsimulations- modell aufgezeigt, wie z.B. die Berechnung der effektiven Großsignalkapazität des VCOs, die Dimensionierung der Varaktoren in einem systematischen LC-Tank VCO Ent- wurfsprozess oder die Optimierung des AM-FM Verhaltens der Varaktoren im VCO.
AM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .530 - 1620KHz FM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87.5 - 107.9MHz Tuning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PLL Synthesizer Channel Indicator . . . . . . . . . . .LCD panel Memory Presets . . . . . . . . . . . .18 - FM; 12 - AM Memory Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Preset stations Power Rating (RMS) . . . . . . . . .35W
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To assess the coverage area and population of wireless radio and television transmission, manpower is often used to the testing of signal’s field strength at the border of the coverage area and to plotting the coverage map for reception of radio and television signals. Data are collected manually at the monitoring points using vehicle-borne or portable field strength meter and then sorted out and analyzed also manually. Examples of commonly used field strength meters are “real-time monitor for wireless radio broadcast” (China patent No. 201020571782.1) and “portable monitor for AM/FM radio signal strength” (China patent No. 201020571798.2). Handheld or vehicle-borne field strength meters now in use are “vehicle-borne mobile multi-media radio signal strength road tester” (China patent No. 201110005467.1) and “digital television signal strength road tester (China patent No. 200410077400.9). The above patented inventions have been disclosed at present. However, all of them require manual testing at monitoring points, which is time- and labor-consuming (at least one testing is needed on a seasonal basis) and contains a high level of randomness.
al. 1984). The Kmax directions have been mirrored about the 0-180 axis (fluvial transport data from Laming 1966; Henson 1971; Selwood et al. 1984; Smith & Edwards 1991). The Triassic AMS data (Otter Sandstone, Budleigh Salterton Pebble Beds, BSPB) is from the samples described by Hounslow & McIntosh (2003). The Exeter Group below the Dawlish Sandstone Fm typically has bi-modal groups inferred to display ENE to easterly fluvial transport and northerly transport. Its possible in some of the sandstone and mudstones, the northerly trend may be a wind-transport direction, like seen in the aeolian units in the Dawlish Sandstone. Fluvial units in and above the Dawlish Sandstone Fm into the lower Aylesbeare Mudstone Group, show strong ENE to easterly fluvial transport. In the Littleham Mudstone Fm directions may be transitional to the northerly transport clearly seen in the overlying BSPB and Otter Sandstone.
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Cenomanian (Raha Fm.), Turonian (Wata Fm.), and Campanian – Maasterchtian (Sudr Fm.) carbonates can be attributed to either type of clays present, where according to Garrels and Christ (1965) and Weaver (1967), the K/Na ratio is very important, where low ratio favours the formation of montmorillonite materials and high ratio leads to the formation of illite . It seems that clays in the form of illite predominate over montmorillonite clays in Turonian (Abu Qada Fm.) and Coniacian –
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oscillation modes in signal, for which the instantaneous frequency is meaningfully definable. Accordingly, each term represents a valid IF of the multicomponent signal. The main idea to attain such decomposition is expand- ing the corresponding system of the AM-FM signal in the complex plane. Since the transfer function of a real- istic linear system has a rational representation, it can be expanded by orthogonal rational functions in the com- plex z-plane. Returning back to the time-domain, each rational function is equivalent to a generalized exponen- tial basis and represents one valid oscillation term or resonance. To perform this procedure, we should specify the generating system of the AM-FM signal. The corre- sponding system of a non-stationary signal is modeled by a linear time-varying (LTV) system . LTV mod- els have been applied to describe non-stationary signals [33,34]. Our proposed method is developed based on this approach of modeling. Let us consider the discrete-time AM-FM signal x[n] , obtained by time sampling of x(t) at the rate of f s . Its generating system is modeled as a
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The input audio was voice from microphone/handset is given to the codec. At application level audio data was read / Write using ALSA driver from codec. GPMC driver (PROCESSOR) collects the samples and fed to the FPGA where the AM/FM modulation was carried out for the received voice packets and the digital modulated output from the modulator module was fed to the Analog interfacing called DAC.
The filterbank generates AM-FM demodulation out- puts for each channel. Both ESA and Hilbert-based methods select estimates from a dominant component. For ESA, the dominant component is selected based on an energy criterion. In QEA, the dominant component is often selected based on the maximum IA estimate. Here, please note that a single channel is selected over the entire filterbank. In a multiscale approach, instead of selecting dominant components over the entire filter- bank, we select the dominant channel from a collection of channels. The basic idea is to define scales based on the frequency magnitude. The most popular approach is to define low, medium, and high frequency scales (see examples in ).
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Your lightweight and compact Ra- dioShack DX-396 AM/SW/FM-Stereo PLL Portable Receiver lets you choose from a wide variety of broadcasts on FM, AM, and SW (shortwave) bands. The 12 international SW bands let you tune in to the news and other programs from such sources as the British Broad- casting Company, Radio Cairo, and Ra- dio Moscow, bringing the voices of the world to you.
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Die mitgelieferte 25 cm lange Gummi-Wendelantenne ist eine Hochleistungsantenne, die Albrecht bewußt nach ihrer Leistung ausgewählt hat, um die sonst unvermeidlichen Abstrahlverluste bei CB-Handfunk- Antennen klein zu halten. Bitte arbeiten Sie mit der Aufsteckantenne auf Ihrem AE 2380 möglichst nur im Freien. Innerhalb von Gebäuden suchen Sie sich bitte einen Standort nahe am Fenster und möglichst weit weg von allen störenden Geräten (z.B. Computer).
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LM386 is an audio power amplifier produced by the National Semiconductor Corporation Ns. It is mainly used in the high level part of the homemade AM radio. The circumference element is least, and the voltage gain is built in 20. With an external resistance and capacitance, the voltage gain can be adjusted to a greater extent, and the maximum can be obtained Max to 200. The input end is referenced by status, and the output end is automatically offset to the power supply. Half of the pressure, under the 6 V power supply, its static power is only 24 mW. LM386 is especially suitable for battery powered occasions, the form of LM386. There are plastic sealing 8 lead double row and patch type. LM386 has low static power consumption, which is about 4 mA, which can be used for bat- tery power supply electricity. The pressure range is wide, 4 - 12 V or 5 - 18 V. There are few peripheral components. The voltage gain is adjustable, 20 - 200. Low distortion can be used for direct amplification of a special set of radios a circuit consisting of an l0 only triode, 7 resistors, and several capacitors. The functions include the first level high impedance differential input buffer, the three stage high frequency amplification and the first stage. Main features: high sensitivity, if not the back circuit will be able to use a common headset to hear a clear radio sound; working frequency. Automatic gain control range up to 20 dB and bandwidth in 250 KHz - 2500 KHz power gain up to 60 dB. Because of the following three reasons, the circuit should be considered to correct:
As compared to conventional antenna arrays, the time modulated antenna arrays have more ﬂexibility for the synthesis of low/ultra- low SLLs patterns. However, the signal received by a time modulated antenna array is time modulated by the RF switches, which produce many sideband signals at multiples of the time modulation frequency and each of them has the same bandwidth as that of the original signal. The analysis of AM and FM signals shows that in order to exactly recover the original signals, the time modulation frequency should be equal to or greater than the bandwidth of original signals. Moreover, a BPF has to be used to ﬁlter out all sideband signals, which is similar to Nyquist sampling theorem. The simulation results show that the higher the time modulation frequency is the more exactly the signal recovers.
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The research was undertaken whilst I was in Saudi Arabia 2 . Until recently there was limited access to the Internet as a research tool, so the majority of the investigations were carried out during discussions that formed part of my normal work situation. Consequently, local knowledge has been accessed in some cases, and some statements represent personal points of view, assumptions and opinions formed through association with Saudi citizens whom I am privileged to count as my friends.
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