The aim of our simulation was to explore the implications of particular assumptions about the processes underlying the acquisition of attitudes. Our two studies demonstrate that asymmetries between positive and negative attitudes follow directly from relatively simple assumptions about the context in which people gain experience of their world. The most fundamental of these is that individuals make choices based on their expectations of outcomes, i.e. that they will approach things they expect to be good and give pleasure, and avoid things they expect to be bad and give pain. So long as these precondi- tions prevail, individuals who adopt an exploration strategy resembling that simulated here will tend to manage to identify sufficiently safe and rewarding regions of their life-space, albeit at the price of leaving some other potentially rewarding regions unexplored. Hence, for such individuals, positive experiences will tend to predominate over negative ones and, if we believe Parducci (1984), this will lead to feelings of happiness. Indeed, on average, people do seem to describe themselves as above average in happiness (Klar
Study 2: Los Angeles Ballot Proposition Campaign
Data and Protocols
Study 2 was conducted in Los Angeles, California, where a different nonprofit organization targeted minority voters of all adult ages in an effort to boost support for two statewide ballot propositions. One ballot proposition aimed at relaxing the “three-strikes” law, by making it so that only a violent offense on the “third strike” would qualify for a life sentence. The other proposition would have required that large companies pay at least 80% of employees’ health insurance. Study 2 differs from Study 1 in a number of important ways. First, the negative message focuses exclusively on losses and costs, while the positive frame only focuses on gains and benefits. In this way, Study 2 is more consistent with the sorts of frames used in laboratory experiments, especially those in psychology that find that negative frames are more persuasive than positive frames even when both frames advocate the same result (cf. Levin et al., 1998, pp. 167-178). Second, Study 2 investigates the impact of framing on voting preferences with respect to a ballot proposition. In this way, Study 2 mini mizes the confounding influence of partisan and image cues that may be present in studies of candidate vote choice. Finally, Study 2 included a control group that received neither a positive nor a negative frame, allowing us to test the overall effectiveness of the frames—not just their effectiveness relative to one another.
The Gideon narrative in Judges 6-7 adds several new elements to the stereotypical judge cycle: the faith development of the judge; a retrospective of the Exodus as a distant memory; the destruction of a local Baal shrine; and an angelic revelation. Despite these features, however, the overall effect of Judges 6-7 is fundamentally the same as the preceding narratives. The Israelites had sinned and therefore suffered years of oppression. After the people cried out, God appointed a savior. Gideon organized an army and led the people to victory. The land then enjoyed an extensive period of peace. Following the pattern noted for the earlier judges, one would expect the Gideon narrative to conclude at the end of Chapter 7, closing with a formulaic statement that the land was tranquil for 40 years (as it finally does in 8:28). This does not happen, though. Chapter 8 adds new variables to the Book of Judges, and to Gideon's career. It appears that every act in Chapter 8 was intended to be ambiguous: each can be both justified and criticized. Chapter 9 seems to separate out the two opposite constituents of a complex Gideon into the personalities of his two sons. Jotham reflected Gideon's most positive aspects, while Abimelech reflected the most negative. In this essay, we will briefly survey these issues in Chapters 8-9, and then consider how Gideon's career is the key turning point in the Book of Judges.
Key words: Positive learning, negative learning
This paper analyses the results of a random survey of IT professionals in Ireland and Silicon Valley. The participants had graduated at least five years before the survey was undertaken. Using a notional score of 100% for modules taken in their year of graduation, they were asked to rate their current knowledge. A current score of 125% indicates that a participant has acquired 25% additional knowledge/proficiency in the area (positive learning), while a score of 75% indicates that he/she has forgotten previous knowledge/proficiency (negative learning).
Technology is becoming increasingly present in the lives of young children. Everywhere they turn technology is an important part of their lives. It has played a big role in changing the way our children learn, get entertained and how they interact with their friends. Besides, it has also impacted their level of creativeness and how they behave in society. Without any doubt, technologies are invented to make our lives much easier and better. Children as young as three years old had been exposed to different kinds of technology such as computer, video games, play station, IPod, IPad and so on compared to kids in era of 1980s or 1990s. Many technological companies are inventing technological tools for kids as they know these tools are high in demand among everyone whether young or old. Nowadays, more young children know how to play a computer game than riding a bike. In 2006, 90% of parents said that their children younger than 2 years old own some type of electronic device. On the other hand, a survey carried out in 2010 says that two-third of children aged 4 to 7 had used iPhone. Technology is changing the phase of childhood. It is difficult for kids today to imagine life without computers, the Internet, cellphones, video games and the other devices they routinely use. Sometimes these devices are taken for granted by most people especially children. This technology has both positive and negative impacts on our children. As much as technology has changed the way our kids learn or entertain themselves, it has also affected their ability to learn and have real entertainment with their friends. It is not bad to give our children technological tools like iPad, video games, computers or other devices but there must be someone to guide them on how to use this technology and set limits on when to use specific technological tools.
Accepted for publication April 5, 2001
The distinction between deleterious, neutral, and adaptive mutations is a fundamental problem in the study of molecular evolution. Two significant quantities are the fraction of DNA variation in natural populations that is deleterious and destined to be eliminated and the fraction of fixed differences between species driven by positive Darwinian selection. We estimate these quantities using the large number of human genes for which there are polymorphism and divergence data. The fraction of amino acid mutations that is neutral is estimated to be 0.20 from the ratio of common amino acid (A) to synonymous (S) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at frequencies of ⱖ15%. Among the 80% of amino acid mutations that are deleterious at least 20% of them are only slightly deleterious and often attain frequencies of 1–10%.
Conclusion. It would be extremely helpful if central banks could count on other
policymakers, particularly fiscal policymakers, to take on some of the burden of stabilizing the economy during the next recession. Since that can’t be assured, and since the current low-interest-rate environment may persist, there are good reasons for the Fed and other central bankers to consider changes in their policy frameworks. The option of raising the inflation target should be part of that discussion. But, as I have argued in this post, it is premature to rule out alternative or potentially complementary approaches, including the possibility of using negative interest rates.
The literature is dominated by the requirement that r and p should be positive. What provides for this? Since a is non-negative it has a positive maximal eigenvalue λ , making 1+r positive but not necessarily r. It also defines, to within a constant of proportionality, a positive row eigenvector p which can be identified as the equilibrium price, and a positive column eigenvector q, to which we will return. The latter represents a scale on which industries could produce to provide for so-called balanced growth – including negative growth – where every industry shrinks or expands in the same ratio as the proportions of each commodity in the net product.
Emoce, text-mining, umělá inteligence, Big Data, Spark, Java, n-gramy
As information and communication technology develops swiftly, amount of information produced by various sources grows as well. Sorting and obtaining knowledge from this data requires significant effort which is not ensured easily by a human, meaning machine processing is taking place. Acquiring emotion from text data is an interesting area of re- search and it’s going through considerable expansion while being used widely. Purpose of this thesis is to create a system for positive and negative emotion detection from text along with evaluation of its performance. System was created with Java programming language and it allows training with use of large amount of data (known as Big Data), exploiting Spark library. Thesis describes structure and handling text from database used as source of input data. Classificator model was created with use of Support Vector Machines and optimized by the n-grams method.
A typical rule in the rule base of a traditional fuzzy system contains only positive rules (weight is positive). In this case, mining algorithms only search for positive associations like
“IF A Then do B”, while negative associations such as “IF A Then do not do B” are ignored.
The concept of fuzzy sets was introduced by Zadeh in 1965 as a mathematical tool able to model the partial memberships. Since then, fuzzy set theory (Zadeh, 1973) has found a promising field of application in the domain of image processing, as fuzziness is an intrinsic property of images and the natural outcome of many image processing techniques. The interest in using fuzzy rule-based models arises from the fact that they provide a good platform to deal with noisy, imprecise or incomplete information which is often handled exquisitely by the human-cognition system.
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worksheets are five problems with different groups of fractions. Nosotros we use for ordering positive and numbers
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Table 2. Overall results on pre-and post-test.
This study indicates that the two lessons (L1 and L2) became similar, in terms of the critical features brought up. In this study a particular student, in the study named Felicia was struggling to understand the meaning of the signs when dealing with addition and subtraction of negative numbers. The questions raised by Felicia in her interacting with the teacher, striving for understanding, contributes to that the teacher must bring up aspects of negative numbers that was taken for granted by the teacher or that the teacher had not intended to bring up during the lesson. This study could be examples of at least two different phenomena. The first one is as an analysis of how students are opening up dimensions of variation by asking questions about the object of learning. But it could also be seen as an example of the difficulties that a student gets in when the necessary critical features are missing in the lesson. In my analysis of the data I have combined them both. My analysis implies that it is because of the difficulties of understanding that Felicia gets in that makes a space for asking the questions about the object of learning. These questions have an impact on the critical features brought up in the lesson and the dimensions of variation that the students could discern during that lesson. This analysis does not imply that it is in any way better to exclude critical features for learning a particular content in a lesson. But in this special case the questions raised by Felicia made an impact on what it was possible to learn.
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He argues that such ‘pessimistic’ repetitive contingency planning was highly valuable, enabling him to forge ‘the strongest possible armor to defend against fear: hard-won competence’ (p.54).
Self-esteem and humility
Our second dichotomy is self-esteem and humility (close, if not perfect, antonyms). Generally, high levels of self-esteem are more conducive to wellbeing than low levels: a prospective study by Trzesniewski et al. (2006) found that adolescents with low self-esteem were liable to greater criminality, worse job prospects, and poorer mental and physical health in adulthood. However, there are parallels between the pitfalls of optimism and high self-esteem (indeed, self-esteem might almost be regarded as an optimism of the self). As with optimism, the risks of self-esteem were recognised by some PP scholars from the outset; for instance, Seligman (1995, p.27) felt that widespread attempts by parents and teachers to boost self-esteem was ‘making this generation of children more vulnerable to depression,’ since children would inevitably suffer if and when their own positive self-appraisals were later punctured by the blunt realities of competitive life in adulthood. Moreover, inflated self-assessments can lead to people attempting tasks that exceed their capacities, leading potentially to failure; this can be particularly
From the data presented in figures 2, 4 and 5 a clear con- sistent picture emerges. When exposed to 'negative ions' the principal bactericidal mechanism affecting most of the test species appears to be oxidation damage arising from exposure to ozone. This is clearly evident from Figure 5 which shows the reduction in the microbial population primarily due to the action of ozone. This finding echoes that of Shargawi et al. , who when working with Cand- ida albicans found a strong correlation between cell death and the level of ozone present. The results achieved with the mica plate in place reinforce the opinion that ozone played an important role in the inactivation of most of the species tested. The results in Figure 4 indicate that for Reduction in viability of bacteria following positive energisation of the electrodes