Collaborative tools are tremendously increasing nowadays with the help of Web 2.0 technologies, in which many organizations are taking advantage of the growing technologies as an opportunities for business, innovation and project management collaboration. A wide ranges of different features of tools were illustrated that include chat, discussion board, email, announcement, instant messaging, calendar, file sharing, wiki, task, time sheet, Video conference and Gantt chart [42-44]. However, must of the tools use client server architecture in which all the data related to collaboration were stored in a server. Even though few of the tools are hybrid architecture where by collaborative data were stored in participant storage while servers ware used only for directory services.
Social security data management is an important topic both in application of information management and in social se- curity management. In the Web 2.0 era, more and more human information and healthcare information is released to the Internet through various approaches. This abundance makes managing social security data go beyond managing con- ventional social security database records. How to organize the conventional records together with the related informa- tion gathered from the Web is an interesting problem to solve to provide more convenient and powerful social security information service. In this paper, we introduce our initial work on building a Web-oriented social security information system named i-SSIS. I-SSIS is a database system which adopts a new object-role data model named INM model and deploys INM database system as its core. With the assistance of auxiliary tools to carry out social security information extraction, analyzing and query, i-SSIS can properly provide social security-related information gathered from the Web. We introduce the basic ideas of designing i-SSIS and describe the architecture and major components of the system.
Papanikolaou and Mavromoustakos  proposed architecture for developing Web 2.0 based e-learning applications. This architecture follows SpiderWeb software development process model. In this architecture, trainers have the authority of selecting Web 2.0 tools. The selection of tools depends upon targeted audience, nature of course and educational objectives. According to these researchers, the use of Web 2.0 tools in e- learning applications will be helpful for any student to keep his/her pace with the rest of the class. Previously, Web 2.0 tools were not developed for the purpose of gaining knowledge but these tools can become a part of collaborative learning system. Copley  conducted a survey from the undergraduate and graduate level students. He provided students with audio and video podcast material and allowed them to evaluate the effectiveness of podcasting and video-podcasting in terms of higher education. These students tried both audio and video podcast materials. Almost all students had cast their vote for video podcasting. Students reviewed video podcasting, Web 2.0 tool, as a brilliant source of lecture revision. They stated that they can have all the record of lectures. However, the design and development of a “Stand alone” podcast material requires technical skills.
architecture—rather than a peer–to–peer one—prevailed across mainstream Internet, sus- taining specific kinds of practices and of agency. Secondly, the analytical framework of computational turn of the Internet is introduced, arguing that across the timespan of my em- pirical research a decisive shift happened, making the Internet in 2015 much more vitally reliant on computation than it was in 2005 (or ever before). The central argument is that the transition from Web 2.0 promises of openness and choice to the recent mainstream configurations as well as the potential for development of alternative rationalizations both revolve around the role of computation as the site of mediation between the social and the tech- nical: through it, values and norms of relevant social groups are negotiated and inscribed in technical form, configuring spaces for computational agency that are historically and materially determined and contested. This chapter is composed of four sections. In the first section I trace how the architecture of lifeworld Internet is sustained by Read/Write affordances, in turn rooted in the early Web 2.0 narrative of ‘network as a platform’. In the second section I build upon this articulation of human and non–human actants in order to analyze how the telos of progress that permeates Web 2.0 discourses, visibly promoted through the rhetorical artifice of version numbers (2.0, etc.) describing successive evolu- tionary stages of technological form, contributed to formulating a one–dimensional nar- rative that privileges the idea of linear evolution and by doing so colonized mainstream lifeworld Internet, while relegating to subaltern position alternative models of computa- tional agency. In the third section I analyze the tensions between two different topologies of infrastructure—a client/server architecture and a peer–to–peer architecture—as well as the historical processes through which the client/server architecture became the largely dominant configuration, in turn determining a range of ways in which individuals could appropriate the Internet as a two–way medium within the domain of everyday life. In the fourth section I introduce the key traits of the computational turn of the Internet as can be observed in recent (post-2010) discourses and practices of web and Internet software engi- neers, and I develop the analytical framework of computation as site of mediation between the social and the technical, which is used throughout the following chapters.
This paper presents IDE 2.0 which is an integrated development environment developed from Web 2.0 perspective. The architecture of this application is modular and allows consequently the development and improvement of this IDE. Adoption of AJAX technology has helped to build an IDE version with a highly interactive interface. Contribution of adding user's social aspect from social network to this IDE then can make collaboration easier and help solving the problems identified in term of the collaboration.
Our focus in this paper is on examining the architecture and application of social bookmarking, which is our research area and is illustrated with specific examples below. However, we conclude this section with a few observations and remarks on semantic issues. Tag-based folksonomies of course still present fundamental research problems. They are obviously language dependent and can (even in the same language) depend on context. The context problem can be solved in part by examining the tag space, which can be represented as a connected graph with clusters (or cliques). A single tag (“web”) may be ambiguous but additional tags (“spider” or “programming”) provide the necessary context. We may expect the translation problem to be approximately solved through tag clique-based context as well.
The second assignment was built upon the processes and affordances of mobile Web 2.0 that students built up during the first PIC2 assignment. The assignment focused upon student-generated content, additionally using Web 2.0 tools to present to the rest of the class and the course lecturers. Students were required to create a chronological timeline (design-line) that identified and discussed key moments in design through products, craft objects, fashion, cars, architecture, exhibitions, literature, music, politics, war, graphics, manifestos, design schools, etc. Their design-line had to be visual as well as text-rich. A clear use of graphical communication was required. Student-sourced quotes from designers, industrialist, politicians were add to the design-line.
Grid computing , as it is normally defined, is aligned closely with Web Service Architecture principles. The Open Grid Forum’s Open Grid Computing Architecture (OGSA)  provides, through a framework of specifications that undergo a community review process, a precise definition of Grid computing. Key capabilities include the management of application execution, data, and information. Security and resource state modeling are examples of cross cutting capabilities in OGSA. Many Grid middleware stacks (Globus, gLite, Unicore, OMII, Willow, Nareji, GOS, and Crown) are available. Web and Grid Services are typically atomic and general purpose. Workflow tools (including languages and execution engines)  are used to compose multiple general services into specialized tasks. Collections of users, services, and resources form Virtual Organizations are managed by administrative services. The numerous Web Service specifications that constitute Grids and Web Service systems are commonly called “WS-*”.
There is agreement on a general service architecture for information infrastructure – one creates a Cyberinfrastructure consisting of distributed services accessed by portals, gadgets, gateways, and/or RSS feeds. This is illustrated in Fig. 1, which includes a rich set of “sensor” services that wrap all sources of data. Sensor services can provide access to a diverse range of data, including simulations, video cams, robots, and instruments such as the Large Hadron Collider. This data is then processed by a workflow that fuses and transforms the data into more refined forms that enable decisions. This is the traditional DIKW (Data, Information. Knowledge and Wisdom) pipeline. In the figure a service that accepts raw data and produces new data is architecturally no different from one that accepts knowledge and produces wisdom. The filters shown in the figure could involve operations such as geometric corrections, simulations or sophisticated data- mining algorithms but each most importantly is defined by the input and output data, which are of course transported as messages between services. We indicate in the figure how current Grid architectures identify individual services while the Cloud architectures identify collections of services (clouds) whose internal service infrastructure is opaque. In either case, we see a classic “system of systems”, or rather “Grid of Grids”, hierarchical composite architecture. Note that in this approach, sensor services and filter services are
During the course of the year academic teaching staff attended conferences in three overseas countries: Japan, UK, and Spain as well as numerous New Zealand conferences in cities outside of Auckland. Staff used mobile Web 2.0 technologies to share these experiences and stay in contact with their student(s) from these countries and locations. The use of mobile Web 2.0 technologies allowed real time text, video and still images of the conferences, sites, design, and architecture to be easily and immediately uploaded to the staff member’s blog for students to see and share in. The use of instant messaging and blog comments allowed students to remark on the posts, pose questions and request further information on the conference before the end of the visit. The use of mobile Web 2.0 technologies allowed the staff member, his fellow staff members and students to stay in regular contact sharing comments and project concerns: in effect a “virtual studio situation” was created. Upon the staff member’s return, there was no need for time consuming catching up to take place and students were not significantly disadvantaged due to his taking time away from studio teaching.
Figure 1 shows the overall architecture of our proposed integration model. This system consists of six components: (a) Tools, external web tools to provide services to clients; (b) Integration Manager, have information service and provide communication between tools, client, and responsible for integration operation in the system; (c) Filter, operate two-way data filtering; (d) Permission Handler, checks existing Digital Entity(DE)s permission or build a new permission token for new DEs; (e) Data Manager, provides a mechanism to extract data from a repository and insert data into a repository; and (f) Storage, maintains user data and permissions in the database.
Patterns do not stem from the field of knowledge management. The theory of patterns was developed in the seventies by Christopher Alexander. He published the first patterns in books called: “A Pattern Language” (Alexander, 1977) and “The timeless way of building” (Alexander, 1979). Although he found response in the field of architecture, it was not until the discovery of patterns by the software engineering field that patterns really took off (Gamma et al, 1995). But where Alexander was concerned with living buildings [sic] and good places to live in, Software Architecture was more interested in a practical solution for communicating standard solutions in their field. Today, a shift is taking place towards the more intangible side of Information Systems, as is shown by Till Schuemmer (2005), where he analyzes patterns for social networking. This shift creates room for more focus on living and well-being instead of a practical way to communicate solutions.
Other issues also cropped up with Web 2.0, in particular with the boom of corporate, trade union or employee blogs: in France, in the Nissan case, a former employee of the car manufacturer was punished for defamation and insult for having opened a blog where she shared with the Internet community the vision of the professional relations she had with her ex- employer. The point here is not to repeat the legal analysis on the "new" form of defamation and insult emerging on the Web, but simply to note that the question has already been addressed by the judicial world, and this undoubtedly demonstrates the importance of this question.
To evaluate the effect of adding new Web switches to a Web cluster with one Web switch, we have plotted (see Fig. 9) the reliability improvement rate for different reliability levels. When individual reliability is very high (e.g. 0.99), system reliability improvement is very low and independent of the number of Web switches. For lower individual reliabilities (e.g. 0.8 or 0.7), system reliability improvement increases until the third or fourth switch is added. After that, improvement stabilizes.
Facebook - Facebook has been the most popular and widely used Web 2.0 applications in most of the university library websites. With a user friendly applications and interesting features, it is easy to use, even for new beginner. Most of the academic libraries use Facebook for sharing library news or events, sharing pictures as well as marketing library services. As for the Universiti Malaya Library (UML), we use Facebook for disseminating information on latest updates, opening hours, providing online reference services and also interacting with users. With this application, it will help forge relationships among users. Blog - different library websites used blog for different purposes. The uniqueness of the blog is, it allows users to comment on the post. Therefore, the percentage of usage is quite high compared to other Web 2.0 applications. For instance, Universiti Sains Malaysia library (USM) (http://hamzahsendutlibrary.wordpress.com/), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) library (http://cmslib.uum.edu.my/blog/), Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA) library
An approach to semantic blogging has been demonstrated focusing on bibliographic management (10). In the demonstrator, a person uses the Semantic Blog (based on the open-source blojsom blog software) to note down papers that they have read and papers they intend to read in the future. For instance, the person may see a relevant paper on the ACM Digital Library, downloads the PDF, and then creates a new blog entry, associating the bibtex metadata from the ACM portal to the post. The metadata about the paper, such as Author, Publications, etc. is then associated with the blog entry through importing a citation format like bibtex, or by using a web form and can be exported as RDF, using ontologies such as Dublin Core(35). The main value proposed from the service comes from being able to easily find out if other people have semantically blogged about the same paper, or similar papers. Users can search the metadata, known as “Query-by-Entry”, where values of a specific metadata fields can be searched again of other blog entries and use that metadata as the basis of a new entry. The semantic nature of the data means that exporting to alternate formats, such as those used by a citation tool, is relatively straightforward.
Almost all smartphones now include a built-in camera that is capable of capturing still images and video. Most smartphones also include a built-in GPS (Global Positioning Service) that works via satellites to provide longitude and latitude information for geo-tagging and geo-location. This facilitates Geo-tagging original photos, and the ability to geolocate events on Google Maps, adding a location dimension to captured images and video. Web 2.0 services that support geotagged photos include Flickr and Vox. The built-in camera on smartphones can record video and audio at up to almost DVD quality. This facilitates students recording events, interviews, and reflections with a visual dimension, and sharing these online via a variety of mobile friendly video sites such as YouTube. Video streaming applications such as Qik and Flixwagon allow real-time sharing of video directly from smartphones to these web-based services. Qik and Flixwagon then archive the video stream for later viewing, sharing and commenting. Additionally video streaming sites integrate with other mobile web 2.0 technologies such as Twitter - creating an automatic announcement on Twitter regarding a live video stream that a student's Twitter followers could then watch in almost real-time. Qik and Flixwagon also feature the ability to forward video streams to a users YouTube account for sharing on that service as well. Qik supports the association of geolocation data with video streams, providing a Google Maps link to the actual location of the recorded event.