The developmental models on positive relations between youth and educational settings have increasingly been areas of interest for researchers, educators and developmental psychologists indicating that to have each and every individual ready to learn and instructors motivated to teach; academic achievement and psychological well-being of youth require an approach of bonding model in education for today`s diverse learner needs. In this regard, vigorous research together with a robust theoretical base provided by AttachmentTheory was investigated as basis of the present study in obtaining an in depth analysis of healthy process of School Psychology for practitioners, psychologists and counselors through a focus on theoretical framework of Social Control Theory. Such an approach would not only help to develop a profound look into the betterment of educational and psychological services but also provide an essential insight into predictors for strong, healthy, academic development of adolescents. Present study, primarily aims at providing Theoretical Framework of Bonding Models through analysis of Social Control Theory as to conceptualize adolescents` experiences and their attachment levels in order to prevent the risks of delinquent behavior with four major variables; attachment, commitment, involvement and belief. The study also focused on how these variables helped building bonding models of attachment in regard of its relation with fundamentals of attachmenttheory and its development into new directions.
anonymous screening survey comprised informed consent. Those who were willing to participate in initial interviews were asked to provide their e-mail address at the end of the screening survey for me to contact them if they met criteria for further participation. To reduce any potential bias in answering the questions truthfully, the researcher did not divulge the criteria required for further participation. In response to the final question of the screening survey, 90 participants provided their e-mail addresses and indicated they were interested in participating in the interview portion of the research. Of those 90 participants, 34 participants met the criteria for participation in the study. Seven participants were selected based on their RPT or RPT-S credential, ethnicity, geographical location, ability and willingness to participate, perceived frequency of incorporating knowledge of AttachmentTheory within their treatment planning process, and exposure to a minimum of 18 clock hours of education in AttachmentTheory. It was anticipated that play therapy professionals who were educated in AttachmentTheory, who also integrated such knowledge into their clinical practice, would be able to contribute to the development of a theoretical framework that described the overall process of incorporation of AttachmentTheory into practice. These criteria for purposeful sampling ensured that participants had the ability and knowledge to contribute to the overall development of the target theoretical framework of the study. Of interested participants, individuals with the most education and experience in AttachmentTheory were selected for the first round of interviews.
Based on our mediation analyses the association between relationship style and match in a primary care specialty is fully mediated by the patient centered specialty choice fac- tor. This supports the recognition that personality factors are associated with face-valid questions about medical practice preferences. Assessing relationship styles of pro- spective residents may serve as a useful tool in screening and recruiting program candidates who are well matched for satisfying careers in their chosen specialty. The use of relationship style questionnaires based on attachmenttheory may also characterize behavioral aspects of provid- ers within the patient-provider relationship. Medical stu- dents sorted themselves into a range of responses regarding their perception of the importance of patient centered practices. Previous studies have shown that patients with self-reliant style are less likely to collaborate, to provide information , and are less likely to adhere to treatment . The relationship style of providers may thus play an important role in the interactions that occur between patient and provider. Patients often see several primary care providers until they find a provider they are "comfortable" with; the matching of patient and provider relationship styles is unquestionably an important factor in this sense of "comfort".
The novel assertion that Parental Control is associated with attachment is also significant at the social level within the community of attachment researchers, because it challenges a humanistic optimism which underlies attachmenttheory. Holmes (1996) speaks of Bowlby, the founder of AttachmentTheory as having an “Enlightenment view of man as essentially good, cooperative and free; perverted by social insecurity and defective parenting”. Holmes may overstate his case, since Bowlby (1969/1997) recognises the role of aggression and inhibition in primate behaviour, whilst more recent writers such as Belsky (1999) show how insecure attachment styles are adaptive rather than perverted responses to social insecurity and “defective” parenting. Nevertheless, Attachment Theorists’ message to date has been that only warm and responsive parenting promotes secure attachment in children (de Wolff & van Ijzendoom, 1997). This resonates with a humanistic optimism dating back to Rousseau (1738) in which “man is naturally good”, so that liberality and warmth are sufficient for that natural goodness to unfold. By contrast, work within the tradition of parenting research, particularly that of Baumrind (1966), has always balanced the need for warmth with the need to “socialise” children, in order to control their natural antisocial impulses and encourage their drive towards com m union This may be partly why AttachmentTheory and parenting research tend to occupy distinct camps. If research can show that Parental Control is important for attachment, it may promote an accommodation between the fields of AttachmentTheory and parenting research.
theory can be traced back to the s and s, but for- mal presentations of their research and hypotheses started in and extended through the s. In the years since Bowlby and Ainsworth’s initial work in attachmenttheory, its basic premises have become well recognized and largely accepted into mainstream psychology and into popular culture as well. More recent theoretical and research interests have been directed toward “the relation- ship between parent–child attachment and adult rela- tionships and psychopathology” (Berman & Sperling, , pp. –; for other examples, see Bretherton, ; Hazen & Shaver, ; Simonelli, Ray, & Pincus, ). If anyone doubts the impact attachmenttheory has had on psychology during the past ﬁfty years, one has only to go to the World Wide Web to discover the volume of books, journal articles, and essays currently available. For example, a Google search of “attachmenttheory” pro- duced ,, hits. The same search at Academic Search Premier yielded , hits of articles currently in the data base; , of those were published within the last ten years. Also, the Barnes and Noble website (www.barnesandnoble.com) lists book titles related to attachmenttheory. Attachmenttheory is covered rou- tinely in current textbooks in social, child, adult, and life–span development psychologies. In fact, Simonelli, Ray, and Pincus () write, “Attachmenttheory has become the dominant approach in understanding inter- personal relationships.”
26 reinforce a view of the line manager as central to contemporary HR strategy (e.g. Maxwell and Watson 2006). Although HR and career scholars recognize the importance of line managers in employees’ career development (e.g. Bowen and Hall 1977; Crawshaw 2006), little is known about why some line managers are more effective career managers than others, or the implications of this for employees (e.g. Yarnall 1998). Applying attachmenttheory revealed that the nature and role of - previously acknowledged but under-researched - relational processes in the employee-line manager career management interface can be usefully understood as attachment and caregiving processes, the quality (i.e. security) of which have important implications for employee career management. Hence, these findings contribute much needed empirical evidence to the careers and attachment literatures, showing that (over and above global attachment orientations), dyadic attachment-relational dynamics are important in promoting broader trust in the organization which, in turn, has implications for the development of positive employee career attitudes and behaviors. The research also complements dominant career stage (e.g. Super 1990) protean (e.g. Hall 1976) and boundaryless (e.g. Arthur 1994; Rodrigues and Guest 2010) approaches in the wider careers literature by introducing a new relational/interpersonal perspective.
The distinction between analogue and typical cognitivist representations like (discrete, arbitrary) symbols is important because analogue representations are much less flexible, are tied to the physical (embodied) properties of the medium in which they are im- plemented, and cannot easily be used to reason generally about a space of all possible actions. So analogue computation relies on a physical or embodied substrate in a manner in which discrete symbol processing computations do not. These distinctions matter for computational modelling of attachment behaviour in artificial systems and for clinicians who are concerned to activate, de-activate, measure and transform attachment repre- sentations as part of research or therapy with humans (Dallos, 2006). Many attachment responses are non-linguistic reactions to ongoing dynamic interplay between attached partners, and may be effectively mediated by less flexible analogue representations. Lin- guistic reflection on attachment issues will require a more flexible representation. What interconnections are required (if any) between these kinds of representation is an area re- quiring further research. It may be that mechanisms for adaptive behavioural control and mechanisms for conscious linguistic reflection operate in parallel without any ‘cross-talk’. That Bowlby would invoke analogue computation and representations in his first for- mulation of IWMs might seem surprising given the contemporary predominance of the linguistic/symbolic approach to IWMs in AttachmentTheory. It is in part explained by the waning popularity of analogue computers and cybernetic notions. In the period between the end of the second world war and the late 1960s when Bowlby’s initially adoption of the working models concept, digital computing had gained a leading posi- tion but analogue computing and cybernetic theories remained a significant alternative to digital computing and the new Artificial Intelligence approach (Boden, 2006; Small, 2000). In addition, the seeming change in emphasis from analogue representations in 1969 to symbolic in 1982 may not represent a completely radical change in Bowlby’s concep- tualisation because Bowlby was vague in the representational details he proposed. As Bretherton and Mulholland note, Bowlby’s formulation of the representational basis for attachment “was a promising conceptual framework to be filled in by others” ((Bretherton & Munholland, 2008), p 103). However, perhaps the key issue was that in the 1960s Arti- ficial Intelligence was less prominent in comparison with Cybernetics than it would be in the future. So the cybernetic view on issues like meaning and control held greater sway. This was consequential because researchers in Cybernetics under-emphasised representa- tional distinctions and the challenges arising from consideration of high level processes. As Boden notes:
The Casullo´s method works empirically with both concepts consists on an application of the scale Bartholomew (1990). This scale was applied in 800 adults, 50% of masculine sex and the remaining 50% feminine between 30 and 60 years of age. Although, the obtained results validated the theoretical construction on the attachment systems in Ainsworth (1974), Main (2001), Bowlby (1989) and Hazan-Shaver (1990), the point which Casullo may not solve is the relationship of a theory based on empirically observations in children and the relationship with in mature people. Even Casullo referred the problem in her state of art, the Attachment development is not considering what Schutz named “the biography determined by contextual situation” or the historical experience of an ego. In this point, not only Ana Freud but also Melanie Klein stressed, a couple of decades back, attachmenttheory has several problems to be applied on clinic scope. (Vemengo, 2005)
To test the hypothesis that there would be place and interpersonal attachment style differences in the composition of environmental networks (Hypothesis 1), Pearson correlations were computed between the place and interpersonal attachment styles and the Environmental Network Questionnaire (see Table 7.13). To construct the Environmental Network, as described earlier, participants were asked to list five environments which they share a close emotional connection to. A total of eight environments were listed overall. Only those participants who listed each environment were included in each set of correlations, hence the n‘s for these analyses varied between 67 and 91. What is interesting about the results shown in Table 7.13 are the consistencies of association within environments, and the contrasts between them, relative to secure versus insecure attachments (as highlighted by the boxed enclosures). This section will discuss these findings in relation to attachmenttheory.
practitioners and theorists, and to further find out what attachmenttheory might ‘mean’ in the context of my music therapy practice in this placement. I recognized that as an embedded researcher I would be the source and filter of most of my data, and the discovery of meaning in my research would be constructed through a process of personal involvement and engagement (Wheeler & Kenny, in Wheeler, 2005, p.65) framed by my own cultural background and values. The significance of this could not be underestimated given that this particular context, being so focused on birth, mothering and vulnerable mothers and babies, would inevitably trigger my own responses and biases, and that both the identification and analysis of my findings, would be made through the strong lens of my own values and life experiences. I had already used a reflective journal which had given the opportunity to explore the nature of the data, and my own personal reaction to it. However within the actual subsequent research analysis process, I also needed to ensure reflexivity, a process of consistent self-inquiry and disclosure (Wheeler, 2005, p.247), in peer discussion and consultation with my research supervisor and others. To this end I kept a second journal to record personal thoughts and reactions as they arose during the research process (Bruscia, 2005), helping ensure that I took ‘ownership and responsibility’ for my ‘perspectives, assumptions, motives, values and interests’(Wheeler, 2005, p.246).
In summary, this study addresses CSEC, a multibillion-dollar industry in the United States with over 240,000 victims, some who are younger than 12 years old (Reid & Jones, 2011). The study provides some insights about the nature of the pimping relationship between sex traffickers and victims through the lens of attachmenttheory. The study replicates and extends on previous studies that identify risk factors (e.g., history of abuse, lack of positive relationships with adults) associated with CSEC by providing evidence that attachmenttheory can be useful in describing potential mechanisms by which early family dysfunction makes some children and adolescents vulnerable to entering into relationships with pimps. The stakeholders describe CSEC victims, who because of their history of abuse and a lack of positive attachment figures, develop perceptions of self and other that can make them vulnerable to traffickers’ entrapment and enmeshment strategies and trauma bonding. The stakeholders’ responses support that attachmenttheory is useful in identifying a pattern of risk and protective factors that can help understand the dynamics of the pimping
Findings suggested that attachmenttheory provided a useful framework and language for observing and understanding the interactive behaviours and external and personal structures that appeared to work for or against mother-infant bonding. In addition, the music therapy programme seemed a particularly suitable vehicle for promoting positive mother-infant bonding. However it was found that although the music therapy programme may have been helpful in a positive mother-infant bonding process, there was no evidence to suggest that this would necessarily extend to promoting a secure attachment relationship, given the personal, structural and legal factors associated with the high ‘at-risk’ context.
1973/1998, p.292). According to the theory, attachment can be defined by three key features: firstly, the search for proximity to a preferred individual and a need to maintain it; secondly, the development of a secure base that facilitates exploration and curiosity; and thirdly, the experience of distress on separation and grief at loss. The whole process acts like a system whereby the infant stays close to the caregiver especially where there is threat, and seeks a response from the attachment figure to restore proximity. The emotional closeness, the secure base, is defended against any threat in the form of separation or loss. The physical and emotional closeness to the caregiver generates feelings of safety and security and separation from the caregiver causes distress and insecurity. Although all human beings are born with the capacity to seek proximity and comfort from protective others there are individual differences in the context of relationships from birth on. Positive exchanges with an available and responsive attachment figure promote a sense of secure attachment, and lead to the formation of feelings of security and positive self-image, which are considered to be optimal for successful functioning in relationships and prerequisites for mental health (Bowlby, 1977). Research in this area shows that attachment security is associated with greater psychological well-being, higher self-esteem, and higher work and relationship satisfaction (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2003; Shaver & Mikulincer, 2002). The more the child experiences sensitive and responsive interactions with the caregiver the more positive and empathic adult relationships will be (Bowlby, 1973). Longitudinal studies such as the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (MSPC, 1975) indicated that children with secure attachment histories tend to be more socially competent, self- assured than children with insecure interactions with parents. They had a greater sense of self-agency and higher capacity to join trusting and non-hostile relationships as adults than those children with insecure attachment histories.
Although it has been argued that insecure attachment and dissociation map onto specific symptom-related pathways to psychotic illness, it has yet to be explored how these two phenomena interact in individuals with psychosis. This might be expected to be especially important in the case of paranoia, given that insecure attachment is known to be important in beliefs about persecution, and given the recent finding that depersonalisation and paranoia are associated (Černis et al., 2014). Outside the field of psychosis, it has been proposed that individuals who develop disorganised attachment in childhood are more prone to dissociate to trauma in later life (Liotti, 2004; Liotti 2006; Lyons-Ruth, 2003), suggesting a complex interaction between the two processes. Liotti (2004) has even proposed that disorganised attachment is essentially a form of dissociation. We were therefore interested in examining whether dissociation interacts with insecure attachment and how they jointly effect paranoia, and whether any association between the two mechanisms relates to the anxious or the avoidant attachment dimensions.
Over the past three decades there has also been emerging interest in relation to the broad topic of place attachment. Research has indicated that the concept incorporates: strong emotional bonds to place; memories and other cognitive interpretations that provide meaning to the experience of place; and anxiety or concern associated with separation or removal from a particular place (Low & Altman, 1992). Although scientific investigation of interpersonal
Attachmenttheory appears to differ radically from psychoanalytic drive-theory. It is rich in empirical data when compared with the latter. It also embraces some of the concepts of cognitive psychology, particularly in relation to the idea of internal working-models. It is not a theory of stages at which the individual can become fixated or to which he can regress. Bowlby sees it rather as a model in which the individual can progress along one or another of an array of developmental pathways. Some of these are compatible with healthy development, while others deviate in directions which are incompatible with psychological integration and mental health. It is a theory which draws on what might be considered as areas of research which are worlds apart: ethology and psychoanalysis. Perhaps this diversity gives it a certain robustness. It is a field in which research continues apace, particularly in the useful area of the consequences, only fairly recently being taken m o r e .seriously, of the long-term effects of separation of infants from their permanent caregivers.
Wachtel (2008) provides a contemporary account of working relationally. Although Wachtel conceives relational theory as a response to the one-person frame in psychoanalysis, it has relevance to other therapeutic approaches. Firstly, relational theory assumes that each participant in an encounter brings particular psychological structures, some of which are brought into play, depending on the context or events within the encounter. These psychological structures both change and are changed by the context. Secondly, relational theory rests on the assumption that anxiety lies at the core of psychic distress. Instead of facing the patient with the truth underlying his thoughts, feelings and behaviours, relational theory emphasises helping him to overcome his anxiety. Certainly, it remains necessary to expose him to his anxiety by interpreting what he is avoiding or experiencing in an unacknowledged way. Beyond this, however, the patient must be helped to face his anxiety with the emotional participation of the therapist to become experientially persuaded that facing his anxiety will not threaten the foundational relationships in his life. Therefore, the therapist must meaningfully engage with, see and relate to the patient’s distress within a psychological framework that acknowledges the reciprocal causality of each participant on the quality of the relationship. The relational approach is a natural extension of attachmenttheory in that it involves developing the therapeutic relationship as a secure base from which the patient can experience and absorb the emotional challenge entailed in mastering his anxiety. Wallin (2007) refers to the synergy of integrating attachment and relational theories because they identify close relationships as the crucibles in which human relationships are shaped and, potentially, healed.