With the inclusion of the medication effect, the signifi- cance of the association of ADHD with TV and SPORTS was lost. This suggests that these associations could be due to a behavior related factor that could be monitored. However, the results from the model utilizing medica- tion effect may not be totally reliable due to limitations in the medication variable as collected in the NCSH. First, the survey question does not collect information about past medication use for ADHD because of which a child who was diagnosed with ADHD in the past and hence took medication in the past would be categorized into the ADHD-NCM group. While this group is sup- posed to include only those children who satisfy the conditions of having ADHD and not taking medication for ADHD concurrently. This limitation is similar in es- sence to the one elucidated earlier due to the cross- sectional nature of the survey. Secondly, the unweighted sample sizes for ADHD-NCM (1,690) and ADHD-CM (3,735) groups do not add up to the total number of ADHD-diagnosed children (7,137 from Table 1) due to missing values for the medication use question. Al- though our bivariate analysis showed obesity to be sig- nificantly associated with ADHD, this was not the case in the multivariate analysis irrespective of whether medi- cation use was considered, contrary to some previous studies [18,21,22,24]. Following Waring and Lapane , who had analyzed the NCSH 2003 data, we fitted a model using the same data and with the following subset of variables: sex, race, DEP, ANX, POVERTY, age, and BMI, and the dependent variable as the trichotomized ADHD with medication classification, and indeed found obesity to be significantly associated in this model. However, with the addition of even one or two of the remaining variables, the significance of this association was lost. Thus, our study shows that obesity per se may not have a direct association with ADHD and hence sheds a new light on this research topic.
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serious neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with deterioration in various domains of major life activities. However, various exceptional cases with the disorder may be observed functioning well in some areas of life (e.g., Michael Phelps and swimming, Ty Pennington and destroying and rebuilding houses, Glenn Beck and political commentary, etc.), they probably have conflicts with other areas of functioning (DWIs, managing money, social relationships, etc.) But even if well-altered, these exceptional success stories do not represent the more typical reactions of children with ADHD followed to adulthood. It is one of the most difficult diagnoses to classify as evident from changing definition norm observed in the revisions of Diagnostic and statistical manual (APA 1980, APA 1987, APA 1994). ADHD is reportedly the most pervasive disorder of childhood influencing approximately 3% to 5% of school-aged children with prevalence rates increasing significantly over the past two decades (Pastor & Reuben, 2008; Timimi & Radcliffe, 2005). Children with ADHD struggle with symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, or impulsivity above and beyond what is developmentally appropriate. ADHA is diagnosed in childhood, most of the children diagnosed with ADHD exhibit symptoms that persist into adolescence and adulthood (Langley et al., 2010).
A syndemic is two or more afflictions, interacting synergistically and contributing to an excess burden of disease. The syndemic theory holds that psycho- social problems frequently co-occur, interact and mu- tually reinforce each other, thereby increasing high risk behaviours and co-occurring diseases . Accord- ing to the syndemic theory that explains the increased risk on STI in MSM, he following domains can con- tribute to risk behaviour: drug use, mental health problems, stigma, past or present abuse, and discrim- ination . Sex related drug use is high among MSM in our MS2 cohort , and sex-related drug use is associated with STI [5, 6], HIV  and high risk behaviour  In addition, MSM report elevated levels of mental health problems, including Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), depressive episodes, obsessive-compulsive disorder and alcohol and drug dependence [8, 9]. If however, co-occurring psycho- social problems were assessed and treated, it might decrease high risk behaviours and co-occurring diseases.
Abstract—Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a complex neurological disorder with a lack of an official scientific understanding of its genetic nature and the potential causes. However, there are practical research data that points to certain directions. In this paper, we examine the possible ex- ternal causes of the disorder and specifically ones whose influence is related to pregnancy and (early) childhood years. Children born prematurely and/or with low birth weight are at high risk of developing ADHD. Maternal smoking, al- cohol consumption and psychological disorders during pregnancy were proven to play a part as well. Some special social and economic situations raised the risk of appearance in the minors experiencing them. Electronics are a factor of distraction to children and were found to exacerbate symptoms. Most important- ly, parenting choices can be determinant for a child with the disorder. A solu- tion often proposed for symptoms of this nature is medication. Nonetheless, there were many defects and risks found within the psychostimulants used for the disorder. Alternative treatments are proposed before reaching for medica- tion, two very effective ones being brain training and meditation.
The presence of oppositional behavior and, consequently, the development of a conduct disorder elevate the risk of developing an antisocial personality disorder . In adults with ADHD, these symptoms are often exhibited in the form of aggressive traffic behavior, delinquency, and as substance and alcohol abuse [64-66]. The domain of delinquency in particular plays a significant role, with dif- ferent studies highlighting the relation of ADHD, comor- bid antisocial personality disorder and delinquent behavior [25,67,68]. In their study on 129 male inmates, Rösler et al. reported a 45% prevalence rate of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV criteria. Hereby, the ADHD sub- types  were distributed as follows: 21.7% of the com- bined type, 21.7% of the predominantly hyperactive- impulsive type and 1.6% of the predominantly inattentive type. With the exception of the last type, all results were significant compared to a control group. Regarding anti- social personality disorder, the authors detected a preva- lence rate of 9.3%, whereas among the control group, no person suffered from an antisocial personality disorder. This difference is not statistically significant, but rather reflects a tendency. The strongest relationship between ADHD and antisocial personality disorder was reported for the group of inmates who exhibited conduct disorder . This is of special interest with regard to the frequent
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The association between ADHD and allergic diseases has been a source of public and clinical concern. The epidemiological research suggests that allergic diseases may increase the risk of ADHD in children, especially allergic rhinitis . Treatment for AR may have a posi- tive effect on behavior . Children with ADHD and allergic disease may have a common biological back- ground . A number of studies have suggested a link between allergies and ADHD, such as food allergies and neuropsychiatric conditions  or immune disorder . ADHD symptoms among children with allergic dis- eases including allergic rhinitis have been reported . Conversely, allergic symptoms in children with ADHD have also been reported . In our cross-sectional study, we demonstrated that AR with ADHD had more severe nasal symptoms than children without ADHD, in accordance with other research . The single factor analysis found that there is no significant correlation between the number of allergens and the symptoms of ADHD, which was similar to a population-based case- control study . The study showed that the associ- ation between allergic diseases and ADHD was occurred mostly due to house dust mites only, but not in other types of allergens. Further evaluation and follow-up study are needed for the conclusion. In addition, our study further showed that family history and whether or not combined with other allergic diseases were not sig- nificantly associated with ADHD.
Scuitto, Nolfi, and Bluhn (2004) investigated the effects of child gender and ADHD symptom type on 199 elementary school teachers' referral decisions by having the teacher read a profile of a fictional child’s academic record and then rate on a likert scale the likelihood of referring the child for evaluation. Results showed that when presented with the same symptom profile, teachers were far more likely to refer a boy than a girl for psychological evaluation, regardless of symptom type, and especially when the child exhibited hyperactivity without inattention or aggression (Scuitto et al. 2004). Rater bias by teachers and parents has been thought to be one of the contributing factors to the under-identification of ADHD in girls (Rucklidge, 2008).
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10. Schoeman R, Liebenberg R. The South African Society of Psychiatrists/Psychiatry Manage- ment Group management guidelines for adult attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. S Afr J Psychiat. 2017;23(0), a1060. https://doi.org/10.4102/ sajpsychiatry.v23i0.1060. 11. Katzman MA, Bilkey TS, Chokka PR, et al. Adult ADHD and comorbid disorders: clinical im-
familial pattern [15–17]. Most previous epidemiological studies have been cross-sectional prevalence studies with very different methodologies, ranging from population- based screening studies to clinical studies. Therefore, it is difficult to compare their findings and draw conclusions about changes in incidence of new cases over time. A Danish register-based study reported no increase in OCD incidence in 2007 . Later a similar register study showed an increase of 100–667% in the incidence of OCD in different Nordic countries during the 10 years of follow-up, but did not report gender-specific findings . Comorbidity with other psychiatric and neurodevelop- mental disorders is common in OCD and rates between 67 and 92% have been reported in clinical and population screening studies [20–24]. The most common comorbidi- ties include anxiety and mood disorders, psychotic disor- ders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tic disorders [5, 20–24]. Comorbidity with tic disorders has particularly been associated with male predominance [22–24]. Up until now there are no register-based studies reporting overall gender-specific comorbidities in OCD.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to establish the prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems among Juvenile girls incarcerated in the two rehabilitation centers. The researcher sampled the only two girls public rehabilitation centers, at Kirigiti and Dagoretti schools. Studies on Juvenile delinquent have shown an overlap between delinquency and psychiatric disorder. The study sample had a total of 78 purposely selected adolescents in the two rehabilitation centers. The research found high prevalence of behavioral and emotional problems among girls incarcerated in the two schools. These Juvenile need psychological treatment as a key rehabilitation measure. Quantitative method was used to collect the data through the use of questionnaires and Achnbach Youth self report. YSR 11-18 years. The result of this study provided significant insight on behavioral and emotional problems; depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) . The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.
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The current study seeks to understand the coping strategies used by single mothers who have children with ADHD. There is a paucity of literature that focuses on parental coping and ADHD (Bailey, Barton & Vignola, 1999) and minimal research was found specifically on single mothers o f children with ADHD. Expanding this knowledge base will assist professionals in planning appropriate interventions when working with clients who could benefit from information in this area. Knowledge acquisition about effective coping strategies could also assist in alleviating single mothers’ stress in dealing with their children’s difficult behaviour. Understanding how having a child with ADHD impacts on parental coping and management style can give clinicians some constructive guidance when counselling these parents (Bailey et al., 1999). More effective coping strategies can lead to healthier family functioning, thus fostering more positive outcomes for children w ith A D H D .
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Among the environmental factors that are suspected to be associated with ADHD, lead exposure has been im- plicated in the etiology of ADHD . Lead is a neurotoxic heavy metal that is widely present in the environment. Common sources of lead exposure include lead-based paint from buildings and toys, vehicle exhaust fumes, water from leaded pipes, secondhand smoke, and air pol- lution. Because the nervous systems of children are more vulnerable than those of adults to the neurotoxic effects of lead, even low levels of lead can affect neurodevelopment in children . Children absorb lead more readily than adults, and lead crosses the blood-brain barrier more easily in children . Some studies documented a link between lead and ADHD pathophysiology. The brain re- gions that are most vulnerable to lead exposure are the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cere- bellum . Dysfunctions of these regions have been postu- lated to be involved in ADHD pathophysiology . Findings from animal studies have demonstrated that lead exposure affect dopamine metabolism and decrease dopa- mine receptor binding in the striatum [8, 9]. Reduced dopamine activity in striatum has been implicated in the core symptoms of ADHD [10, 11]. Overall, these studies revealed that lead adversely affects the dopamine system in the prefrontal-striatal network, which is linked to the core pathophysiology of ADHD.
The 2 most common developmental disabilities of school-aged children are attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disabilities, with preva- lence rates of 3%-7% and 5%-10%, respectively [1,2]. Of the children diagnosed with learning disabilities, over 80% have a reading disability or dyslexia . Epidemio- logical and clinical studies suggest that 15%-40% of chil- dren with ADHD have concurrent reading disability [4,5]. While these 2 conditions can occur concurrently, the exact nature of the relationship between ADHD and dyslexia is not completely clear. Several studies based on Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria report that academic problems and learning disabilities are more common among children with the predominantly inattentive and combined sub- types of ADHD . The impairment in adaptive function conferred independently by ADHD and dyslexia com- pounds significantly when there are sufficient symptoms to diagnose both conditions. There has also been some speculation based on differential response to ADHD phar- macotherapy that the co-occurrence of ADHD and dys- lexia is more related to the inattentive subtype of ADHD, and reduction in hyperactive symptoms alone may not correlate with significant change in reading competency .
Last but not least, higher ST scores were found in ADHD subjects compared to controls. Moreover, ST positively correlated with ADHD severity in adulthood. In agreement with previous reports, these results support the idea that ADHD subjects tend to be spiritual, satisfied, modest and self-forgetful [17, 18]. Intriguingly, high ST scores have been found in several psychiatric entities suggesting that ST may be a vulnerability trait for neuropsychiatric disorders. In the Cloninger’s theory, high ST combined with low scores on the two other characters is associated with schizotypal and paranoid symptoms and may provide a good proxy for the existence of a personal- ity disorder . It has to be kept in mind that spirituality and religion may help patients to cope with their illness. If this has been more deeply investigated for disorders such as schizophrenia, this has not been investigated in relation to ADHD and further researches are needed in this field .
Methods: Teachers completed screening questionnaires for ADHD, ASD, and development level for 36- to 72-month-old children in kindergartens in Taiwan. The questionnaire results were compared between the aboriginal and nonaboriginal children. One child psychiatrist then interviewed the aboriginal preschool children to determine if they had ADHD and/or ASD. Results: We collected 93 questionnaires from the aboriginal group and 60 from the nonaboriginal group. In the aboriginal group, 5.37% of the children were identified to have ADHD, while 1.08% were identified to have ASD. Significantly fewer aboriginal children had developmental delays for situation comprehension and personal–social development (P=0.012 and 0.002, respectively) than nonaboriginal children.
The incidence of psychiatric disorders in children is on a rise to the extent that it is to become one of the main causes of morbidity in children. Psychiatric disorders in children are very common in India as in other countries. The psychiatric disorders which affect certain of the mental activities of the Children, which interfere with their development, slow down their education and compromise their future by repercussions on their day by day quality of life. The Indian Scenario shows that Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder is the developmental disease with the highest incidence. In India there is very little systematic research documented on ADHD in children. The disease can devastate the life of the child as it can persist into adulthood leading to problems in socialization and employment. The shortcomings of the modern medicine have always placed greater responsibilities on the Ayurveda for providing effective management in such difficult to treat disorders when it comes to mental health the Ayurvedic concept of Shirodhara is a ray of hope for establishing the health of ailing Manas.
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Abbreviations: ABC, Aberrant Behavior Checklist; ABC-H, Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Hyperactivity Scale; ADHD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD-RS-IV, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale-IV; ADHDRS-IV-Parent:Inv, ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent-Version:Investigator-Administered and Scored; ADHDRS- IV-Teacher-Version, ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Teacher-Version; ADHD-RS, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; ATX, atomoxetine; cb-CPT, computer-based continuous performance test; CBTT, Corsi Block Tapping Test; CD, conduct disorder; CDRS, Children’s Depression Rating Scale; CDRS-R, Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised; CGI, Clinical Global Impression; CGI-ADHD-S, Clinical Global Impression-Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder- Severity; CGi-S, Clinical Global impression-Severity; CGi-Tic/Neuro-S, CGi Tic/Neurologic Severity Scale; CHQ, Child Health Questionnaire; CPRS-R:S, Conners’ Parent Rating Scale-Revised Short Form; CTRS-R:S, Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale-Revised Short Form; DSM-iv, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition; iQ, intelligence quotient; KiNDL-R, Revidierter KiNDer Lebensqualitätsfragebogen; K-SCT, Kiddie-Sluggish Cognitive Tempo; K-TeA, Kaufman Test of educational Achievement; MASC, Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; MDD, major depressive disorder; Mi/CBT, motivational interviewing/cognitive behavioral therapy; MT, infrared motion tracking device; NNTs, numbers needed to treat; ODD, oppositional defiant disorder; PARS, Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale; PBO, placebo; PDD, pervasive developmental disorder; PGi-ADHD-S, Physician Global impression: ADHD Severity; Pts, patients; RCT, randomized clinical trial; RD, reading disorder; SNAP-iv, Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Rating Scale-Revised; SSRT, Stop Signal Reaction Time; SUD, substance use disorder; vADPRS, vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating scale; wMTB-C, working Memory Test Battery for Children; YGTSS, Yale Global Tic Severity Scale; YMRS, Young Mania Rating Scale.
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The higher prevalence of ADHD in males that has been reported in other studies [7, 8, 15, 16, 20] was not found in this study. There was a slightly higher prevalence in this study although not statistically significant. The higher prevalence of the inattentive subtype found in this study may account for the slight female preponderance observed since the inattentive subtype has been known to occur more commonly in females.  Furthermore, since girls in our culture are expected to be quieter, while boys are expected to be rowdier, perhaps the more severe cases are more easily identified by teachers in the gender in which this behavior is less expected, especially in the classroom setting. Earlier studies on the other hand, may have had a bias towards males as boys might be seen as the more prototypical ADHD child and therefore diagnosed with ADHD more readily than girls.
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent childhood and adolescent psychological disorder, with recent prevalence estimates at 9% in the United States for youth between the ages of eight and 15 years of age (Merkingas et al., 2010), higher than that of Mood Disorders (MD), Conduct Disorder, Anxiety Disorders (AD), and Eating Disorders. ADHD is not only highly prevalent but also globally impairing. ADHD is associated with significant impairment across children’s social, cognitive, academic, behavioral, and familial functioning (Mash & Barkley, 2003). Taken together, it is no surprise that ADHD is one of the most economically costly psychological disorders, with annual societal costs of $42.5 billion dollars (Pelham, Foster, & Robb, 2007). However, not all children with ADHD experience similar amounts of impairment. Faraone, Sergeant, Gillberg, & Biederman (2003) reviewed 50 epidemiological studies and found that a substantial number of children (as high as 10% in one national sample) exhibited clinically elevated levels of ADHD symptoms yet were not experiencing severe functional impairment. Hence, identifying which factors contribute to this discrepancy in impairment rates is critical to the clinical care of youth with ADHD in terms of not only contributing to more thorough evidence-based assessments, but also in helping clinicians develop more appropriate targets for treatment.
brain is more susceptible to the environmental impact than the adult’ s brain due to increased plasticity . Thus, injuries and some neurological diseases are over- come by children faster and easier than by adults. Several studies indicate that the peak of brain plasticity is reached within the first 7 years of life , although the potential is likely to be lifelong. For example, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) open trial of young healthy adults found that training working memory resulted in an increased brain activity in the dorsolateral, prefrontal, and parietal association cortex, indicating plasticity of the neural system . These cortical areas are overlapping the prefrontal regions, which are likely implicated in the pathology of ADHD [36, 37]. Despite the hypothesis that children under the age of 7 have better neuroplasticity and therefore may benefit more from cognitive training as compared to older children, we have not identified any studies investigating the effect of cognitive training in dif- ferent age groups.
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