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Analysis of biogas transformation in experimental biogas plant

Analysis of biogas transformation in experimental biogas plant

Unfortunately, no direct description of methods or input materials which are used for the most eff ective process of anaerobic fermentation within depicted biogas plant has been found in the papers and articles on the anaerobic fermentation process which were previously published. This also applies to other published results which could be compared to our results regarding the input material of the fermentation process. Pulpous plants with a high content of nitrogen, for example helianthi, rape and maize, are the most frequently recommended for biogas production via co-fermentation (VÁŇA, 2009). The input substrates contain components which grant a high methane yield and thus a high electricity yield as is shown in Pic. 1 and Pic. 3 (input substrates in years 2009 and 2011). Literature claims that the highest biogas yield is obtained by the use of old grease, rape cake, food residues and slaughterhouse waste (FACHAGENTUR NACHWACHSENDE ROHSTOFFE, 2010). We still may only model suitable input substrates and their mutual batching as we are only at the beginning of the experimental biogas plant fi eld test operation monitoring a er intensifi cation and modernization of the fermentation process. The electricity production will depend on the batching in the next monitored period. A gradual increase in electricity production occurs, more than anticipated as Fig. 4 shows. Thus, it may be predicted that this development will continue in biogas plant experimental operation.

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Biogas Plant Owner's Opinion about the Impact of Biogas on Health and Environment in Bangladesh

Biogas Plant Owner's Opinion about the Impact of Biogas on Health and Environment in Bangladesh

The socioeconomic data of the present study revealed that monthly income of most of the biogas plant owner is quite high. The average monthly income in Bangladesh is USD 98 while more than 80% of dairy farmers make USD 162 per month. An earlier study by Shamsuddin et al. [31] reported that dairy and poultry farmers are more solvent group of people in Bangladesh. Our result showed that dairy farmers are making much money still they spend very less in cooking fuel. Eighty six percent respondents spend no money for cooking. Cooking fuels in the rural areas of Bangladesh are predominantly unprocessed bio-fuels, such as fuel-wood, crop residues and animal dung [4]. Females and children usually collect these for cooking. Time spends and physical labor for collection of these bio-fuels is greatly overlooked by the society. There is no data for Bangladesh about how much time female and/ or children spend for collection of fire fuel. Some study from Nepal revealed that females and/ or children could save average 50 to 93 minutes per day after biogas plant installation [32, 33].

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Integrated Process Modelling Of A Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Integrated Process Modelling Of A Thermophilic Biogas Plant

A standard biogas plant layout may be derived by defining an array of components that is capable of executing the major processes (the homogenization or churning of the input mass, the heat rejection and the chemical reaction) involved in biogas production through anaerobic digestion of sewage mass. A typical physical model would seek to accomplish these processes in a minimum number of components. Apparently some existing models execute these processes in one or two components especially those used in gas generation for small scale household utilities like cooking, home heating and other domestic purposes. However, production of biogas for industrial application, power generation and other expanded purposes often requires large amount of biodegradable material whose effective digestion must be enhanced through some thermal and catalytic processes. This fact lead to adaptation of appropriate components designed to achieve this objective in a standard biogas production plant.

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Innovative Practices: Biogas Plant Operation And Maintenance With Efficiency In Mendha-Lekha Village Of Gadchiroli District (M.S.)

Innovative Practices: Biogas Plant Operation And Maintenance With Efficiency In Mendha-Lekha Village Of Gadchiroli District (M.S.)

Gram Sabha, the highest decision making body in Mendha-Lekha village decided to allow people without cattle to collect cow dung from Aakhar (open place where cattle sit) and open place during movement of cattle for grazing. People think that milk obtained from cow belong to calves. Cows and buffaloes are used for agriculture purpose and carrying wood from the forest. Most of the family members are trained for construction and maintenance of Deenbandhu biogas plant (training is provided by Centre of Science for Villages, Wardha (M.S.). The person having sufficient knowledge further educate and train next family to construct the bio gas plant. People have connected the toilet to the biogas plant as they learnt the quality of gas obtained by doing so. Waste slurry after drying is used in agriculture getting double benefits. Proportion of cow dung and water and feeding timing is fixed.

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Design of Biogas Plant for Food Waste and Evaluation of Biogas Generation from Co Digester Mixtures

Design of Biogas Plant for Food Waste and Evaluation of Biogas Generation from Co Digester Mixtures

depletion of energy supply, Biogas is a sustainable energy source because of the major environmental and socio- economic benefits. Anaerobic decomposition of different wastes which biodegradable in nature that can produce biogas. It can be used as healthy cooking alternative.The main objectives of the study are to design a biogas plant for food waste generated in our college and evaluate the efficiency enhancement of biogas by adding various co- digester mixtures such as water hyacinth, algae, cow dung and sugar cane with food waste. An attempt has been made to find the different ways to improve the overall performance of biogas plant. In survey, it is obtained that average total food waste of 100 kg per day is generated from UKF college canteen, cafeteria and all the departments. The fixed dome biogas plant was designed according to the obtained value. Generation of biogas is enhanced by combination of co-digester mixture water hyacinth, algae, and cow dung with proportion of 1:1 among the four batch experiment carried out. The study emphasis to find that, water hyacinth improves the overall efficiency of biogas plant. Biogas having higher cost benefits than LPG. We can safe rupees 66315 per year. So use of biogas plant with the co-digester of water hyacinth is a better alternative one.

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Design of Biogas Plant for Food Waste and Evaluation of Biogas Generation from Co Digester Mixtures

Design of Biogas Plant for Food Waste and Evaluation of Biogas Generation from Co Digester Mixtures

depletion of energy supply, Biogas is a sustainable energy source because of the major environmental and socio- economic benefits. Anaerobic decomposition of different wastes which biodegradable in nature that can produce biogas. It can be used as healthy cooking alternative.The main objectives of the study are to design a biogas plant for food waste generated in our college and evaluate the efficiency enhancement of biogas by adding various co- digester mixtures such as water hyacinth, algae, cow dung and sugar cane with food waste. An attempt has been made to find the different ways to improve the overall performance of biogas plant. In survey, it is obtained that average total food waste of 100 kg per day is generated from UKF college canteen, cafeteria and all the departments. The fixed dome biogas plant was designed according to the obtained value. Generation of biogas is enhanced by combination of co-digester mixture water hyacinth, algae, and cow dung with proportion of 1:1 among the four batch experiment carried out. The study emphasis to find that, water hyacinth improves the overall efficiency of biogas plant. Biogas having higher cost benefits than LPG. We can safe rupees 66315 per year. So use of biogas plant with the co-digester of water hyacinth is a better alternative one.

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A Possibility of Functioning Biogas Plant at a Poultry Farm

A Possibility of Functioning Biogas Plant at a Poultry Farm

The biogas production constitutes one of renewable energy sources (RES) . In addition, wastes are preferred for energy production. In the case of some wastes, e.g. poultry manure, it is difficult to conduct anaerobic digestion in monofermentation. The aim of this work was to plan the biogas plant, in which the main substrate is the waste from a poultry farm. The scope of work included: preparation of a biogas plant technological project, determin- ing the amount of biogas and methane that can be produced annually on the example of the selected poultry farm, performing the energy and financial calculations for the current conditions prevailing on the renewable energy market in Poland. The installation project assumed the location of a biogas plant at an existing poultry farm – the source of the substrate. The micro-biogas plant includes a fermentation tank with a capacity of 500 m 3 and storage

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Feasibility Study for a Biogas Plant in Jordan

Feasibility Study for a Biogas Plant in Jordan

This research was conducted to estimate the economic feasibility of establishing biogas plant from dairy farms manure in Al-Dlail district (Zarqa governorate). Biogas is a mixture of gas consisting of 50-70% of methane and carbon dioxide 30-45%, and other gases and water that resulted from the digestion of the biomass process with the absence of oxygen. It is used as a fuel source in many countries for the purposes of lighting and cooking. Biogas is a clean and renewable form of energy that can be sustainable solutions of large organic waste produced in animal farms and reduces the harmful environmental pollution. Also, it can be an opportunity to invest and make profits. Data for this research was collected by desk research, survey and interviews. The respondents were 31 dairy farmers; the interview included the Jordan Biogas plant manager, owners of manure plants, heads of cattle breeders associations and stakeholders in government organization. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS, 5P's analysis, PESTEC Analysis and Canvas model to come up with a clear picture about the feasibility of biogas utilization in Zarqa governorate. The study showed the tremendous environmental pollution that happened in Al-Dlail and Al-Khaldiah areas due to the poor management of cattle farms manure, causing air, soil ground and surface water pollution. As a solution to this problem, the study showed that the most appropriate solution to this problem is to exploit these manure in the production of energy from biogas as a sustainable, and environment- friendly project. The research also included the size of the feedstock of the manure produced from cattle farms, the availability of the necessary technology to build a project of this plant, the availability of markets for its products and the legislative framework governing the renewable energy

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BIOGAS AS A POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR INDUSTRIAL SECTOR: CASE STUDY OF KILIFI SISAL PLANTATION BIOGAS PLANT

BIOGAS AS A POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR INDUSTRIAL SECTOR: CASE STUDY OF KILIFI SISAL PLANTATION BIOGAS PLANT

The sustainable potential factors of biogas generation and operation model analyzed by content analysis as described. The content analysis grid is made based on the potential of the biogas production process, strengths of the process, and weaknesses of the process. The production process is divided into three main processes from the feeding to the end product. The electricity is not sold at the moment but it is fed into KPLC grid for free, the reason being the biogas plant has not met the capacity requirement of 250KW for KPLC in order for KPLC to purchase excess power: instead, the excess electricity is not sold to KPLC. The Biogas plant management intends to expand in order to increase their capacity. A mixture of cow manure and sisal pulp are fed daily and mango waste is fed 3 times a week when it is mango season. The amount of cow manure is 2 tons plus 12 tons of sisal waste making it 14 tons. The loading rate is determined as 1.95kg/dm3 ODM which is well below 3 kg/dm3 which constitutes the standard loading of digesters, with a retention time of 16.5 in a day at a digester volume of1600m3. This is the rate of nutrients supply of microorganisms involved which result in the efficiency of the anaerobic digester. The digester is maintained by a constant organic load of dry matter to ensure optimum biogas output. Additional water of volume of 2000L is assumed to be used but theoretically, a total volume of 8500L is the amount that should be added to the substrates. The end products of anaerobic digestion are biogas and digestate. Kilifi biogas utilizes co-generation which provides both electricity and heat. The big share of the end product at Kilifi biogas plant is digestate.

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Production Analysis of Biogas Plant in the Czech Republic

Production Analysis of Biogas Plant in the Czech Republic

The paper deals with an agriculture production analysis of biogas plant in the Czech Republic and evaluates the eff ect of input-factors and their relevance. Cobb-Douglas functions for crop, livestock and total agriculture production are used. Econometric models are used for structure and magnitude determination of land and labour factors at individual farms, which lead to an increase of production defi ned in scenarios. Estimations are based on cross-section data. Results indicate statistical signifi cance and the economically highest eff ect of land and fi xed assets on the total agriculture production. The results of fi rst period model show, that there is preferably a need for an increase of fi xed assets when enlarging the livestock production. There is an increase of the importance of wages in total and livestock production in 2011 compared to 2010. The crop production is dependent on land are in the most, but the model must be rejected because of parameters intensity and economic justifi cation. Quantifi cation of relationships among variables can be used for planning of the whole production or its components.

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Nutrient balance of a two phase solid manure biogas plant

Nutrient balance of a two phase solid manure biogas plant

plant but also the nutrient circle of a whole crop rotation period of the farm organism. The quality of the nutrients is finally related to soil fertility, fodder quality and animal health. From different scientific publication databases we found about 10,000 references concerning biogas research during the past 10 years. Less than ten are dealing with biogas reactors for non liquid substrates on-farm. Recent research mainly concentrates on basic research, biogas process research for communal waste, large scale biogas plants, and research on laboratory level. Our conclusion is that it seems worldwide to be very difficult or even impossible to find financial support for on site research, especially for on-farm prototype biogas reactors. We suppose the following reasons for this fact: biogas plant research requires proficiency in many different scientific disciplines, lack of co-operation between engineering and life sciences, high development costs to transfer basic research results into practical technical solutions, low interest of researchers because on site and on-farm research enjoys low appreciation in terms of scientific credits, portability of farm specific design and process solutions is difficult. Our conclusion is, that on site and on-farm research using a “radical holistic research strategy” (Baars, 2002) has to be supported by funding agencies if integration of biogas and bio energy into the farm organism is target within the agriculture policy framework.

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Detection and identification by PCR of Clostridium chauvoei in clinical isolates, bovine faeces and substrates from biogas plant

Detection and identification by PCR of Clostridium chauvoei in clinical isolates, bovine faeces and substrates from biogas plant

Manure can contain bacterial spores and possibly also vegetative bacteria that pass through the digestive systems of animals grazing on contaminated pasture. Manure is part of the substrate for biogas plants, and spore-forming bacteria may survive pasteurisation and digestion [7,8]. An anaerobic digestion process is commonly used for energy production in the form of biogas. The digested res- idues produced are an excellent fertiliser, rich in plant nutrients, and application of digested residues to agricul- tural land reduces the need for artificial fertilisers. How- ever, organic wastes contain many different types of biological contaminants. To reduce the risk of spreading pathogens, the recommended biowaste treatment method before anaerobic digestion is heating to 70°C for 60 min if manure and animal by-products are present in the substrate, as regulated by EU Commission regulation EC no 1774/2002 and 208/2006. Heating at 70°C for 60 min reduces Salmonella spp. [8,9]. However, some spore- forming bacteria such as Clostridium spp. and Bacillus spp. are not eradicated [7-10].

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Today's Need and Requirement of Biogas Plant's (Green -Energy)

Today's Need and Requirement of Biogas Plant's (Green -Energy)

Any renewable energy source is regarded as exceptionally important in our modern society. With a changing climate that is resulting in intense droughts, devastating hurricanes and a diminishing ozone, investing in a clean, renewable energy source is definitely the way of the future. Biogas is fast becoming a valuable energy source which is contributing to the electric capacity which is being generated throughout the world. A recent UNEP report stated that the total amount of renewable energy which was generated in 2012 exceeded 1 470 GW which was a dramatic increase from the amount generated in 2011.Currently renewable energy accounts for one fifth of the overall energy consumption used around the world. Forestry, crops, sewage, industrial residue, animal waste, and municipal waste are all used to create the biogas renewable energy. Traditionally biogas was used for cooking and heating purposes but these days it is being used for a number of other things as well. By the year 2050 it is thought that biogas will account for around one third of all energy.

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Potential of Using Kitchen Waste in a Biogas Plant

Potential of Using Kitchen Waste in a Biogas Plant

The characterization of kitchen waste collected from four canteens in the Bhavan’s campus, the average moisture content of the samples was found to be around 75%. High moisture content makes thermal recovery from solid waste uneconomical as considerable fuel is used up by the latent moisture in the solid waste. Anaerobic digestion, which requires high moisture content for the sustenance of the methane bacteria, was the preferred alternative for energy recovery from organic waste in the Bhavan’s campus. A higher volatile matter content leads to a better biogas yield. The test samples contained an average of 85% of volatile matter, thus strengthening the case for the adoption of anaerobic digestion in the Bhavan’s campus.

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Quality Assessment of Biogas Plant End Products by Plant Bioassays

Quality Assessment of Biogas Plant End Products by Plant Bioassays

The pot growth test with Chinese cabbage demonstrated a significant growth inhibition in all but one product, namely the solid fraction of BGP3, when compared to control and manure. Furthermore, the general decrease in chlorophyll content suggested that the plants were under stress. The pot growth test clearly demonstrated the differences in intrinsic sensitivity and nutrient demand of barley and Chinese cabbage. Chinese cabbage proved to be a more sensitive test plant than barley, and can thereby depict smaller variations in the quality of BGP end products. In fact, Hordeum vulgare is considered to be one of the most tolerant cereal crops, and has been shown to tolerate high amounts of salt [16], [17] and heavy metals [18], for example. In line with our results, barley has been shown to be a less sensitive test plant than, for example, radish, cress or lettuce in laboratory assays [19], [20], [21].

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Conductivity Measurement for Control of a Biogas Plant

Conductivity Measurement for Control of a Biogas Plant

We were considering other options of simple measurement solutions, which could be conclusive. A book called Biophysics by J. Rozina et al. (2013) brought us to a possible solution. In a cell, there are a lot of sugars and metabolic products similar to the biological process of biotransformation. This publication has given us the idea to connect conductivity with the production of biogas. Therefore, we were looking for a quantity which is needed in private sector. Operators of the biogas stations are obviously most interested in the amount of produced biogas but for more accurate analysis, calculated specific methane production, which is the main component of biogas, is more preferable.

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THE IMPACT OF EXTRUSION ON THE BIOGAS AND BIOMETHANE YIELD OF PLANT SUBSTRATES

THE IMPACT OF EXTRUSION ON THE BIOGAS AND BIOMETHANE YIELD OF PLANT SUBSTRATES

The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of pretreatment by extrusion on the biogas and biomethane yield of lignocellulosic substrates such as maize silage and maize straw silage. The biogas yields of the substrates before and after treatment were compared. Moreover, energy efficiency of pretreatment by extrusion was analyzed in order to assess the applicability of the process in an agricultural biogas plant. Extrusion tests were carried out in a short single-screw extruder KZM-2 in which the length-to-diameter ratio of the screw was 6:1 and rotational speed was 200 rpm. The biogas yield tests of the plant substrates after extrusion were carried out in a laboratory scale, using 15 biofermenters operated in a periodic manner, at a constant temperature of 39°C (mesophilic digestion) and controlled pH conditions. The gas-emission analysis was performed using a certified gas analyzer from Geotech GA5000. Pretreatment by extrusion was observed to improve the quantity of methane generated: in terms of fresh matter for maize silage subjected to extrusion, the methane yield was 16.48% higher than that of the non-extruded silage. On the other hand, maize straw silage after extrusion gave 35.30% more methane than did the same, non-extruded, material. Differences in yields relative to dry organic matter are also described in this paper. Taking into account the amount of energy that is spent on pretreatment and the generated amount of methane, the energy balance for the process gives an idea of the economics of the operation. For maize silage, energy efficiency was lower by 13.21% (-553.2 kWh/Mg), in contrast to maize straw silage, where the increase in energy was 33.49% (678.4 kWh/Mg). The obtained results indicate that more studies on the pretreatment and digestion of maize silage are required in order to improve the efficiency of its use for making biogas. To fully utilize its potential, it is necessary to know thoroughly the effect of the extrusion process and of biogas production on energy efficiency at different conditions.

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New Trends in Substrates and Biogas Systems in Poland

New Trends in Substrates and Biogas Systems in Poland

In Poland, agricultural based biogas plant installations have the biggest potential (compar- ing to municipal using urban waste and sewage sludge), mainly due to the availability of sub- strates suitable for methane fermentation [Pi- wowar et al., 2016; Igliński et al., 2015]. The ba- sic idea of the operation of biogas plants is the use of biowaste-based substrates that are problematic in their management. During livestock breeding, especially in the case of intensive livestock pro- duction, huge amounts of manures are created. Contrary to Western Europe biogas plant where slurry in an agricultural installations is very often the basic substrate of the fermentation mixture [Vega et al., 2014]. Animal excrements are the source of the bacteria necessary for the anaero- bic digestion process and is used as an inoculum source in the fermentation chamber. These animal faeces also exhibit buffering properties, thanks to which the proper pH of the fermentation mixture is maintained, which is important, for example, in the case of using silage. In addition, manure usu- ally shows high hydration, which allows its use in biogas plants as a co-substrate for diluting the fermentation mixture. It is possible to subject the slurry to separation, thanks to which dry fraction fermentation is a much more efficient process [Deng et al., 2014]. Manure is the substrate that feeds the fermentation mixture due to the high content of dry matter. It should be noted that the use of substrates derived from animal production in biogas installations is more environmentally friendly than the storage of animal waste or its use for fertilization as both allow for the emission of greenhouse and odoric gases directly into the atmosphere, posing a threat to the environment, and to human and animal health [Czekała et al.,

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Biogas composition depending on the type of plant biomass used

Biogas composition depending on the type of plant biomass used

The technology of the biogas plant is based on the principle of using two fermenters. The substrate is transported to the main fermenter through the dis- penser of solid substrate and the income liquid ma- nure basin. A low-speed paddle-wheel agitator with an adjustable interval of agitation is used for homog- enisation and for uniform temperature distribution. The main part of the gas production is produced in the main fermenter. The final fermenter which is con- nected with the main fermenter finishes the anaerobic fermentation process. In the fermenter, the biogas is desulphurised on the basis of the hydrogen sulphide content which is measured by the gas analyser. The maximum allowable amount of incoming air forms 5% from the total biogas production.

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Thermal Analysis of a CSP-Biogas Hybrid Power Plant

Thermal Analysis of a CSP-Biogas Hybrid Power Plant

The CSP part of the hybrid power plant relies on the DNI from the sun to heat up a HTF which is used to run the turbine. This generates electricity during the peak hours of the day. Biogas plant is used to augment the solar thermal plant in case of low radiation or at night. The excess heat generated from the two plants goes to storage. The two energy systems are coupled to each other via a compressed air energy storage system. Electric pumps are used for air compression to 120 bars. The solar thermal hybrid application is cheap source of energy and allows the utility companies meet their renewable energy targets, reduces emissions and also helps lower the fuel costs. During the daytime the solar parabolic power plant collects DNI which is used to run the turbine for electrical generation. Due to its intermittent nature, it is very difficult to predict when the solar irradiation will be low and when it will be adequate to generate so as match the load demand. This fluctuation in generation is the motivation the authors had, to come up with a model which combines a solar thermal parabolic power plant and a biogas plant as a hybrid power plant. The solar parabolic plant depends on the DNI available during the day while the biogas plant relies on the MSW.

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