This research required the development of an instrument to accurately measure the relationship between various independent variables and ACC athletes’ expressed behaviors and attitudes related to sexual orientation. A 43-question survey was created to investigate respondents’ sexual-orientation behaviors and attitudes. In order to assess the instrument’s construct validity, several professors, from various universities, were asked to evaluate the survey. Leading researchers, Dr. Robert Malekoff of Boston College University and Dr. Richard Southall of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, determined the survey would measure what it was intended to measure. The survey was adapted from a survey used in a previous study investigating the same relationships (Southall et al., 2009). That survey’s scales and questions were derived from previous campus-climate studies, as well as
categorized as the most common eating-associated disease in children and adolescents was possible to be both cause and result regarding eating attitudes and behaviors in this study. Overweight could be a cause resulting in body dissatisfaction and abnormal eating attitude/behavior, because obese people usually face job discrimination, social exploitation and mistreatment by health care providers, those being the medical student’s own colleagues. 18
The positive behavior of the clinical students re ﬂ ected by a better response in items (4, 5, 12, 14, and 18). Similarly, the clinical students exhibited signi ﬁ cantly superior responses regarding item 13, and the comparable result established among Sudanese Dental Students. 34 Conversely, the clinical students displayed comparable outcomes to the preclinical students regarding items 1, 2, 3, 9, 10 and 11. The result for item15 and item 16 was fairly near in preclinical and clinical students with a somewhat improved response in the clinical group. Entertainingly, the preclinical students had extra con- cern than the clinical students with item 7 and item 8 which was similar to the result instituted in studies on dental stu- dents in Istanbul (Turkey) 23 and Sudan 34 and this attributable to the fact that the clinical students had much information to conquer the previous concern than the preclinical students. 34 Even though some thoughts might have proposed that students ’ quali ﬁ cations might in ﬂ uence their oral health attitude irrespective of the acquaintance they had earned, Khami et al, 35 stated that “ Education and training in pre- ventive measures should be effective enough to overcome background characteristics. ” Generally, the females in our study provided improved periodontal Health Attitudes and Behaviors in several aspects than male dental students. It should point out that 59.6% of dental students in this study were females re ﬂ ecting the greater number of females linked to males entering the dental ﬁ eld in Iraq. This high percentage of females in the dental ﬁ eld furthermore established in further studies in Greece and Croatia. 9,24 Greater plaque and gingival indices observed in male dental students could indicate this behavior. This result is
To each question about psychiatric staff’s attitudes as well as self-reported behaviors, a response category with a 5-point ordinal scale was offered. In the analysis of each item’s mean, the translated answer “unsure” was removed to ensure that the nature of the ordinal scale was not affected in German version, as the German re- sponse can mean both “I am not sure” and “I have no idea”. Therefore, the possible mean scores could range from 1.0 to 4.0. Solely the occupational significant difference was additionally tested including the reply “un- sure” to avoid any loss of information. It yielded no further significant difference.
Research measures. Three instruments were used to measure the two constructs being studied. In order to increase construct validity two instruments were used to measure eating behaviors. The first construct, eating behaviors was assessed using both the Eating Attitudes Test 26 (EAT-26) and the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Questionnaire Revised (MAC R). Eating disordered behaviors are defined as behaviors that anorexic and bulimic persons engage in that normal control persons do not, for example purging. The second construct, gay identity development level was measured using the Gay Identity Questionnaire (GIQ). Although participants will be responsible for identifying their sexual orientation in the demographic portion of the survey, for the purposes of this study gay males were defined as men who prefer men to women for romantic and sexual partnerships. Bisexual males were defined as men who have and interest in engaging with either men or women in regards to romantic or sexual partnerships. Participants were also given the option of checking other. This was included to encourage participants whom were not comfortable identifying as gay or bisexual to participate in the study.
something about the contribution for organizations and industries. Entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors are high on the agenda in organizations nowadays. Much research is done on this subject, but till now, we know little about how such attitudes and behaviors are developed in employees other than via training (De Jong, 2007). Work has become more knowledge-based and less rigidly defined. In this context it means that employees are able to 'help' the organization by generating (innovative) ideas for example. There are a few studies conducted, who focused on a single leadership perspective only. But, leadership plays a dominant role in the workplace, so this research tries to identify multiple leadership styles which seem to be suited. So, different leadership perspectives will be highlighted, which might be interesting to know, because the expectation is that in different kind of organizations and industries (type, size etc.), different kind of leadership behaviors are applicable and appropriate. This research suggests multiple ways in which organizations can stimulate, enhance and increase the level of the innovativeness' of employees by adopting a certain leadership style and by showing leadership behaviors that are suitable in different kind of situations.
There are a significant number of duties to be executed by nurses and midwives regarding breast cancer. Therefore, it was aimed to select midwives and nurses serving in the primary health care services as the target population of the study to determine their levels of knowledge and to increase their levels of knowledge as a priority if needed. The purpose of this research was to analyze the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the nurses and midwives about the early diag- nosis of breast cancer.
The present study was conducted to assess the attitudes and behaviors of practicing community pharmacists towards patient counselling and use of patient information leaflets in the state of Karnataka. Convenient sampling method was adopted to collect the responses with the help of self-completion questionnaires. A total of 258 practicing community pharmacists in the age group of 22–60 y of both gender with practicing experience of 2-30 y participated in the study. Majority of respondents (80%) agreed that, patient counselling is their professional obligation. About 17% of the respondents mentioned that, they try to give basic information regarding drug usage to the patient. The reasons stated by the pharmacists to provide patient counselling were, professional satisfaction (43%), patients go with satisfaction (32%), observed increase in sales (8%), and also improved patient compliance (7.5%). The major barriers for offering patient counselling were mentioned as pharmacists’ inadequate knowledge and confidence (78%), doctor dispensing (72%), no professional fee (56%), poor response from patients (82%), inadequate continuous professional development programs (75%). Many respondents agreed that, patient information leaflets certainly help in counselling but available information leaflets are company generated and prescriber focused. Many respondents found the present continuing professional development module was useful and are interested in weekend workshops to update their professional knowledge (83%). Restrictions on doctor dispensing, legalization of patient counselling, regular continuing professional development programs are the factors observed to motivate the pharmacists to offer patient counselling.
The three chapters of this dissertation collectively assess how HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes are behaviors are changing in Malawi. The first chapter assesses how married individuals use knowledge of HIV status to make behavioral changes to reduce HIV risk or make decisions about divorce. Instrumental variable models controlling for selection into HIV testing are estimated using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). Results indicate that knowledge of HIV status does not affect chances of divorce but does reduce the number of reported sexual partners among HIV-positive respondents, and increases reported condom use with spouses for both HIV-negative and HIV-positive respondents. The goals of the second and third chapters are to dig beneath behavior itself and look at how potential behavioral changes are motivated, as well as how basic HIV knowledge has changed. Chapter 2 examines ways that HIV prevention efforts may have changed beliefs and attitudes towards HIV risk and HIV prevention, in particular attitudes towards a woman's right to protect against HIV risk. Using MLSFH data, I compare participants and non-participants in a program providing extensive HIV counseling and testing. Results suggest that
This study measured people’s beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward animal releasing by our ques- tionnaires. To measure beliefs of and attitudes toward animal releasing, the study evaluated participant’s level of agreement on qualities related to animal releasing according to their perception, feeling and experience. To measure how much people know about animal releasing, this study measured the relevant facts and level of knowledge of animal releasing. To understand people’s behavior, this study measured the participant’s expe- riences of animal releasing. The participants’ demographic data was also collected.
For the creation of item pool of “Perceived Coach Attitudes and Behaviors Scale”, initially, the relevant national and international literature were thoroughly reviewed (Teatro (2014), Güven and Öncü (2012), Gearity (2012), Dolaşır Tuncel and Büyüköztürk (2009), Gilbert and Trudel (2004), Tharp and Gallimore (1976). Afterwards the literature review process, semi-structured interviews were prepared and conducted with athletes who attended the tournaments organized by the sports federations in 2017. As a result of the interviews, coach’s sufficiency, communication with the athletes, characteristics of coach and fairness emerged as important main themes.
An examination of the factors that influence reliability in eating disorder assessment can facilitate an under- standing of how sample characteristics may contribute to variability in score quality. For example, other factors being equal, a heterogeneous set of participants will pro- duce higher score reliability than a more homogenous group of participants . Participant characteristics such as the type of sample, age and gender should be consid- ered in evaluating score reliability. Other study factors potentially impacting test score reliability are sample size, type of reliability, culture/ethnicity, test format, test length, and test language. By identifying the conditions under which a test’s scores display higher or lower reli- ability, researchers will be able to tailor future studies about eating disordered attitudes and behaviors to con- ditions that will maximize score reliability and thereby yield additional control over one factor that influences effect sizes. Thus, in the present study we used RG pro- cedures to study the mean score reliability for different versions of the EDI and the EAT to explore how score reliability of these eating disorder measures varies across studies, and explore the study characteristics that ac- count for this variation.
The current study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of GME leadership, researchers, faculty and residents from 6 residency programs as part of the Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers’ National Initiative V on health care disparities. The study was designed to assess the individual and combined impact of two types of intervention –– an educational intervention led by faculty and a behavioral intervention driven by residents –– on resident physicians’ knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding health care disparities. Although previous interventions have demonstrated positive impacts on residents’ understanding of and attitudes toward health care disparities, few have utilized or compared multiple types of interventions nor have they focused on residents as drivers of change.
Regarding behaviors, the results showed that DHH students were more likely to not stop once a date said no or once they were already sexually aroused. One possible explanation for these findings could stem from communication barriers and delays in sexual literacy for the DHH. Davis (2007) suggests members of the Deaf community have their own culture, language and history and therefore depending on their involvement in the Deaf community may interpret different sayings, phrases, actions, feelings differently. This may be applied directly to issues of sexual communication between partners. In addition, previous research has found that compared to hearing peers, DHH often have limited sexual education and knowledge and often rely on Deaf peers and stereotypes in media and on television for information on sexuality and sexual health. This more limited sexual knowledge can in turn impact attitudes and behaviors, and highlight the need for targeted sexual health and education.
Computer-enriched instruction (CEI) has played an important role in language curriculums for Iranian schools and university over two decades; however, few researchers rare focused on this applicable tool from students’ views. Based on theories of human agency, it is essential to know peoples’ attitudes and acceptance of the information technology (Rogers, 1983). Hence, this paper explores university students’ attitudes on the widespread teaching and learning approaches utilizing computer-enriched language learning in the subject university in mainland Iran. Data was collected by using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Current computer-related behaviors were investigated by using a questionnaire; while their attitudes towards the application of (CEI) in universities was further explored by adopting a semi-structured interview. On the one hand, the results of the survey present that students do not use computers to assist their English learning. However, on the other hand, the interviews indicate that students hold a positive attitude on applying (CEI) in English classes if efficient guidance is available. It suggests that more accompanied trainings and workshops would be provided in Iranian mainland universities for university students to improve their capacities of applying (CEI) to their English learning.
Abstract: Women in developing countries are at high risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unplanned pregnancy. The female condom (FC) is an effective dual protective method regarded as a tool for woman’s empowerment, yet supply and uptake are limited. Numerous individual, socioeconomic, and cultural factors influence uptake of new contraceptive methods. We reviewed studies of FC knowledge, attitudes, practices, and behaviors across develop- ing countries, as well as available country-level survey data, in order to identify overarching trends and themes. High acceptability was documented in studies conducted in diverse settings among male and female FC users, with FCs frequently compared favorably to male condoms. Furthermore, FC introduction has been shown to increase the proportion of “protected” sex acts in study populations, by offering couples additional choice. However, available national survey data showed low uptake with no strong association with method awareness, as well as inconsistent patterns of use between countries. We identified a large number of method attri- butes and contextual factors influencing FC use/nonuse, most of which were perceived both positively and negatively by different groups and between settings. Male partner objection was the most pervasive factor preventing initial and continued use. Importantly, most problems could be overcome with practice and adequate support. These findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for contextual factors impacting demand in FC programming at a local level. Ongoing access to counseling for initial FC users and adopters is likely to play a critical role in successful introduction.
A 70 item standardized interview protocol was specifically designed and used for this study, based on the initial questionnaire of the pilot study. Both open and multiple choice questions were used and their face validity was deemed as high by a panel of judges. The variety of question and answer formats did not allow the use of traditional analyses of the psychometric properties of the instrument which was much closer in form and contents to a survey. The interview protocol yielded both quantitative and qualitative information on demographics, family structure, time management, attitudes, behaviors and beliefs about school, along with data on children’s school achievement and overall adaptation. Amalgamated school records and demographic information were obtained through the school boards and various government agencies.
A remarkable finding was that the health care pro- viders were one of the most frequently consulted infor- mation sources on the vaccination by the respondents, followed by mass media, and friends or family. As ex- pected, information delivered from a health care pro- vider is effective, because these respondents had a significantly greater level of knowledge about the vaccine compared with those who had received advice from other sources. The result that physician recommenda- tion is a key predictor of knowledge about vaccination underline the fact that they are in an unique position in conveying and acquiring knowledge and in educating and recommending the vaccine. The findings further support that they are an important and trustworthy source of information for parents regarding childhood vaccinations. Thus, educating parents regarding the vari- cella and the vaccination to acquire information from health care providers is paramount in order to encourage such population to vaccinate their child. Other research has demonstrated the importance of the physician in determining parent ’ s knowledge of vaccin- ation for themselves or their child and of preventive health behaviors [9, 11, 16–18, 20, 21, 32–43]. However, it should be noted that health care providers had no ef- fect on the decision of the parents to vaccinate their child although those who had received information on the vaccination from this source were likely to have a positive attitude towards the utility of the vaccine. It is therefore essential that health care providers should be aware of their role in communicating with parents re- garding varicella vaccine and they must take advantage of every encounter to inform parents in line with the ad- vice of health authorities also because one of the most important reasons for declining vaccination was that they had not recommended it.
Factors three and four were retained as attributes (i.e. peer trust and conscious help- seeking). In the interviews used for the survey design, too fine a distinction may have been made when measuring the attribute “peer trust”. The affective dimension of peer trust was separate from the reliability dimension. The observed patterns from the factor analysis show these two dimensions may be strongly related. This result suggests that peer trust can be measured, but different items need to be used than suggested from the interviews. The fourth factor, “conscious help-seeking”, was from the research. The two items in this attribute were originally included to measure student attitudes toward their program and toward their instructors respectively.
Sexual content on television has been shown to have significant impacts on sexual attitudes and behaviours of people, especially among teenagers. Consequently, numerous studies have been conducted over the last decade to examine the connection among these areas, among other goals. Also, it is an attempt to analyze the connection between sexual attitudes and behaviours of teens and sexual content on television, as well as the dissatisfaction created, as a result of the high levels of these contents. 80 students were included in this study, conveniently selected from three schools in the city of Klina. The hypothesis is that portrayals of sex on television lead adolescents to sexual relationships. In addition, high levels of sexual content push teens to dissatisfaction with their sexual experiences. From the obtained results, it is concluded that, although TV provides consi- derable levels of sexual content, it does not encourage teenagers to early sexual intercourse, but if TV shows such content in high levels, then teenagers can be disappointed with their experience and have health as well as social problems.