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DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: SOME SYNDROMES, DISEASES, AND CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ABNORMAL COLORATION OF THE URINE OR DIAPER

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT: SOME SYNDROMES, DISEASES, AND CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH ABNORMAL COLORATION OF THE URINE OR DIAPER

NORMAL COLOR OF URINE AND CAUSES FOR IT BEING UNDULY PALE OR DARK.. The Ilormal amber color of urine is due.[r]

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Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents

Interleukin-6 concentrations in the urine and dipstick analyses were related to bacteriuria but not symptoms in the elderly: a cross sectional study of 421 nursing home residents

With the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the antimicrobial drug discovery pipeline currently running dry, it is important not to misinterpret bacteriuria as UTI and prescribe antibiotics when it actually repre- sents ABU. Thus, a complementary test to discriminate between symptomatic UTI and ABU is needed [29,30]. The cytokine Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a mediator of inflam- mation playing an important role in the acute phase response and immune system regulation [29,31]. The biosynthesis of IL-6 is stimulated by e.g. bacteria [31]. After intravesical inoculation of patients with E. coli, all patients secreted IL-6 into the urine, however, serum concentrations of IL-6 did not increase suggesting a dominance of local IL-6 production [32]. A symptomatic lower UTI is assumed associated with more severe inflam- mation in the bladder compared to an ABU. Previous studies suggested that concentrations of IL-6 in the urine may be valuable in discriminating between ABU and UTI in the elderly, however, this needs evaluation in a larger study among the elderly [9,33].
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Urine makes the difference

Urine makes the difference

Using lag sequential analysis, we identified non-random sequences of behaviour during the social interactions. This analysis revealed that urine signals make offensive behaviours more effective in reducing an opponent’s aggressiveness. The relative frequency of the opponent’s defensive behaviours is increased at the expense of its offensive behaviours (Fig. 6). Offensive behaviour without urine signals does not change the behaviour of the opponent (Fig. 6). Hence, chemical signals appear to be more important than other offensive displays and signals for settling a fight, at least under visual blackout conditions. In our experiments, the animals were blindfolded to avoid reactions to the visual image of the Fluorescein cloud. Blindfolding the animals may have changed their fighting behaviour. Indeed, Bruski and Dunham (1987) found, by comparing fights of Orconectes rusticus in the light and in the dark, that the duration of individual bouts and the frequency of highly aggressive behaviours (corresponding to our levels 3–5) are increased in the dark while the frequency of visual threat displays remains unchanged. Thus, crayfish may need to fight longer and more vehemently to settle a fight when they cannot see each other. Blocking the release of urine in visually intact
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Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system

Rapid processing of urine specimens by urine screening and the AutoMicrobic system

Several studies have also reported that after urine screening, the broth from the positive specimens can be rapidly processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing [r]

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Rheological and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigations of Normal and Chronic Kidney Disease Urine

Rheological and Infrared Spectroscopic Investigations of Normal and Chronic Kidney Disease Urine

The specific gravity (also known as relative density) is the ratio of density of solution to that of reference liquid water. The Urine Specific Gravity (USG) was measured by a specific gravity bottle. The refractive index (RI) of the samples was found with Abbe’s refractometer using sodium vapor lamp. The surface tension (g) and viscosity (h) the samples are measured by simple cost effective capillary rise method and Brookfield viscometer. The electrical conductivity (EC) of the samples was measured with Elico CM 183 a microprocessor- based conductivity meter with cell constant 1. The accuracy of conductivity meter is 1%.
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Estimating mean population salt intake in Fiji and Samoa using spot urine samples

Estimating mean population salt intake in Fiji and Samoa using spot urine samples

This study provided an in-depth evaluation of the cap- acity of spot urine samples to estimate population-level salt intake in Fiji and Samoa. The results indicate sub- stantial heterogeneity in average population-level salt in- take estimates from spot urine-based equations in this population. Of the six equations examined, the INTER- SALT equation with potassium produced the closest salt intake estimate to the 24-h urine in both samples. This finding is consistent with previous studies conducted in different population groups, including the US [28], Australia [29], Vietnam [15], India [24], New Zealand [30], Ireland [31], and an earlier study in Samoa (2016) that used the GACD Pacific Salt Project data available at that time [32]. The results from all of these studies sug- gest the considerable applicability of this equation in a range of population groups, despite it being originally developed using data from 29 populations (large sample of more than 5000 participants) in North America and Europe [22]. Nevertheless, although the INTERSALT equation with potassium arguably provided the closest salt intake estimates, it overestimated salt intake in Samoa by about a gram and a half, and underestimated salt intake in Fiji by almost a gram, on average. This op- posing result may be due to the different levels of salt in- take in the two countries, with Fiji having a higher salt intake (10.6 g/day) than Samoa (7.1 g/day) based on 24-h urine samples. At the individual level, it has been shown that the INTERSALT equation tends to underestimate salt intake at higher levels of consumption and overesti- mate salt intake at lower levels of consumption [11, 15, 24, 33, 34]. More robust studies where both 24-h urine and spot urine samples are collected are required to fully understand the capacity of spot urine samples to esti- mate mean salt intake in Fiji and Samoa, before they can be confidently used in these populations.
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EXAMINATION OF THE URINE IN PYELONEPHRITIS

EXAMINATION OF THE URINE IN PYELONEPHRITIS

Confirmation of the diag- nosis of urinary tract infection in untreated patients, with or without pyuria, must rest ultimately on bacterial counts of the urine. Sternheimer and Malbin,7 [r]

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The prevalence of positive urine cultures in 100 dogs with an inactive urine sediment

The prevalence of positive urine cultures in 100 dogs with an inactive urine sediment

A QUC is a relatively expensive test in comparison to the cost of a urinalysis, and it would be useful to know how often the QUC is positive when patients have no evidence of bacteria or inflammation on urine sediment examination. The authors hypothesised that positive QUCs occur in less than 10% of patients with an inactive urine sediment. The goal of this paper was to determine the prevalence of positive QUCs associated with inactive urine sediments in all patients who had a QUC performed at a private practice emergency and specialty referral hospital, which to the authors’ knowledge, has not previously been reported. The secondary aim of this paper was to describe the QUC-positive patients.
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Male urine signals social rank in the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

Male urine signals social rank in the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

25]. The largest alpha males receive more visits by females [25] and the majority of spawnings [18], and the domi- nance structure is positively correlated with urinary sex hormone levels [19,23]. During hierarchy formation, the initial assessment includes asymmetrical behavioural dis- plays that can escalate to higher levels of symmetrical aggression, including mouth-to-mouth fighting. Once the hierarchy is established, the overall level of aggression decreases and asymmetrical displays are the most com- mon agonistic interactions observed. A further decrease in aggression occurs after the addition of females to the group [23]. During paired interactions 'resident' males dramatically increase their urination frequency in the presence of 'intruder' males [26,27]. Since urine from males is a vehicle of odorants, at least for conspecific females [28], it is possible that dominant/territorial males actively advertise their aggressive motivation and social status to other males using urinary odorants, which may act as male-male pheromones, in addition to visual dis- plays. The goal of the current study was to determine (i) whether the male urination pattern is linked to aggressive behaviour and (ii) whether the olfactory potency of male urine on conspecific males is related with the social status of the male donor.
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Electricity generation and struvite recovery from human urine using microbial fuel cells

Electricity generation and struvite recovery from human urine using microbial fuel cells

As shown in Table 1, the pH of untreated urine however, rose to the same level after running through a group of 4 MFCs in only 72 min (HRT of the whole group). This clearly showed that MFCs accelerated urea hydrolysis, which was not attributed solely to the electricity generating activity of microorganisms in the MFCs, since a similar degree of pH increase was also recorded for the same MFCs without an external load (open circuit condition). Therefore the acceleration effect could be the result of urine being exposed to a higher population of microorganisms for a given time.

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Development of a novel mobile application to detect urine protein for nephrotic syndrome disease monitoring

Development of a novel mobile application to detect urine protein for nephrotic syndrome disease monitoring

Methods: UrApp was iteratively developed by a panel of two pediatric nephrologists and three research engineers from May 2017 to October 2018 for Apple iPhones. App features were devised by this expert panel to support urine monitoring and other home care tasks. Each feature and user-app interface element was systematically reviewed by the panel and iteratively redesigned to remove anticipated use issues. The app prototype was then refined based on two rounds of usability testing and semi-structured user interviews with a total of 20 caregivers and adolescent patients. The analytic function of UrApp in providing a camera read of the urine test strip was compared to a standard urinalysis machine using 88 patient urine samples and three iPhones, model versions 6S and 7. Exact agreement and weighted kappa were calculated between the UrApp and urinalysis machine reads.
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Removal of High Molecular Weight DNA by Carboxylated Magnetic Beads Enhances the Detection of Mutated K ras DNA in Urine

Removal of High Molecular Weight DNA by Carboxylated Magnetic Beads Enhances the Detection of Mutated K ras DNA in Urine

In brief: DNA derived from either 200 µ L urine or 1/10 of a tissue section was used in each assay. The PCR product from the RE- PCR assay is 87 bp, and the appearance of a 71-bp fragment after the second BstNI diges- tion is evidence of mutated K-ras DNA in the DNA sample. The detection limit of the assay is 15 copies of the mutant K-ras per 100 ng of wild- type DNA per reaction (data not shown). As val- idation controls, DNA prepared from sources known to have either mutant (human adeno- carcinoma SW480 cells) or wild-type (human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells) K-ras sequences was subjected to PCR. As expected, and shown in Figure 2E, DNA prepared from HepG2 cells contained no detectable levels of mutant K- ras (no appearance of the 71-bp fragment af- ter the second BstNI digestion), whereas DNA prepared from SW480 cells contained mutant K-ras sequences (the 71-bp fragment was de- tected after the second BstNI digestion). For each urine sample that contained detectable mutant K-ras DNA, the presence of the mutant K-ras sequence was more evident when low- MW DNA was used in the assay as compared to the total urine DNA, as demonstrated by the six examples in Figure 2E. The data are summarized in Table 1.
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Use of a urine meter to detect variation in urination behaviour of dairy cows on winter crops

Use of a urine meter to detect variation in urination behaviour of dairy cows on winter crops

The meter itself was attached to the vulva of the cow by gluing (Henkel’s Loctite Power Flex Gel) the modified glove attachment to the exterior skin around the vulva, and using strapping tape to support the weight of the meter across the flank and pins of the cow. The strapping tape also helped to prevent faecal contamination into the meter. The meter weighed around 100 g; initial attempts to transfer its weight to the cow cover failed as they restricted the movement of the glove causing it to kink during urination, slowing the flow of urine through the sensor. Therefore the meter was only attached to the cow’s skin (Fig. 1). During the development and testing phase three non-lactating dairy cows were used to assess effectiveness of the device and any potential welfare issues. Cow behaviour was initially altered when the cover was fitted to the animals. Some cows ran or bucked shortly after the cover was fitted, though normal activity (grazing) resumed within 30 minutes.Cows were subsequently given 24 hours to adapt to the cover before the urine meter was attached.
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Extractive Colourimetric Determination of Pipazethate HCl by Ion-pair Complex Formation in Pure Form, Dosage Form, Urine and in Presence of its Degradation Products

Extractive Colourimetric Determination of Pipazethate HCl by Ion-pair Complex Formation in Pure Form, Dosage Form, Urine and in Presence of its Degradation Products

The proposed method was applied for the determination of pipazethate HCl in human urine ,to prepare spiked urine sample the collected human urine was mixed then human urine was (1:1) diluted with distilled water .For the determination of pipazethate HCl in urine 1.0 mL of the diluted human urine was put in 50 mL separating funnel then the solution was prepared and then absorbance was measured following the same procedure as that of standard solutions. The absolute recovery was determined for pipazethate HCl by comparing the representative absorbance of treated urine sample and that of the pure drug at the same concentration. 2.3.5. Determination of Stoichiometry of the Reaction
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Urinary tract infection in children: clinical aspects and utility of urine dipstick test

Urinary tract infection in children: clinical aspects and utility of urine dipstick test

To diagnose UTI rapidly, advances in investigations are taking place. Urine dipstick is a rapid bedside method to diagnose urinary tract infection. Leukocyte esterase (LE) is a semi quantitative test that detects neutrophil specific esterase released from degraded white blood cells present in urine. Nitrite reduction test detects nitrite produced by urinary tract pathogens. Nitrite is usually not found in urine but present when urinary bacteria reduces nitrate to nitrite. Many gram negative and gram positive organisms are capable of doing so. A positive dipstick nitrite test indicates that those bacteria are present in significant number (>100,000/ml).
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Body excreta (Urine and Feces) continence, how to gain, and how does it fail?

Body excreta (Urine and Feces) continence, how to gain, and how does it fail?

Those children are heavy sleepers, they go to deep sleep rapidly; it may be due to general lack of NE. Therefore, giving those children alpha-sympathomimetic drugs like ephedrine will cure the trouble. Ephedrine has a dual action, it acts on the receptors as agonist, and it acts on the alpha-sympathetic nerve fibers to stimulate them to produce NE. It may have another effect on the brain and CNS, as an analeptic, it restores normal sleep in those children. In women, the IUS is intimately lying on the anterior vaginal wall. Vaginal delivery especially difficult, quick, instrumental, and multiple and frequent deliveries will insult the vagina, causing lacerations of the vaginal chassis and the intimately lying IUS. Lacerations in the chassis of the IUS cause its weakness so it cannot stand against sudden rise of abdominal pressure and urine will leak, stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Depending on the level of the main trauma along the collagen tissue cylinder of the IUS, the type of SUI will ensue. When the lacerations affect mostly the upper part of the cylinder, (the bladder neck) it will lead to funneling of the bladder neck as seen by imaging, and over active bladder (OAB) clinically, detrusor over activity by urodynamic studies. When the main trauma is in the lower part of the IUS cylinder, genuine stress urinary incontinence is the result. When the trauma affects the whole length of the IUS cylinder, then mixed type of SUI ensue, which is the most prevalent type of SUI. In men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, in median lobe hypertrophy will induce funneling of the bladder neck. On sudden increase of abdominal pressure, urine will enter the funneled upper part of the urethra, which leads to overactive bladder (OAB), nocturia and urinary incontinence. Lateral lobe hyperplasia will add extra load preventing proper relaxation of the IUS and dilatation of the urethra, causing hesitancy, feeling of incomplete emptying and dysuria. Trilobar hyperplasia will cause combination of the two mentioned voiding troubles.
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Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants

Urine Concentration and Pyuria for Identifying UTI in Infants

We conducted a retrospective study of infants aged <3 months evaluated for UTI at a major pediatric academic hospital with ∼ 60 000 emergency department (ED) visits annually. The hospital serves as a major referral center for New England with ∼ 26% of ED visits referred by primary care offices or other regional EDs. All infants aged <3 months who presented to the ED between May 2009 and December 2014 and had paired urinalysis and urine culture were identified by the hospital’s electronic medical record. The local implementation of the automated urinalysis systems in May 2009 was selected at the beginning of the study period. Data including age, sex, temperature in the ED, and laboratory study results were extracted directly from the hospital’s data warehouse. The institutional review board approved this study with a waiver of informed consent. Standard procedures were instituted for patient confidentiality.
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Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an initial biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) in an intensive care unit (ICU) patients: a preliminary study

Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an initial biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) in an intensive care unit (ICU) patients: a preliminary study

Methods: This is an observational prospective cohort study involving 39 patients who were admitted to the Intensive care unit (ICU) of Dr. Sardjito General Hospital Yogyakarta during June-August 2018. The inclusion criteria were ICU patients with age>19 years old, and exclusion criteria were chronic renal failure and kidney transplantation. The AKI established based on an increase in serum creatinine levels ≥0,3 mg/dl in 48 hours or urine volume <0.5 ml /kg/hour in 6 hours. Mann Whitney test, Spearman correlation, and Chi-Square were used

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EFFICACY OF COW URINE DISTILLATE TO ENHANCE THE FRESHWATER COPEPOD POPULATION DENSITY

EFFICACY OF COW URINE DISTILLATE TO ENHANCE THE FRESHWATER COPEPOD POPULATION DENSITY

production. The body electrolytes sodium and potassium helps in maintaining new health. The arum hydroxide (gold particles) have been proved to be present in list cow urine by Junagadh Agricultural University Scientists. It acts as antimicrobial anti dose and immunostimulant agent. Recently the practice of using cow urine as therapeutics is formed as cowpathy. Though it has lot of disputes, the clinical properties of cow urine is scientifical validated by various authors (29). The application of cow urine in aquaculture as fresh cow urine (30-31) Cow urine Distillate (32) and also herbal cow urine extracts (33) have been explored in different fish models like Cirrhinus mirgala, Labeo rohita and Oreochromis mossambicus. The optimal concentration of CUD for promoting growth and biochemical composition is well documented Padmapriya and venaktalskhmi, 2014 for fishes. However the optimal concentration of cow urine distillate has not yet been established for zooplankton. Hence the present study has been attempted to find the optimal concentration of CUD to be treated for copepod culture. From the results obtained, it is clear that 0.05% of CUD is the optimal concentration for plankton growth. This is in concentration with the results obtained for fish studies which showed 0.1% of CUD as the optimal concentration. This might be due to the difference in the body mass. Due to the higher body mass and complexity of the physiological systems, the fishes require 0.1% concentration of CUD to show maximum response. Whereas the copepods, which are micro crustaceans with less evolutionary development of physiological systems need only lesser quantity of CUD for exhibiting maximum response. The CUD shows a dose dependent effect on the population density of copepods. The lower concentration has
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Original Article The preventive and therapeutic effect of potassium citrate combined estradiol on lithangiuria

Original Article The preventive and therapeutic effect of potassium citrate combined estradiol on lithangiuria

Abstract: Urinary calculus is a common disease. Potassium citrate is usually used to prevent lithangiuria. Urinary calculus formation is affected by sex hormone. This study investigated the preventive and therapeutic effect of po- tassium citrate combined estradiol on lithangiuria. SD rats were randomly divided into three groups, control group, model group established by administration of 3% melamine (Mel), and potassium citrate combined estradiol group. The weight, 24 h urine volume, water intake, Mel level, Scr, BUN, UAlb, ratio of kidney and weight, and calculus formation rate were measured. TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were detected by real-time PCR and ELISA. Rats from model group displayed reduced body weight, increased 24 h urine volume, water intake, Mel level, Scr, BUN, UAlb, ratio of kidney to body weight, but decreased urine potassium and urine citric acid compared with those pa- rameters in control group (P < 0.05). TNF-α and IL-1β levels were significantly elevated in model group compared those in control group (P < 0.05). The rats in combination treatment group exhibited reduced calculus formation rate, 24 h urine volume and water intake, increased body weight, urine potassium, and urine citric acid, but declined levels of Mel, Scr, BUN, UAlb, TNF-α and IL-1β, and decreased ratio of kidney to weight as well as urinary calcium compared with those parameters in model group (P < 0.05). Potassium citrate combined estradiol treatment sup- presses urinary calculus formation induced by Mel, inhibits TNF-α and IL-1β secretion, reduces urine calcium, as well as improves urine potassium and urine citric acid, leading to improved renal function.
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