Bio-active marine organism Streptomyces.fradiae is studied for its various physicochemical parameters by adopting methods like Gram’s staining, Acid fast staining, Motility test, Endospore staining, Indole production, Methyl Red and Voges-Proskauer (MR-VP) test, citrate utilization, Urease production, Carbohydrate fermentation, Triple sugar iron (TSI) test, Oxidase test, Catalase test, Nitrate reduction test , Melanin production, Xanthine/hypoxanthine/esculin/arbutin hydrolysis,Gelatin/casein/cellulose/ starch/tween20/tween 80 hydrolysis, Chitin/pectin hydrolysis,Haemoglobin hydrolysis. These studies prove that marine S.fradiae showed both positive and negative results for the above physiochemical studies.
Environmental threats are now-a-days becoming more important and valuable due to environmental stress on every organism. Similarly the threat the concerned is also faced by the Agriculture commodities. To focus on the said environmental stress on agriculture sector, an experiment was conducted to assess; evaluate and examine the effect of sea weeds bio-active substance on crops for adoption of an integrated approach to address the said problem. For the purpose concerned an integrated approach was adopted for the mechanism; its application techniques and over all effects of certain bio- active substances on the crops. To evaluate; assess and examine the effects of sea weeds bio-active substance, a sample which was soluble sea weeds extracts powder namely Alga-600 and this task used in extracted from brown sea weeds - Sargassum. Through bio
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of Bio-active glass gel when in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. 30 patients with dentinal hypersensitivity symptoms (positive to airblast stimuli, cold stimuli and tactile stimuli and having a VAS score of 3 and above) were recruited from the private dental clinic, Hyderabad. Study is split mouth, double blinded, parallel arm in design. At baseline, response to all stimuli in both the groups was non-significant and immediate after application and post 1 week, Bioactive glass group showed statistically significant reduction in VAS scores. The study concluded that the Bioactive gel is safe and efficacious in treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity symptom without producing any adverse effects.
The objective of this study to determine the bioactive and pharmaceutical components of the Chloroform extract of a poly herbal formulation Nalla Marunthu. The phytoconstituents of Chloroform extract of a poly herbal formulation of Nalla marunthu were analysed by GC-MS. Our results indicate that the presence of 48 phyto constituents of a poly herbal formulation of Nalla marunthu. Medicinal plants have been exhaustively studied for their potential value as a source of drugs. Obviously natural products will continue to be extremely important as sources of medicinal agents.
Many synthetic insecticides have been found effective against stored product pests but proved to be hazardous to men and domestic animals. In addition, the risk of developing insect resistance and the high cost-benefit ratio of synthetic insecticide have posed enough evidence for the urgent need to find alternative insecticides. There should be more concentrated efforts on the search for active natural products from plants as alternatives to conventional insecticides since most researches have proved that plant materials and local traditional methods are much safer than chemical insecticides. The above listed constraints are very surmountable if the needed commitment is given both individually and collectively. Hence, there is urgent need to go into researches on some of these mentioned botanicals, to facilitate further proves and invariably adoptions for both internal use and extension. There is the need for Nigeria to develop her own botanical pesticide industry and train the young entomologists and biochemists in the specialized area of pesticide toxicology, for the formulation of bio-active pesticides.
Some observations indicate that colonies of Pectinatella magnifica contain such kinds of bio- active substances which have not been described and identified yet and which not only show anti- biotic and anti-predatory features, but at the same exhibit long-term stability, which is also supported by the fact that the necrotic gelatinous corm, so- called matrix, can persist in water reservoirs from August until late March of the following year. It is also interesting that there is evidence suggests that the bryozoan Pectinatella magnifica is mainly found in mesotrophic or oligotrophic waters, often used for recreational purposes. The presence of this species can be easily observed if the colonies spread and reach large proportions so that it comes to a mass occurrence. Provided that this happens, then the issues of safety and potential health risks, as well as the issue of impact of mass occurrence of Pectinatella magnifica on the fish population, espe- cially during the summer months, which is not yet known, will become a topic of frequent discussion. The presence (or the activity) of so far uniden- tified substances was examined and studied in a biological test carried out in vitro on animal cells. It is hoped that the results of this research will form a basis for follow-up studies on these substances.
It is intended to commence a commercialisation process for at least one agricultural application. The process is expected to involve the development by DPI&F of a Prospectus with which to seek competitive bids from potential Commercialisation Partners. It is expected that DPI&F and a selected Commercialisation Partner will complete the development of a commercial, cost effective, alternative control tool to some uses of currently registered insecticidal products, for example, the abovementioned Confidor® 200 SC. Prior to the recent development of resistance, this product was economic to use at a grower purchase cost of about $200/L. Currently, the indicated use rate of crude extract ‘C’ for whitefly is 0.1% which is four times the registered, previously-effective use rate for Confidor® 200 SC, suggesting that crude extract ‘C’ could be valued at $50/L competitively with Confidor® 200 SC (before resistance developed to the latter). Even at $50/L, at 1.7% yield on a dry matter basis, cypress sawdust at 35% moisture content would produce steam distilled oil valued at more than $500 per tonne of fresh sawdust. However, formulations containing crude extract ‘C’ have not yet been tested at lower use rates, raising possibilities of greater cost effectiveness. Additionally, it offers commercial opportunities as components in IPM systems, for organic production systems, and where pests have developed resistance to imidacloprid or other current active ingredients. On the other hand, as imidacloprid has recently emerged from patent protection, cheaper sources of this active ingredient and cheaper alternatives to Confidor® 200 SC are appearing in the marketplace. While this may reduce the potential selling price of a cypress extract based competitor product, it is likely to also increase the usage of imidacloprid in agriculture and consequently to increase the rate of development of resistance of agricultural pest insects. These complex interacting market-related considerations are best analysed by potential commercialisation partners as part of the intended commercialisation process. To facilitate this process, a draft Australian patent application covering a range of envisaged agricultural and veterinary pest management methods is currently being assessed by attorneys for suitability for submission to IP Australia. It will be the responsibility of the Commercialisation Partner to propose target food and/or non-food markets, develop a Commercialisation Plan, identify and meet additional data needs, and undertake the required registration process.
Some bacteriocins including nisin, lacticins, pediocins and diolococcin produced by microorganisms are capable of developing activity in order to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms (Branen, 1993). Particularly, nisin is an effective bactericidal against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and it has been accepted as a food additive by the FDA and WHO (Helander et al., 2001). In addition, nisin has surface-active molecules that may be suitable for adsorption to solid surface used for antibacterial packaging (Branen,. 1993). The activity and release of nisin from the film strongly depends on pH and temperature; precisely a lower pH and a higher temperature were most effective for the migration from the film (Brackett, 2002). Some other natural bioactive agents, enzymes can be added directly to food product or can be incorporated into packaging material, in which the enzymes must be immobilized (Helander et al., 2001). In the food packaging area, some enzymes such as immobilized naringinase in plastic packaging are intended for reduction of grapefruit bitterness, and lactase is suitable for low-lactose or free-lactose milk, and cholesterol reductase is intended for the hydrolysis of cholesterol in packaged food. (Brackett, 2002).Moreover, enzymes with antimicrobial properties control the amount of oxygen against aerobic bacteria or direct antimicrobial activity into on microorganisms present in packaged food. Natural plant extracts such as grapefruit seed, cinnamon, horseradish and clove have received increasing attention as regards their antimicrobial activity against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, therefore, a great deal of natural extracts is expected due to this advantage when compared to chemical active agents. Grapefruit seed extract has a broad range of antimicrobial activity which was stable at high temperatures of up to 120°C (Brackett, 2002). The horseradish contains volatile allyl isothiocyanate which shows antimicrobial activity against several fungi and bacteria.
Research interest towards herbal medicine grabs major attention in recent times due to its innumerable role in the process of drug discovery. It is evident that traditional medicines contribute as a therapeutic ailment for treating dreadful disease. Present investigation aimed at exploring the major phytocomponents present in the herb Strychnos potatorum (SP) and to screen its possible anti-microbial activity against selective pathogens. Ethanol (EESP), Aqueous (AESP) and Hydro alcoholic (HAESP) extracts were screened using biochemical, GCMS and FTIR analysis. Outcome of the study clearly signifies the presence of bioactive components such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and saponin in the extracts. Results of GCMS justify the existence of ascorbic, oleic and erucic acid in EESP. Further higher level of active components was reports in EESP. FTIR study evidents the presence of major active functional groups in the extracts. Anti-microbial evaluation reveals that the EESP exhibits maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Klebsiella pneumonia. Present study provides an evidence- based data’s with respect to the category and nature of phytocomponents present in the herb Strychnos potatorum and hence the promising anti-microbial activity may due to its biologically active phyto therapeutics which may render beneficial activity against infectious and cardiovascular diseases subjected to proper preclinical justification in near future.
laxative effect [26, 36], playing the most important role in stimulating the intestine and leading to diarrhea . Combined anthraquinone is metabolized into free metabolise in intestinal canal to exerting laxative effect . Sennoside A, the strongest purgative composi- tion, is rarely absorbed in the intestine, most of them reached the colon, metabolized into rhein anthrone and rhein in the intestine . After giving chloram- phenicol, the active of Escherichia coli restrained, the purging effect of sennoside A and C weaken, anthrone in the colon is also greatly reduced . When the free anthraquinone derivatives were injected to the colon of rat, the re-absorption of water and electrolyte would be inhibited, resulted in diarrhea . Most of free anth- raquinones are absorbed before arriving colon. There- fore, combined anthraquinones play drastic effect by means of metabolizing into free anthraquinones. It is thought that anthraquinones can stimulate the nerve plexus within the mucosa and intestinal smooth mus- cles, promoting peristalsis . The rhubarb extractives and the anthraquinone derivatives can antagonize the adrenaline effectively, which can inhibit the contraction of the smooth muscle in vitro system of isolated intes- tine . It also regulates the colon cholinergic neuron of constipating rats . Besides, Rhubarb effectively down-regulates the expression of AQ4P in rat’s proxi- mal colon, and rhein/emodin can suppress the AQ4P expression of LoVo cells in vitro . Sennoside A may decrease AQP3 expression in the colon to inhibit water transport from the luminal to the vascular side, leading to laxation . The mechanism of its purgative activity is summarized as Fig. 5 [3, 9, 38, 44, 45].
ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to isolate and characterize the bioactive constituent from Euphorbia heterophylla and also to evaluate anticancer activity for the isolated compound against Breast cancer cell line (MCF -7 Cell line). The isolation of compound was performed on ethanol extract by using column chromatography and ultra sonicator by gradient elution. The structure of isolated compound was established on the basis of chemical test, thin layer chromatography and spectroscopic evidences. (IR, 1H NMR, 13 C NMR, Liquid chromatography / tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS identification with data base library search). The yellow colour compound shows positive test for flavonoids in Thin layer Chromatography for flavonoids in the solvent system n-butanol: acetic acid: water (2:2:6) with R f value 0.7. From the use of LCMS spectral library search system and TLC
Ziziphus mauritiana is one of the underutilized herbs having potential to heal various ailments. It is reported in the ancient literature that whole plant as fruits, leaves, seed and root possess pharmacological activity. Several polyphenols have been tested in Ziziphus mauritiana. The flavonoid content is important because of the pharmacological properties of these compounds, whereas quercetin has been proved to be an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective compound. A simple reverse phase high- performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the separation and quantitative determination of bioactive constituent of hydroalcoholic extract of Ziziphus mauritiana has been developed and validated. The use of aC-18 column with mobile phase enabled the efficient separation of bioactive constituent of hydroalcoholic extract within a 30 min analysis. The RP-HPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The proposed RP-HPLC method was found to be simple, precise and accurate.