Biodiesel As An Alternative Fuel

Top PDF Biodiesel As An Alternative Fuel:

Simarouba Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for CI Engine: Review

Simarouba Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for CI Engine: Review

ABSTRACT: The depletion of world petroleum reserves and increased environmental concern have stimulated the search of alternative fuel which is to be environment friendly. Bio-fuels have the potential to become alternative fuel for fossil fuels. Biodiesel is renewable, reliable, biodegradable and regarded as a clean alternative fuel to reduce exhaust emissions. The simarouba biodiesel is considered as alternative fuels to diesel. This review has been taken up to identify the performance and emission using simarouba biodiesel.
Show more

5 Read more

Nerium (Adelfa) Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for CI Engine: Review

Nerium (Adelfa) Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for CI Engine: Review

Energy consumption is inevitable for the existence of human beings. Fuels derived from petroleum products have been the most important source of world’s energy and mostly the transportation sector. It is estimated that towards the end of this century, crude oil and petroleum products will become very scarce and costly. Even though the fuel economy of modern engines are improving day by day, the enormous increase in the number of automobiles have started dictating the demand for fuel. It is believed that gasoline and diesel, which are the most widely used fuels these days, will be facing extinction towards the end of this century. So, it is the need of the hour to find other sources of eco-friendly, renewable fuels which can be used as an alternative to the conventional fossil fuels. With increased use and depletion of fossil fuels, alternative fuel technology will become much more common in the years to come. Biodiesels, produced from vegetable oils, has been under research as an alternative fuel for the past few years. Biodiesel can either be used as a sole fuel, known as neat biodiesel or can be blended with petroleum diesel in various proportions for use in diesel engines. Recent researches in this field show that biodiesels can be blended with diesel up to 30% by volume without any modifications to the engine. Further increasing the biodiesel content in the fuel blend requires minor modifications like varying the injection pressure, injection timing, compression ratio etc. In a few foreign countries, B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel) fuel blend has been used widely in compression ignition engines as a partial alternative to petroleum diesel. Biodiesel could be produced from a wide variety of vegetable oils such as Rice bran oil, Coconut oil, Soyabean oil, Sunflower oil, etc. but most of the above are edible oils. As far as a developing country like India is concerned, the use of an edible oil for biodiesel production leads to an imbalance between the food and the fuel sector. So the main criterion to be followed in this case is that the alternative fuel (biodiesel) should be produced from a non- edible vegetable oil. Some of the main non-edible vegetable oils are Jatropha, Pongamia, Mahua, Nerium, Eucalyptus, Castor oil etc. The vegetable oil source from which the biodiesel is derived is selected depending upon their availability in that region of the country. It is estimated that if the farm lands available in the country are properly utilized, India could be a leading producer of biodiesel in the world. Therefore, the use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel would contribute to the overall development of agriculture, economy and environmental sector of the nation.
Show more

6 Read more

Performance of bombax pentandrum and cassia siamea biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

Performance of bombax pentandrum and cassia siamea biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

Biodiesel has established itself as a precisely sufficient alternative fuel for diesel engines. Generators are vital equipment of industry and have a wide usage area in agriculture. Furthermore engine mportance due to their indoor applications. The objective of this study was to investigate the performance and smoke results of Bombax biodiesel utilization in diesel engine. The smoke opacity test was s of biodiesel with Single cylinder, four stroke, air cooled, indirect injection diesel engine, and generator performance tests were performed using 10% blends in a 7.5 KVA (6KW) electrical generator. Consecutive tests on Diesel fuel, B20 and B10 blends of Bombax were conducted, and the results were compared with each other. When compared to Diesel fuel, both utilizations showed improved results on engine Bombax pentandrum and Cassia siamea originated biodiesel can be utilized as a blend component during generator applications in
Show more

5 Read more

Cottonseed oil biodiesel with ethanol as 
		an additive an alternative fuel for diesel engine

Cottonseed oil biodiesel with ethanol as an additive an alternative fuel for diesel engine

Non conventional, alternative and as different energy source of energy, biodiesel attracted many scientists and researchers to consider him as an alternative fuel for automotive sector in last few years by large. Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel, which contains 10 % to 11% oxygen, no aromatics, higher cetane number and reduce harmful pollutants from engine exhaust. Higher viscosity, higher flashpoint, poor cloud point, poor pour point and poor cold filter plugging point of pure biodiesel limits its direct usage as fuel in the diesel engine. So it is required to prepare the blend of biodiesel /diesel with addition of ethanol as an additive in order to improve hot flow and cold flow properties of the blend. Improved hot flow and cold flow properties will enhance engine performance, combustion and exhaust emissions. In the present study feedstock of cottonseed biodiesel/diesel blend is used as fuel with the addition of 5% of ethanol as an additive. Blend properties were investigated as per IS 1448 standards. Experimental investigations were carried out on single cylinder diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. Experimental investigation shows that addition of ethanol improves kinematic viscosity by 7% .cloud point by 9%, and pour point by 10% but density was increased by 3% and calorific value decreased by 9% .Engine performance , combustion characteristics and reduction in emissions , are improved drastically by addition of an ethanol as an additive in the cottonseed biodiesel/diesel blend . Improved hot flow and cold flow properties , improved combustion , improved performance and reduced emissions proves that cottonseed oil biodiesel/diesel blend with ethanol as an additive stands as an alternative fuel for diesel engine.
Show more

8 Read more

Indian Energy Crises and Biodiesel as Renewable Alternative Fuel

Indian Energy Crises and Biodiesel as Renewable Alternative Fuel

To solve dual problems of fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, the renewable fuels with lower environmental impact are necessary. Nowadays, many new fuels have been used and biomass derived fuels are among them. Some of the well known biomass derived fuels are ethanol for gasoline engines and bio-diesel for compression ignition engines. Biodiesel is a renewable and environmental friendly alternative fuel for diesel engine which is produced from variety of vegetable oils and animal fats by the trans-esterification process. Transesterification is a chemical reaction in which vegetable oils and animal fats are reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The products of reaction are fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerine, and the fatty acid alkyl ester is known as biodiesel. Bio-diesel is an oxygenated fuel containing 10% to 11% oxygen by weight. Also it is a sulphur-free fuel. These lead biodiesel to more complete combustion and less harmful exhaust emissions. However, biodiesel fuel has higher viscosity, density, pour point, flash point and cetane number than diesel fuel. Also the energy content or net calorific value of biodiesel is about 12% lower than that of diesel fuel on a mass basis. Using biodiesel can help in reducing the world’s dependence on fossil fuels and also has significant environmental benefits. Using biodiesel instead of the conventional diesel fuel reduces exhaust emissions such as the overall life circle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), particulate matter (PM), carbon
Show more

6 Read more

The production and comparison of fuel properties on biodiesel with alternative fuel : a review

The production and comparison of fuel properties on biodiesel with alternative fuel : a review

The energy is the most of the human existence. Consumption fossil fuels has grown substantially and consumption the energy sources that is seen as having a major environmental impacts. Diminution world oil reserves and increasing environmental concern have induced found alternative and renewable energy resources called biodiesel. Biodiesel fuel from the vegetable oil, regarded as of the best candidate for the substitute diesel fuel in diesel engines because of the characteristics closer. The application of biodiesel has shown a positive impact in resolving these issues. This paper introduces some type of alternative fuel whose oils are potential sources of biodiesel. These types are crude palm oil (CPO), straight vegetable oil (SVO), waste cooking oil (WCO) and Jatrophacurcas(JPO). From the review, fuel properties are found to considerably different on density, viscosity, acid value, water content and flash point as compared with standard diesel. In conclusion, a long period of storage will reduce the quality of biodiesel does not matter what kind of conditions and environments that are exposed to. However, the rate of degradation of biodiesel can be slow if the right circumstances and environment provided.
Show more

5 Read more

Performance Study on Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine using Different Blends of Neem Biodiesel as Alternative Fuel

Performance Study on Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine using Different Blends of Neem Biodiesel as Alternative Fuel

oil crises in the recent times. Therefore attention has been focused on developing the renewable or alternate fuels to replace the petroleum based fuels for transport vehicles. Fossil fuels are still being created today by underground heat and pressure; they are being consumed more rapidly than they are being created. Insufficient quantities or unreasonable price of petroleum fuels deeply concerns us whereas the renewable energy is a promising alternative solution because it is clean and environmentally safe. Due to petroleum fuel, Pollution and accelerating energy consumption have already affected equilibrium of the earth’s landmasses and biodiversity. Since petroleum diesel and gasoline consist of blends of hundreds of different chemicals of varying hydrocarbon chains, many of these are hazardous and toxic. Carbon monoxide (produced when combustion is inefficient or incomplete), nitrogen oxides (produced when combustion occurs at very high temperatures), sulphur oxides (produced when elemental sulphur is present in the fuel), and particulates that are generally produced during combustion are other specific emissions of concern. So it is time to search for its alternative fuels. There are several alternative sources of fuel like vegetable oils, biogas, biomass, primary alcohols which are all renewable in nature. Among these fuels, vegetable oils appear to have an exceptional importance as they are renewable and widely available, biodegradable, non-toxic and environment friendly. The alternative fuel that much closer to diesel engine is ‘biodiesel’. . Shruthi H. Heroor et.al suggested that Biodiesel production from neem oil, which is mono- ester produced using transesterification process. It has high lubricity, clean burning fuel and can be a fuel component for use in existing unmodified diesel engine. The fuel properties of biodiesel including flash point-and fire point were examined. The engine properties and pollutant emissions characteristics under different biodiesel percentages were also studied. The results shows that the biodiesel produced using neem oil could reduce Carbon monoxide and smoke emissions.
Show more

5 Read more

Synthesis and Characterization of Biodiesel from Castor Bean as Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

Synthesis and Characterization of Biodiesel from Castor Bean as Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

Abstract: This paper deals with the transesterification of Ricinus Communis (RC) oil with methanol to produce biodiesel in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. Moreover, this study analysis the fuel properties of RC biodiesel and diesel fuel blend to use castor oil methyl ester as a possible alternative fuel for diesel engines. Various properties of the RC biodiesel and their blends such as density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, saponification number, Cetane number, heating value, flash point and acid value were determined. The experimental results were compared well with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) and European biodiesel standards (EN 14214). The experimental design as well as statistical analysis were done and analyzed using design expert 8.0.7.1 version soft ware. The predicted optimum conditions for castor oil biodiesel production were a reaction temperature of 59.89 0 c, methanol to oil ratio of 8.10:1 and a catalyst of 1.22 wt% of oil. The methyl ester content under these optimum conditions was 94.5% w/w of oil, and all of the measured properties of the biodiesel met the international standards of EN14214 and ASTM D 6751 with the exception of density and viscosity. Therefore, the viscosity and density of the ester was high and further reduced by blending with diesel fuel up to B45 to satisfy within the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 limits for biodiesel.
Show more

15 Read more

Performance Characteristics and Emissions Test on CI Engine using Biodiesel as Alternative Fuel

Performance Characteristics and Emissions Test on CI Engine using Biodiesel as Alternative Fuel

Abstract: The world is confronting the serious issue of consumption of convectional fuels. The availability fuel store will make sustainable power sources assets progressing more attractive. The most possible approach to satisfy this developing need is by utilizing alternative fuel fills. The production of biodiesel from Pongamia oils the properties of raw and their performance in diesel engine. Pongamia oil as biodiesel was tried for their exhibition in IC engine. The biodiesel used in this experiment have different blends like B10%, B20% and B30% and the impact of this biodiesel on diesel engine, performance and emission is investigated.
Show more

6 Read more

Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel

Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel

The problem of global warming seems to be a never ending one. This is mainly due to the emissions caused by excessive use of non-conventional fossil fuels. These fossil fuels are dwindling day by day and it is almost impossible to meet the ever-growing demands of fossil fuels. Many innovations and researches have been made to tackle this problem on a global scale viz. switching to conventional sources of energy such as solar, wind, tidal, nuclear energy etc. apart from these, there are many modern technologies and ideas which are coming up from all around the world, one of which is Biodiesel technology.
Show more

6 Read more

Performance Evaluation of CI Engine using Karanja Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel

Performance Evaluation of CI Engine using Karanja Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel

Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is produced from renewable resources. The use of biodiesel is rapidly increasing around the world, making it incumbent to fully understand its impacts on the diesel engine combustion process and pollutant formation. Biodiesel is known as the mono-alkyl-esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stocks, such as, vegetable oils or animal fats, for use in compression ignition engines. In the present work, the performance of single cylinder water-cooled diesel engine using methyl-ester of Karanja oil as fuel was evaluated for its performance and exhaust emissions. Different blends of Karanja Oil (B5, B10, B15, B20) were compared for their performance characteristics with pure Diesel(B100).The performance was assessed for the parameters viz. Indicated Power, Fuel Consumption, Break Thermal Efficiency, Air fuel Ratio, BSFC(Break Specific Fuel Consumption), Exhaust gas Temperature against different loads.
Show more

7 Read more

Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engines – A Review

Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engines – A Review

Table 1 summarizes several of the most important physical/ chemical properties of biodiesel (FAME)[17,20]. Important properties that are directly related to biodiesel (FAME) itself, and are reported frequently in the literature, include kinematic viscosity (mm2/S), density (kg/I), cloud point (0C), pour point (0C), heating value (MJ/kg), and flash point (0C). All these properties are included in Table 1, along with cetane index (CI), which was reported by many authors. Many researchers have reported that fuel properties of non-edible biodiesels vary depending on their fatty acid and chemical composition. Therefore, before using non-edible-based biodiesels in diesel engines, measuring the fuel properties of selected biodiesels is necessary. The fuel properties of biodiesels are specified by different standardization organizations; the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 [20], ASTM D976 and D4737 [31] are the most popular standards for biodiesel. The following section discusses the fuel properties of the reviewed biodiesels.
Show more

12 Read more

Mahua Biodiesel: A Future Alternative Fuel

Mahua Biodiesel: A Future Alternative Fuel

Biodiesel is monoalkyl ester of long chain fatty acids produced from the transesterification reaction of vegetable oil with alcohol in the presence of catalyst & can be used as fuel. Biodiesel is made from animal fats or vegetable oils, renewable resources that come from plants such as, soybean, sunflowers, corn, olive, peanut, palm, coconut, safflower, canola, sesame, cottonseed, etc. Once these fats or oils are filtered from their hydrocarbons and then combined with alcohol like methanol, biodiesel is brought to life from this chemical reaction. These raw materials can either be mixed with pure diesel to make various proportions, or used alone[2-4]
Show more

5 Read more

Dual Biodiesel Diesel blends Performance on Diesel engine as an Alternative Fuel

Dual Biodiesel Diesel blends Performance on Diesel engine as an Alternative Fuel

The increase on energy demand, environmental concern of the global warming, climate change and increasing petroleum price in worldwide has greatly increased the interest of searching for new fuels as an alternative source to diesel fuel. This is only possible with the use of biodiesel which is a renewable source of energy. Though it is not possible to run a C I Engine on 100% biodiesel like Jetropha and Pongamia but without any modifications the presently available engine can be used to run with the blends of biodiesel and diesel. Biodiesel is long-chain alkyl esters which can be obtained from animal fats and plant seeds [1]. Biodiesel can absorb 78.5% of carbon from the atmosphere and even considered as cleaner than fossil fuels. Transesterification method is a very simple, efficient
Show more

5 Read more

BIODIESEL AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL: A REVIEW

BIODIESEL AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL: A REVIEW

416 | P a g e P. Sreenivas et al. [7] They have produced the biodiesel from castor oil and check the properties of an biodiesel such as viscosity, cetane number, flash point, fire point, density, calorific value etc. And these properties are compared with ASTM (American Society Of Testing & Materials) and Indian Biodiesel standards. They found that viscosity of biodiesel oil is nearer to that of diesel, calorific value of biodiesel is 12% less than that of diesel and it is more lubricating than diesel. Castor oil has viscosity 100 times more than that of diesel. Higher cetane number gives the greater combustibility and short delay interval. Biodiesel have higher flash point so it is safe for transportation and storage purpose.
Show more

7 Read more

Biodiesel: The Future Fuel

Biodiesel: The Future Fuel

automobiles and industrial sectors, in the past few years, the world has started facing severe problems like environmental pollution, ozone layer depletion, global warming. Also the fossil fuels resources are going on decreasing due to which people are becoming aware and thus have started finding new alternative fuel sources. Renewable fuels have received more attention in the last few decades since the fuel demand is constantly increasing. Many research works have been going on so as to use biodiesel as an alternative fuel. Biodiesel is an important and promising field of research because of its environmental friendly and cheaper prices. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which is derived from vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, and waste cooking oil. The largest source of suitable oil comes from oil crops such as palm, soybean, karanja, jatropha, mahua, neem, simarouba etc. the non- edible oils contain the fatty acids like stearic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid etc. Vegetable oils blended in various proportions with diesel are products mostly distributed in the retail diesel fuel marketplace. Depending upon the amount of diesel, the various types of biodiesel are B2 ( 2% biodiesel,98% petro diesel), B5 (5% biodiesel,95% petro diesel), B20 (20% biodiesel,80% petro diesel), B100 ( 100% biodiesel). However, with a high rise on level of biodiesel/diesel blend, it may happen that, this fuel becomes harmful, reducing its life time ,as such there have to be made modifications on vehicles to avoid engine damage. In a developing country like India, it is possible to grow the vegetable oils, but not economically feasible to convert them to methyl esters by the chemical processes. In the present paper the production and emission characteristics of Jatropha oil has been studied.
Show more

6 Read more

Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

Biodiesel from Jatropha Oil as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engine

As shown in the reaction equation below, three moles of methanol react with one mole of triglyceride. In practice, most producers will use at least 100% excess methanol (6:1 molar ratio) to force the reaction equilibrium towards a complete conversion of the oil to biodiesel. The reaction is slowed by mass transfer limitations since at the start of the reaction the methanol is only slightly soluble in the oil and later on, the glycerin is not soluble in the methyl esters. Since the catalyst tends to concentrate in the glycerin, it can become unavailable for the reaction without agitation. A common approach to overcome this issue is to conduct the transesterification in two stages. First, the oil is combined with 75% to 90% of the methanol and catalyst and this mixture is allowed to react to equilibrium. Then, the glycerin that has formed is separated by gravity separation and the remaining 10% to 25% of the methanol and catalyst is added for a second reaction period. At the conclusion of this second reaction period, the remaining glycerin is separated and the biodiesel is ready for further processing. The glycerin separation steps are usually accomplished by gravity settling or with a centrifuge
Show more

6 Read more

Biodiesel originated from Jatropha oil as the alternative fuel for diesel engines

Biodiesel originated from Jatropha oil as the alternative fuel for diesel engines

Although Biodiesel, or "biodiesel", is a fuel produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and cooking oils. Some argue that biodiesel is simply a mixture of unrefined fats and oils mixed with diesel, but if you try to do so and use it for diesel engines, you will immediately have to pay big sums of money to engine repair. In fact, to be used to make biodiesel, oils and fats must be refined into methyl or ethyl ester. In the United States, soybean oil is the most common ingredient for purifying methyl ester, while in Europe and Canada; it is often used to produce biodiesel rapeseed (Canola). During the metabolism of many oils is converted into methyl ester by chemical reaction with methanol (with catalysts such as Na (sodium) or KOH (potassium hydroxide), then water, glycerin, methanol and some Other residues will be separated before biodiesel becomes a qualifying fuel for diesel engines, and there are about 200 biodiesel plants in the US - from Washington state to Iowa to North. Carolina - with a registered capacity of producing about 3 billion gallons of fuel, the industry is supporting nearly 48,000 jobs, generating billions of dollars in GDP, household income and tax revenue. This industry is growing significantly with continued production growth in many areas, from production to transport, agriculture and services.
Show more

5 Read more

Experimental Investigation of Blends of Esterified Coconut Oil and Sunflower Oil in A 4 Stroke CI Engine

Experimental Investigation of Blends of Esterified Coconut Oil and Sunflower Oil in A 4 Stroke CI Engine

Various blends of biodiesel has been prepared as an alternative fuel for diesel and the engine test was carried out. Among these 9 blends of biodiesel, blend showing better overall performance and less pollution to the environment is C–S–B20 which has highest brake power, highest thermal efficiency, highest mechanical efficiency, minimum brake specific fuel consumption and minimum smoke density. This experimental investigation is carried out for a sustainable development strategy in IC engine operation towards better performance, less economical optimization. With the concern for environment growing every day, the project carried out is not only relevant for the protection of our environment but also for our energy security. A new fuel C–S–B20 biodiesel blend can be used which can successfully replace diesel in every manner and cause less harm to the environment.
Show more

10 Read more

Numerical Analysis of the Compression Ratio’s Influence, the Nature of the Fuel and the Injection Feed on the Cylinder Pressure

Numerical Analysis of the Compression Ratio’s Influence, the Nature of the Fuel and the Injection Feed on the Cylinder Pressure

addition of several fuels has been experimented by researchers to improve the performance of biodiesel [3]. It is, therefore, necessary to device strategies to considerably reduce the maximum attainable pressure during combustion. The ever-increasing world population is generating great quantities of waste that could serve as an energy source. The valorization of these waste will not only help reduce global warming caused by methane resulting from the degradation of these waste but also will provide a part solution to the world energy demand. To study diesel engines working under diverse control parameters, experiments can be replaced by numerical simulations which are advantageous as they reduce the time and cost linked to the construction of a prototype and apparatus for the experiments. The numerical simulation of the functioning of a diesel engine is based on mathematical equations describing the different physical processes taking place within the engine cycle. An elaboration of a mathematical model describing combustion in diesel engines gives a possibility of executing multiple optimization schemes and procedures; predict engine behaviour in varied condi- tions; and reduce expenditures of experimental research. The combustion model considered here is the 0D dimensional model [6] (thermodynamic and pheno- menal models) integrated into Python. We go in this work through our model of enhanced combustion biodiesel as alternative fuel and also showed that we can play on the compression ratio and the injection advance to decrease the pressure (temperature) cylinder during combustion so to reduce the quantities of NO x in
Show more

10 Read more

Show all 10000 documents...