undesirable and unethical scenes giving a detrimental result on children. With the liberalization and globalization of the Indian economy, firms have been aggressively and vigorously promoting their products and services. In today’s environment, every representation of a product or service is about what ‘others are not.’ These practices raise questions about truthfulness and fairness of representation of products and services. We can see children in the insurance advertisement, vehicle advertisement and even in home appliances advertisement. The reason is quite interesting – the role of current generation children in family related matters is very active as against that of passive 10-15 years before. Children in current families invariably 1or 2 in number as against 3-5 in old days, dominate the family purchase decisions and one of the major reasons of this change is advertisement. Ads are shaping the mentality and value system of children by making them demanding constantly for variety and thrill. According to a research conducted in India, children sometimes either purchase a product themselves or select the product before the parents purchase it. For other products, such as ones, which are used by the entire family unit, they influence purchases made by the parents. There are some products where children wield direct influence by overtly specifying their preferences and voicing them aloud. Decision-making in households is seen to change with the mere presence of children (Bhattacharyya and Kohli, 2007).
The agriculture sector is also weighed down by bad debt Another factor that could negatively impact the country’s finances further is the present Government intention to write off $40 billion of bad debt accumulated by farmers (a very important political constituency) before the next election in 2019. While the agriculture sector accounts for only 16.5% of GDP, it employs close to half of the population. This inefficiency is largely due to subsistence farming. With an average farm size of only 1.33 hectares, India cannot compete in the global market against farmers in South and North America where farms average 50.7 and 186 hectares, respectively.12 Many Indians are prevented from leaving their farms due to a lack of job opportunities in manufacturing and other sectors, which in turn prevents the farms from being consolidated into larger units.
financial center, where it mighty be subject to private business interests. Since the choice of site rested with the host country, the United Kingdom agreed to it. As a result, India, France and Canada withdrew their objections to the selection of Washington in order to make the decision unanimously (Sinha, 1996). The Indian delegation at Bretton Woods argued for recruiting staff of the Bank from various countries. The Articles of Agreement echo her voice that “due regard should be paid to the fair representation of the nationals of the member countries” (Mason and Robert, 1973). India has been one of the leading members in establishing the IDA. This can be traced back to 1949 when Prof. V.K.R.V. Rao made a suggestion to the UN Sub-commission on Economic Development for the need of a new international development financing agency that could complement and supplement the Bank’s effort (The World Bank, 1993).
India has acknowledged the importance of population and development since past couple of decades. India’s population has crossed one billion mark at the end of the last century and as per the 2011 population census, it stands 1.22 million (Census of India 2011). According to United Nations medium variant population projections, India will become the most populous country of the world by 2045 (United Nations, surpassing China. It is expected that India’s population is likely to be stabilized during the second half of the current century. With the decline in fertility and mortality over the past several decades, India has progressed on the path of demographic transition, although the pace of transition varies by states Jammu and Kashmir have good fertility level
expressed his optimism by writing that "counsel after counsel expressed the fear that during the Emergency, the executive may whip and strip and starve the detainee and if this be one's judgement even shoot him down. Such misdeeds have not tarnished the record of free India and I have a diamond bright, diamond hard hope that such things will never come to pass". Justice Bhagwati agreed with the majority and said, "The apprehensions and fears voiced on behalf of the detainees may not altogether be ruled out. It is possible that when vast powers are vested in the executive, the exercise of which is immune from judicial scrutiny, they may sometimes be abused and innocent persons may be consigned to temporary detentions. But merely because a power may sometimes be abused is no ground for denying the existence of the power. All power is likely to be abused I have always leaned in favour of upholding personal liberty, for I believe it is one of the most cherished values of mankind. Without it life would not be worth living. It is one of the pillars of free democratic society. Men have laid down their lives at it's altar in order to secure it, protect it and preserve it. But I do not think that it would be right for me to allow my love for personal liberty to cloud my vision or to persuade me to place on relevant provision of the Constitution a construction which its language cannot reasonably bear". Justice Khanna's dissent provided, "Law of preventive detention without trial is an anathema to all those who believe in personal liberty. Such a law makes deep inroads into basic human freedoms which we cherish and which occupy prime position among the higher values of life. It is, therefore, not surprising that those who have an abiding faith in the rule and sanctity of personal liberty do not easily reconcile themselves with a law under which persons can be detained for longer periods without trial".
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outlined in this article. One can summarize it as follows: the specificities that characterize the situations of Brazil and India are not a consequence of their exclusion from modernity, but are due to the way they have incorporated and developed it. In relation to the issue of religion, the importance and scale it acquires in both countries should not then serve as an indicator of moderni- ty’s absence. On the contrary, the link between the State and religion, involv- ing Catholicism in one case and Hinduism in the other, can foster the broad- est kind of reflections on the proficuous relation between national formation and religious references (Van der Veer e Lehmann 1999). In another dimen- sion, the configurations produced in Brazil and India can be associated with the forms and dilemmas of regulation of the religious in modernity. In Brazil, the religious was defined legally as a generic domain, whereas in India, the reference to norms and collectives that are specific to a tradition occupied an important place. In India, the link between religion and social conflicts is foundational; in Brazil, religion tends to be seen as an integrating force. And these alternatives result from interpretations and experiences of modernity, that, on the one hand, recognize its principles and on the other, derive forms of development that are different from those generated in other modernities.
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Further, the tenth five Year Plan aims at empowering women through translating the recently adopted National Policy for empowerment of Women into action and ensuring survival, Protection and Development of women and children through rights base approach. Consortium of Women entrepreneurs of India provides a platform to assist the women entrepreneurs to develop new, creative and innovative techniques of production, finance and marketing. There are different bodies such as NGOs, voluntary organizations, Self-help groups, institutions and individual enterprises from rural and urban areas which collectively help the women entrepreneurs in their activities. The following training schemes especially for the self employment of women are introduced by government:
Replacement of GLS with LED is most popular EM technique in India. This has also passed the benefit and cost analysis tests. The cost of saved energy by replacing GLS with LED is calculated for various working hours and unit rates. The results are plotted in Figure 5 between cost v/s years. It can be seen that with increase in working hours (usage) of the energy efficient equipment, saved energy increases and saving amount increases hence makes the technology option viable, in the present case it is replacement of GLS with LED In the
Assam, one of the biodiversity hotspots, occupies a special place in Northeastern India located between 24044' N to27045'N latitude and 89041'E to 96o02'E longitude, covering 2.4% of the geographical area of the country, i.e.78,438 sq. km. The annual rainfall ranges between 305 cm. max. to 178 cm. min. with an average of 211.76 cm. The temperature recorded in summer is 37 0 C max. and 18 0 C min. and 26 0 C max. and 7 0 C min. in winter, with an average humidity of 83.00%. These types of climatic factors of Assam provide a congenial environment for growing diverse medicinal plants.
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According to the paper titled: Can “Make In India” Make Jobs? The Challenges Of Manufacturing Growth And High– Quality Job Creation In India By Russell A. Green says Even though India has shown impressive growth rates in past, There has not been production on meaningful jobs for the growing generation. Even though make in India aims at creating jobs most of the foreign countries find it cumbersome because of rules and regulation. There is also internal and external competition. There is a need for job for elimination of poverty and better standard of living. Only 14% of workforce in India has a formal job. There is the right time to create job because of young population and lower fertility rate leading to rise in the population. As compared to Japan and China, India has higher working population and most of it being the youth. Also the paper says the workforce will grow by 10 million in next 10 years and also agriculture labor force will reduce. The job potential is in the competitive industries because most of the labour at the current scenario is unskilled. But given the fact the education is increasing and manufacture sector will grow too it will create jobs for formal manufacture sector.
The origin of Islam began in Peninsular Arabia at the “Land of Hejaz” in the beginning of the 7 th century. The founder of this religion was Prophet Muhammad (SAW) who was born in 570 A.D. in a distinguished family of Mecca. After the death of Prophet Muhammad (SAW) on the 8 th June, 632 A.D. the leadership passed to Prophet’s “Right guided Caliph” or Khalifas who were both religious and political heads. The basic characteristic features of Islam however, is belief in monotheism that is Allah and its ethical doctrines based on Holy Text Book Quran and Sunnah [saying and actions of Prophet Muhammad SAW ], (Lewis, 1951). Arabs spread Islam from the Atlantic to Sind within eighty years of Prophet’s death. In India Islam spread with the help of Great Sufi Saint Khawja Moinuddin Chisti (r`alaih) , who came from Arabia and established his seat at Ajmer in Rajasthan. Though Islam proclaimed the idea of equality, but in India it has been characterised by caste which is influenced by Hindu caste system. In India Muslims are divided into five large families— Saiyed, Shaikh, Pathan, Moghul and Ansari. Though they are referred as caste, but they are neither castes nor tribes but are merely names given to groups of tribes supposed to be of similar blood (Blunt, 1931). Muslims are divided into two
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Twelve articles were found in Pubmed search with high altitude + India + nutrition and 11 of these had Indian affiliation. There were three studies on rats and one was a review article (Srivastava and Kumar, 1992). Human studies have been reported on vitamin status during consumption of tinned rations (Sridharan et al, 2004); zinc and copper concentrations (Rawal et al., 1999), human taste intensity and hedonics (Singh et al., 1997) and epidemiology and prevention of low birth weight babies (Tibrewala et al., 1980). Kumar et al., (2011) did a population based cross sectional study to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of gastrooesophageal reflux disease in a high altitude area and reported 18.7% prevalence of gastrooesophageal reflux disease. Dutta et al., (2009) studied the prevalence of undernutrition among children in Garhwal Himalayas and found that the majority of children were severely stunted and wasted indicating a high prevalence of both chronic and acute malnutrition. Tripathy and Gupta, (2007) studied the growth among Tibetans at high and low altitudes in India and reported that Tibetans at high altitude were taller and heavier compared to Andean highlanders. In a study on the vitamin status at high altitude (3660m) in acclimatized human subjects during consumption of tinned rations it was reported that additional vitamin supplementation was not required after acclimatization at high altitude and for 30 days when consuming tinned rations (Sridharan et al., 2004) .
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India is the second largest country of the world after and it has got roughly constitute 25 per cent of its total population scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. They are kept away from the mainstream of all social, cultural, religious, educational, economic etc. of existing practices of society for centuries together. They were denied the basic rights of human living. This was the vulnerable group who was living on the bottom line of society. India attained freedom in August, 1947 and adopted its own “Constitution of India” for its citizens. India was governed by this law of land. Constitution of India has protected the human rights of these sections of citizens by awarding certain privileges enshrined in the constitution. The various safeguards for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the constitution can be broadly classified under the four heads of (1) Social (2) Development and Economic (3) Political and (4) Other safeguards writes Srivastava (2000:03).
In India support to suicide and attempt to suicide are both against the law. The constitutional validity of Indian Penal Code Section 309 was challenged in the Supreme Court In 1994. The Supreme Court declared that IPC Sec. 309 is unconstitutional, under Article 21 (Right to Life) of the constitution in a landmark judgment and it was Justice B. L. Hansaria of the Supreme Court who described the plight of a rape victim forced to stand trial for the crime of attempt to suicide. In his judgment in P. Rathinam v. Union of India, the judge described the trail in one word: “persecution” (P. Rathinam vs. Union of India). 20 An interesting case of abetment of commission of suicide under Indian penal code sec 306 came to Supreme Court in 1996. The accused were criminalized in trial court and later the conviction was upheld by the High Court. They challenged that ‘right to die’ should be included in Article 21 of the Constitution under appeal to the Supreme Court and any person abetting the charge of suicide by anyone is simply assisting in the enforcement of the fundamental right under Article 21; hence their punishment is violation of Article 21. The Supreme Court was persuaded to rethink its prior decision and to reconsider the decision of right to die. Instantly the issue was referred to a Constitution Bench of the Indian Supreme Court. The Court held that the right to life under Article 21 of the Constitution does not include the right to die (Gian Kaur vs. State of Punjab). 21
Analysis of reports mentioned above for assessing burden of unknown dead bodies recovered in India and in Maharashtra state. Analyse all related literature, documents and websiteslike Pub Med, Google scholar, Copernicus etc for related article, informal personal interview of local police of Maharashtra state to know themethod adopted by them for identification of unknown dead victims. Analysis of sites like www.tin-nsdl.com for PAN and TAN card, www.uidai.gov.in for Aadhar card, www.passportindia.gov.in for passport, www.parivahan.gov.in for driving licence in India etc for assessing procedure adopt by them for issuing of their respective documents, which can be utilised for identification of UDB. Data were analysed and table, charts are prepared.
and promotion of their social, economic, educational, cultural and political interests to remove the disparities and to bring them on par with other sections of the society. In addition, many articles in Parts III, IV, IX, IX- A, Fifth and Sixth Schedule of the Constitution reinforce these arrangements. Article 14 provide that States shall not deny any person equality before law or the equal protection of laws within the territory of India. Article 15 operationalizes the concept of equality in a manner which specifically touches upon the conditions of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. It says:
IT hub: Internet penetration rate of 7.1% in India is one of the highest in world and we have one of the highest numbers of Internet users in absolute terms. India is considered as one of the prominent IT hubs in the world but, all these have somehow not translated into positives in the retail space. Retail industry in India stands at $390 billion (Source: India retail blitz, A T Kearny) and organized retail is fast catching up. Many of the big retailers have forayed into the on-line mode without much success. On-line retail forms a meager 0.47% of the total retail market. This shows the plethora of opportunity for on-line retailing in India. The Indian e-commerce market at INRI 9200 core is heavily tilted towards travel sites. More than 75-80% of this market is constituted by travel portals like Makemytrip.com, Yatra.com etc. About 12% of the rest is contributed by on-line classifieds like matrimonial and job portals. The above mentioned data is motivating enough for both buyers and sellers, who are willing to use internet as a source of their commerce, as always we are focused on the customer centric market where the customer is god, and every dance on the stage of market is performed according the tune of customer.
Selection of sampling stations (Table 1 and Fig. 1), sample collections and analysis are carried out by Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) and Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Karnataka State Pollution Control Board is a government authority of Karnataka state, INDIA, monitoring air, water and industrial wastewater quality throughout the state. Ambient air quality sample collections are carried out as per National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) 2009. 13 nos. of sampling stations are selected based on the type of land use such as residential, mixed urban, industrial area, sensitive areas and strategic locations. Two sampling stations are Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (CAAQM) station, being monitored for 24 hrs and 365 days. Ambient air quality sample reports for all the sampling stations from 2011 to 2016 are collected from Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB)  for this study.
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The present paper highlights the microfinance & evaluates the position of micro- finance. The concept of microfinance is not new in India. Traditionally, people have saved with and taken small loans from individuals and groups within the context of self-help to start businesses or farming ventures. Majority of poor are excluded from financial services. Microfinance is a programme to support the poor rural people to pay its debt and maintain social and economic status in the villages. Microfinance is an important tool for improving the standard of living of poor. Inspite of many organizations of microfinance, microfinance is not sufficient in India. The study explores some suggestions to make microfinance more effective. The potential for growing micro finance institutions in India is very high. Microfinance market in India is expected to grow rapidly, supported by government of India’s initiatives to achieve greater financial inclusion, and growth in the country’s unorganized but priority sector. Microfinance has evolved rapidly into a global movement dedicated to providing access to a range of financial services to poor and nearpoor households. The organizations that provide these services, known as Microfinance institutions (MFIs) may operate as formal micro banks, non-bank financial institutions, non-governmental organizations, or community-based financial institutions. These providers offer a range of financial services from small business loans to savings accounts, money transfers, insurance, and consumer loans. Growth of the microfinance industry, however, the microfinance is important as a minimum condition for achieving these social missions. Major Cross- section can have benefit if this sector will grow in its fastest pace. On the basis of growth and evolution
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Young people are recognised as a vulnerable group having a greater chance of engaging in high risk behaviours including substance use. Several surveys in the country have shown that the extent of use of various substances ranging from tobacco and alcohol to more harmful drugs is generally high among youth. Some studies show an increasing trend in the use of harmful substances in many states. Also there are inter-state and socio-economic variations in the extent of substance use among young people. Table 1 presents a summary of selected recent studies that have focussed on the extent of the use of substances among adolescents in India. These studies were conducted in various geographical locations in the country and include both small scale studies and multi location and nationwide surveys. The indication from these studies is that substance use among adolescents in India is high. While there are variations in prevalence observed in these studies, one could safely conclude about the high extent of prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use. In general, the use is high among urban adolescents as compared to rural adolescents while in general it is believed that health status is better in urban areas as compared to rural areas. It is noted in many studies that the use is significantly higher among older adolescents and that family problems and peer pressure are among significant