y State in aid of the civil power, and powers, jurisdiction, privileges and liabilities of the members of such forces while on such deployment. Entry 1 in List II (State List) read as follows before the Constitution (42nd Amendment) but not including the use of naval, military or air force or any other armed force of the Union in aid of the civil power). By the said Amendment however, the said Entry was amended and states that public order tary or air force or any other armed force of the Union or of any other force subject to the control of the Union or of any contingent or unit thereof in aid of civil power). It may be noticed that pression public order. Article 257 contemplated Government of India deploying the armedforces of the Union for dealing with any grave situation of law and order in any state. Under the Constitution, law and order as well as public order are both within the exclusive province of the states. Even where the armedforces of the Union are deployed in aid of the civil power of the state to maintain public order, whether on the basis of a request for such armedforces from the state or whether such made by the Union government acting under a law made under Entry 2 A of the Union List, the law and order and public order yet remain within the domain of the states. Of course, these words were there in Entry 1 4 of Amendment Act) and they remain even now. In this connection, the difference between the concepts law and order, public order, internal disturbance and armed rebellion, all the expressions employed by our Constitution, there is a distinction between public order (State List, item 1) and internal disturbance referred to in Article 355. For this purpose, the meaning and content of both the expressions must be
somebody qualifies as vulnerable, factors that are taken into consideration include the following: length of service and role; time in a military hospital; release on medical grounds; accommodation since leaving service; length of time since leaving service. Those who have left the Services in the last five years do not need to prove local connection to go on a housing waiting list, and can inform local authorities that their accommodation is coming to an end up to six months prior to leaving the Services through presentation of a Certificate of Cessation to Occupation. When it comes to ensuring that the specific policies for the armedforces community are followed, and that they are treated fairly, the ArmedForces Covenant enables the MOD and Veterans UK to work with partners from government, business, local authorities, charities and the public. The Covenant seeks to ensure that veterans do not face disadvantage, and Covenant guidance makes specific reference to housing (See Appendix for further information on the Covenant, related commitments, and progress towards accommodation commitments). A number of housing associations have signed up to the Covenant, along with ex-Services and local authorities through pledging to support the armedforces community. Organisations sign up to the Covenant voluntarily, and it can be used to hold them to account in terms of honouring their pledge.
The South Yorkshire ArmedForces Covenant project model is a regional community capacity building approach to strengthening local government delivery of Covenant pledges. Whilst acknowledging political debates about what one defines as 'community' (e.g. Mowbray, 2005 15 ), for the purpose of this project, we define community as an orientation for action. The project design was ultimately intended to facilitate a process of fostering assets, resources, and networking possibilities (Simpson et al., 2003 16 ; Walter, 2007 17 ) orientated around the ArmedForces community in South Yorkshire. In terms of adopting a community capacity building approach, we consider this South Yorkshire project as a regional co- ordination of human capital, organisational resources and social capital 'existing within a given community that can be leveraged to solve collective problems, and improve or maintain the well-being of that community' (Chaskin, 2001 18 , p 295). In this way, the South Yorkshire model is underpinned by the commitment to promoting the capacity of local communities to develop, implement and sustain their own solutions in a way that helps them shape and exercise control over their physical, social, economic and cultural environments. Thus our South Yorkshire approach sought to foster a sense of ownership and empowerment, so that our community partners gain greater control over their own future development and strategy around Covenant Action planning for the ArmedForces community that live here.
I n 2017 a regional partnership, consisting of Sheffield City Council, Rotherham, Doncaster and Barnsley Metropolitan Borough Councils, Sheffield Hallam University and York St John University, successfully bid for an ArmedForces Covenant Fund grant designed to strengthen the local government delivery of the Covenant. The two yearlong South Yorkshire ArmedForces Covenant project activities were designed to:
Bright, young and energetic men and women make up the bulk of manpower in the armedforces. Recruitment is voluntary, which implies that every citizen of India is eligible to be a part of it, provided he/she fulfils the specified criteria for selection. Caste, region or religion, do not come in the way of the selection process, thereby making it a heterogeneous work place. Personnel retire earlier than many other government sectors, to keep the armedforces team, young and dynamic. Manpower in each of the services is broadly divided into ‘Commissioned officers’, ‘JCO’s (Junior Commissioned Officers)’ and ‘Other Ranks’ based on their qualifications and seniority.
The dynamics of change within the Baltic states’ armedforces will largely depend on the economic situation, which will in turn deter- mine the size of defence budgets. Demograph- ic trends (ongoing depopulation) will also be an important factor, limiting the Baltic states’ ability to man their military units. Some of the reforms may prove to be overly ambitious, or their implementation may have to be spread over time (for example, this concerns plans to increase defence spending and the number of troops in Lithuania and Latvia), with regard also to the electoral cycle. Nonetheless, the Russian aggression in Ukraine has contributed to a boost in defence investments in the Baltic states. Lith- uania, Latvia and Estonia at present have the political will to systematically develop their mil- itary potentials, and there is also rising public interest in state security issues (which has been manifesting itself in the expansion of the vol- unteer territorial defence forces, among other phenomena). The changes currently observed in the armedforces of the Baltic states will be persistent, at least within the timeframe of the coming decade, even if the Russian-Ukrainian conflict deescalates.
A serving member of the ArmedForces reiterated these concerns when we visited his Army Garrison. Not only was he concerned about the difficulty in moving children between specialist schools, he identified the struggle in getting Education, Health and Care Plans (EHCP) successfully transferred to new local authorities for service children with identified needs. This had been a particular problem for service children in his area, with several families forced to move back into the area due to unsatisfactory school support arrangements. In the National Audit Office’s 2013 study into the education of service children, 73% of respondents who had children with Special Educational Needs or Disabilities (SEND) reported difficulties related to their children’s special educational needs 7 .
The role of the Army in disaster management is very essential. It continues to be amongst the first responders in a disaster situation even before the civilian resources have been deployed. The unique geo- climatic conditions of India make it highly vulnerable to natural hazards. Disaster management is an area of primary concern for governments around the world today. Part of the reason for such a state of affairs is the increasingly aware and informed public perception of disasters and calamities. Armedforces, which are ultimately responsible to the head of the state in a democratic form of government, are expected to carry out all directives that are assigned to them. Professional soldiers are trained to ignore their personal situation and state of mind and carry out their duties regardless of the distress caused or the difficulties faced. It is this dedication and their training that can prove to be a valuable asset for disaster planners. The major role of armedforces in disaster management is to conduct the rescue operation and evacuate the people. Always the first respondent to any disaster is the major challenge for them. There is a need for better cooperation between the armedforces and other government and civil organizations of that area.
Sheffield City Council, along with Rotherham, Doncaster and Barnsley Local Authorities bid successfully for a Covenant Fund grant, under 'Priority 3: Strengthening of Local Government delivery of the Covenant' to enable a work stream including Sheffield Hallam and York St John Universities. This document presents the findings from the first of four community capacity building components of the South Yorkshire ArmedForces Covenant project. As the first of two reporting outputs- this current report contains the results of the research project component 1: 'Consultation and Mapping survey research', which is underpinned by a newly emerging 'human rights as perspective' theoretical framework. See section 2 for methodology and theoretical framework details. The second reporting output will be published in July 2019 and contain the results of an evaluation of the York St John Military awareness training, an evaluation of the Covenant group's Action Planning activities and a profile of the South Yorkshire ArmedForces Covenant model.
Raj Alok (2008) concludes while wars occur once in two or three decades, disasters strike with virtual regularity, almost every year, especially in India. The armedforces need to enhance operational capacities, gear up their disaster response further and continue to acquit themselves with distinction when called to aid the civil administration. Further, he observed that there is lack of coordination between the civil administration and armedforces during the disaster management. Dagur (2008) investigates the role of armedforces in disaster management in India and focused on the two different views one view recommends dampening our response and discourages over-enthusiasm, the other recommends a larger, proactive and more participative role in disaster management. He also evaluates the other government agencies like National Disaster Response Forces, Paramilitary Forces and state administration in the process of disaster management and their coordination with armedforces. He admits that motivation, zeal and enthusiasm are much more important than training and equipment for disaster management. However, the organizational values and attitudes cannot be expected to be changed overnight through training and equipment.
Programme of the communist party of india (marxist – leninist), clause 16: The LWE, despite its extreme leftist ideological stance, is primarily a tribal insurgency. The bulk of its armed cadres are of tribal extraction.The tribals are natural hunters. The subset of skills required for hunting & insurgency are very similar; hence, tribals make ideal guerillas. The North Eastern tribal insurgencies that broke out in 1956 have effectively tied down a large portion of the Indian Army for over six decades along with a huge number of PMF and Central Police Organisations (CPOs). The implications of a tribal revolt in the Indian heartland of Central & Peninsular India can, therefore, be easily imagined.
Disruptive family backgrounds were a particular feature of the lives of the youngest ex- services respondents, those in their teens and early twenties who had left the armedforces recently after only a short spell in the services. Older respondents reported more stable family backgrounds, or at least were less openly and currently concerned with that more distant time in their lives. Conflict with their families, if it occurred at all, often did so after their time in the armedforces. Post-traumatic stress disorder may be a contributory factor as well as behaviour associated with alcohol problems, perhaps exacerbated by their experiences in the armedforces. A major life crisis for one person did not elicit the expected family support. This happened long after leaving the armedforces. More detailed analysis of the impact of the family backgrounds of respondents, as they see it and as far as possible in their own words, are set out below.
(thus equally those who have not borne arms). The non-obligatory nature of these principles has nevertheless proved to be a heavy limiting factor in their effectiveness. On the initiative of UNICEF, with financial support from the Commission through the thematic funding of DG ECHO, and with the participation of a large number of actors, these principles have just been revised to take into account the lessons of the many experiences of the last decade, to include the new international legal norms and to extend their area of application beyond Africa to the whole world. They are now called the "Paris Principles – The principles and guidelines on children associated with armedforces or armed groups" – February 2007.
The study participants were selected from a range of different outpatient departments from King Salman ArmedForces Hospital and King Khaled ArmedForces Hospital which are now one hospital under the same administration using a simple random sampling technique by a trained research assistant. This is done through a computer- generated process in which each of the patients is assigned a number, after which the requested sample would be chosen at random. The dependent variable (AMR knowl- edge among study participants) and independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics, factors leading to anti- biotic resistance, different diseases that can be treated with
The principal objective of the First Geneva Convention is to ensure the respect and protection of wounded and sick members of the armedforces in times of armed conflict. Warfare has evolved enormously since this idea was first set down in international treaty law in 1864 and has continued to evolve since the adoption of the Geneva Conventions in 1949. The updat- ed commentary on Article 12, while taking into account the contemporary context in which the wounded and sick must be respected and protected, affirms that this obligation remains a cornerstone of IHL. With the benefit of the precise definitions set out in Additional Protocol I, the updated commentary on Article 12 confirms that the decisive criteria for determin- ing whether a member of the armedforces is wounded or sick are that the person is in need of medical care, no matter the gravity of the condition, and refrains from any act of hostility. 43
11. Under the law of international armed conflict it is only combatants and military objectives that are permissible objects of attack. Formally, the purpose of Article 4(A) of the Third Geneva Convention (GC III) is to delineate the criteria for determining who can be regarded prisoners of war (POW) under international humanitarian law but, importantly, it has become well accepted that this provision also provides the criteria for determining lawful combatancy during international armed conflict. Article 4(A)(1) provides that combatants include those members of the regular armedforces of a state. In addition, Article 4(A)(2) extends combatancy status to irregular armedforces that belong to a party to the conflict. The rationale for this provision is to extend the privileges associated with lawful combatancy to irregular forces such as the resistance movements that operated during the Second World War (the French resistance, Jewish resistance etc.) which, whilst not officially incorporated into the armedforces of a state, exhibited characteristics and performed tasks closely resembling such forces. 18 It is only those members of these groups that
Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 928 Not only that, it has been revealed that “the Islamic State in Syria (ISIS), and the former Al- Qaeda affiliate in Syria, Jabhat al-Nusra, which changed its name to JabhatFath al-Sham, were responsible for systematic and widespread violations, including targeting civilians with artillery, kidnappings, and executions. Non-state armed groups opposing the government also carried out serious abuses including indiscriminate attacks against civilians, using child soldiers, kidnapping, unlawfully blocking humanitarian aid, and torture” (Human Rights Watch, 2017). One implication of this is that the humanitarian crisis in Syria is fuelled by both state and non-state actors.