Case presentation: We report a case of a 58-year-old black woman diagnosed with Merkel cell carcinoma of the posterior face of the right elbow. She had biopsy excision and was lost to follow-up. Four months later, she presented with recurrent disease on the inferior third of the right arm with three ipsilateral axillary lymph node metastases. Amputation of the right arm and ipsilateral axillary lymph node dissection were performed, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Six months later, the patient died as a result of respiratory failure caused by lung metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, no specific studies have been done comparing the course and the characteristics of Merkel cell carcinoma in white and black populations, and no similar case has been reported in the literature.
Given his history, in relation to us, I think the white man should be ashamed to attempt to speak for the unborn children of the black woman. To force us to have children for him to ridicule, drug, turn into killers and homeless wanderers is a testament to his hypocrisy.
Scandal follows the professional feats and nail-biting calamities of the most powerful faces and behind-the-scenes players in D.C. politics and business. 16 The show mostly rests on the political acrobatics of Olivia Pope and her small, but loyal, army of “gladiators” who together make up the consulting firm Olivia Pope and Associates. Each episode depicts Olivia as a screaming contradiction. Where she may be coaching an accused murderer through a press conference or encouraging one of her employees in one scene, she may be sneaking into some hidden corner of the White House for moments of sexual pleasure with the President of the United States in the next. Furthermore, Olivia Pope embodies the tensions among conflicting visions of black womanhood: the way a dominant white patriarchal society sees black women, the way some black women see (or want to see) themselves, and the way black communities look upon black women with great expectation. She is one-part stereotype, one-part glass-ceiling breaker, and one-part model black woman whose professional and academic accomplishments strengthen the reputation of the entire race. Certainly, her character is cause for celebration in the midst of a bleak media landscape where black women typically only attain the lead role in reality television or on all-black networks. In addition, Olivia’s wit, management style and her equally awe-inspiring wardrobe are signifiers that this is not the kind of black female subject one is used to encountering in Tyler Perry films or traditional romantic comedies. Hers, simply put, is the
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stereotypes, like the SBW, has affected her mental or physical health in any way, one participant stated, “No, because it is what it is. I am a strong black woman. I believe in strong black women. There are a lot of strong black women in this world, so I’m not affected or offended by it. So, no…. I don’t feel like that…” (Gwendolyn – Retired Clerk, 65 years old). Their long-term experience with the strong black women narrative and characteristic established their views of strength. Older adult women were open to help-seeking behaviors, but were less likely to participate, which could also be linked to their normalization of strong behaviors. One could infer that this group of participants’ closeness to slavery impacted their endorsement of strength and the strong black woman narrative and characteristic. Middle-aged participants, who also did not feel affected by the strong black woman narrative and characteristic, have also become accustomed to the norms of strength. “I don’t think that it’s affected my mental health, no… not that I can think of. I feel like I’m strong. I feel like I’m mentally strong and I’m emotionally strong” (Calandra – Document Management Records Keeper, 48 years old). Another participant added:
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archetypes. She locates the notion of ―strength,‖ as a central trait generally imposed upon and identified with the African American woman. Within her review, she utilizes a definition of the SBW crafted by Morgan (1999), ―A strong Black woman does not show weakness or neediness but remains always stoic and competent, the ‗dependable rock for every soul that need[s] [her],‘‖ (p. 90). According to Wyatt (2008), this ideology permeates the African American cultural context and gender expectations for women are constructed with this ―strength‖ component as central. As such, stepping outside of this cultural norm could result in exclusion from their communities, thus reinforcing acceptance and perpetuation of this cultural notion. DeFrancisco & Chatham-Carpenter (2000) in their qualitative study of the relationship between community and self-esteem for African American women found that for the women in their sample, community formed an essential piece for the development of positive self-esteem. These
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comprehensive applications of the concept in relation to various mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety. This study proposes to address the previous limitations and extend the current body of literature by examing the influence of the Strong Black Woman Schema on mental health, incorporating religion as a core factor within the Schema measure. I also seek to determine the presence of ethnic diversity in the endorsement of the construct between African Americans and Caribbean Black by identifying distinct typologies representative of the diverse views and endorsements of the Strong Black Woman and explore the influence of the Strong Black Woman on clinical diagnostic endorsements of anxiety within a nationally representative sample of African American and Caribbean Black women. Results from this study may provide insights into better understanding the occurrence of depression and anxiety as they manifest in Black women and possibly provide explanations for the mental health paradox that appears across mental health research.
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Moreover, many of my portraits use indigenous symbolism. This addresses my concern that American definitions of beauty are damaging to Black women. For many Black women to feel beautiful, their African identity had to be stripped away. Moreover, many women of all races go through great lengths to alter their image so that they can appear more acceptable in society. Although there is a lot of research to support the topic, for the purpose of this study, I will focus on my identity as a Black woman who embraces pre-colonial African spiritual traditions, and upon my identity as a single mother and female artist.
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But also I had to acknowledge the bond that exists between Black women due to shared cultural experiences with hair. Banks felt that her status as a Black woman linked her to the group she studied (2000:162). Again this bond does not make me an expert on Black or female culture due to the complexities of people’s identities. My identity as a Black woman is only two of my multiple identities that have the potential to bring me closer to the participants and in some cases cause a schism because my social status, education, current or past geographical location, and may play parts in dividing or uniting the group of women. My skin color as medium brown or as I call it “the color of burnt toast after you scrap off the burnt top” and natural hair styles connected me to my participants with similar features such as Amber and Delia. But also my natural hair disconnected me with participants such as Vanessa because she did not have similar experiences wit hair care that I did. In describing her views on “good” and “bad” hair, she labeled my hair as “bad”. Knowing that she was unfamiliar with the politics of Black hair and maintenance, I did not take offense but noted that we would both learn from each others experiences. Also since I studied abroad before, I connected with the global awareness and frustration of having to combat negative stereotypes that most of the participants faced. In going to Brazil, I connected with and could relate to the experiences of Maria, Mary and Ann with their experiences with race. Also my identity as the researcher put me in a position where, regardless of my attempt to break, created a power differentiation.
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The Strong Black Woman (SBW) is idealistic icon that many Black women strive to attain and are expected to uphold. She is characterized as strong, independent, nurturing, and able to successfully handle intolerable life circumstances. Over time, this ideal has developed into a culturally accepted coping strategy to help Black women deal with the stresses of racism and sexism in America (Thompson, 2003). Whereas these characteristics can be helpful when used in moderation, many Black women overuse these coping techniques, which result in isolation and stress. In addition, many Black women portray an external façade of being strong, while internally feeling overwhelmed and distressed. This façade is used as a defensive style that hides the woman’s need for help. Thus conceptually, the SBW is an icon, an expectation, and a coping style, that most Black women are striving to achieve. However, it may become a defensive style when Black women pretend to have these attitudes/behaviors or use them in an extreme manner.
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streets to voice their rage, their pain and their sorrow. The Justice for Trayvon rally and march was organized by a small cadre of seven people, who within a space of twelve hours, managed to get over a thousand people to show up to the protest. The Atlanta TMOC accomplished this task through the TMOC national website, the flyer and the #HoodiesUP twitter hashtag combined with the on-the-ground leafleting in various neighborhoods in Atlanta. The Atlanta TMOC picked West End Park as the location, in contrast to the usual location of the Georgia State Capital, because it is situated in a historically black neighborhood that has not completely shifted due to gentrification. Every summer the park is renamed Malcolm X Park in celebration of the life of the revolutionary political leader’s birthday through a festival featuring food and music. The park was a gathering place, it had a well-maintained children’s play ground, it had a covered basketball court where community members could play ball regardless of rain or some other form of precipitation. The West End park became a starting place of the Atlanta Trayvon Protest where numerous people—mostly black but also visibly queer, white, and brown all together— came together to share in our rage and in our disgust with the realities of black life in America.
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The encounters with ‘fatal’ women do not end with Foulata. As the characters in the search for the diamonds find themselves locked in the treasure chamber, it is in the chamber where the witch Gagool leads them, she gets her revenge for Twala’s death. Foulata tries to help them and is stabbed by the evil Gagool: “I love him, and that I am glad to die because I know that he cannot cumber his life with such as me, for the sun can not mate with the darkness nor the white with the black” (226). Foulata does not have any choice but to die. Haggard ponders if her death supersedes racial and gender differences: “If I live again, mayhap I shall see him in the stars, and that – I will search them all, though perchance I should there still be black and he would – still be white” (226). Good is permanently derailed by the black sexuality when after her death, “he never was quite the same” (240). Quatermain considers Foulata’s death to be “a fortunate occurrence” as no “amount of beauty or refinement could have made an entanglement between Good and herself a desirable occurrence” (240). After the men are rescued and return to England, Good remains a captive of female power: “he is still down on his luck about Foulata … since he had been home he hadn’t seen a woman to touch her, either as regards her figure or the sweetness of her expression” (253). He is not the same man he once was; he returns to England a lonely, damaged man.
Wanda has been prosecuting in Georgia for almost 18 years but worked in corporate law before her current position. Along with being a very passionate prosecutor, she is a proud mom and wife. She takes time to describe her family and is very proud of who and where she came from because it made her who she is today. In her position she gets to work with various different prosecutors and insists she does not experience any type of racism or sexism in her office. Erica has been an attorney for two years and a prosecutor for both years. She has a particular fire and authenticity that confirmed her efficiency as a prosecutor. She was very young but very stern. It is apparent that she takes her job seriously, does not cut any corners and strives to be as fair as she can. Erica attended a historically Black college for law school and is aware of the racial inequalities in law offices as it was one of the first things she had to learn when looking for work.
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Interestingly, Fedelm’s status as a woman-poet parallels Cúchulainn’s social positioning as a youth, since each allows them to occupy a place outside of normal woman- or man-hood. As scholar Jennifer Dukes-Knight states in her essay “The Wooden Sword: Age and Masculinity in Táin Bó Cúailnge”, “Cúchulainn’s gender identity is in a state of flux: […] he stands somewhere in between the feminized state of boyhood and the fully realized state of masculine maturity,” which she goes on to say is purposefully highlighted throughout the tale (118). Even Medb, in downplaying his danger, describes Cúchulainn’s age as “but that of a girl to be wed” in Dunn’s translation, echoing Dunn’s earlier use of “lone virgin of marriageable age” to describe Fedelm. As such, Cúchulainn occupies a unique place in the Táin, given that the central conflict in the tale is caused by the binary juxtaposition of the possessions of a husband and wife. His
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Americans who are consuming these images begin to believe the stereotypical representations of African-Americans are true too. According to Thomas, Witherspoon, and Speight (2004) Afri- can-American women specifically have to contend with stereotypical images of African Ameri- can women in media influencing their day-to-day functions in society. Two stereotypes, Mam- my and Sapphire, were shown to influence levels of self-esteem in African American women. Internalization of the Mammy stereotype can lead to the need to serve and care for others (Reynolds-Dobbs, 2008, pg. 137). Patricia Hill Collins explains that, “Black women who internal- ize the Mammy image potentially becomes effective conduits for perpetuating racial oppres- sion (Hill-Collins, 2000, pg. 80). Women may end up defining themselves only in relationship to others and may base their happiness on others’ well-being and satisfaction (Thomas, Withers- poon & Speight, 2004, pg. 437). The Sapphire stereotype, influence self-esteem as well be- cause, “women who internalize this stereotypic role may have low self-esteem if they struggle with expressing their feelings of anger, disappointment, or hurt” (Thomas, Witherspoon & Speight, 2004, pg. 437). Authors Givens and Monahan explain that, “African American female schemas contain gender and racial cues that may interact significantly to influence the way in which African American women are perceived in social situations” (Givens & Monahan, 2005, pg. 101).
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one of their own. Forbearance is the second virtue, which is exemplified by her “doing her daily bit for others in the family to prosper” (86). Godliness, the third virtue, gives women their strength that is greater than a man because of her selfless sacrifices. The fourth virtue, Orderliness, causes her to inculcate in man, a harmoniously civilized behavior, which “ensures the continuity of earth” (120). Radiance, the fifth virtue, is the compassion that emanates from her concern for and care of others. The sixth, Vibrance, is the “halo of happiness” that the woman creates every day. The seventh is Yonder, through which women are able to be the barometer that senses a new horizon and change that others will go through.
A reason why beauty is perceived as ideal is that female body looks in good shape only within certain measures. According to this perception, female bodies out of this mould or form are tried to put in a state in compliance with the ideal measures, and a “homogeneous” appearance is targeted. The path followed at this point is to make thin women gain weight and to make overweight women lose weight. Based on this idea, “body proportion” of woman makes sense only in accordance with the beauty and physical health of the nation. (R.İ.E, 1939:4-5) In this context, another issue in question is on diet lists in order to adjust female body to ideal measures. The main aim of these lists stating which food is to be eaten in what amount within a long program is described as making women happy: “even though they are hungry at the end of the first day, they are to reach a wellness by getting accustomed to eating less and well in time.” (Ev Kadını, 1945:24)
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As we got deeper into the conversation, we somehow got on the topic of being cheap. He made the claim that most men were cheap, he just wasn’t afraid to proclaim it out loud. I was no longer intrigued. I told him that that was a false generalization, because I didn’t grow up around any cheap ass niggas. It’s fine if that’s what he wants to be but he couldn’t say all men were cheap. He maintained the claim so I decided to survey the room. In hindsight, this was kind of a shitty thing to do but I am a bit overly interactive when I’m drunk. Either way, I asked the room, which mainly consisted of the three women, Max, my friends some other people who I can’t remember, and me. Not the greatest sample size but that’s what I was working with. I asked “Do y’all think all men are cheap?” I was met with a resounding “No” so I was satisfied. I returned to conversation with Max. What I didn’t realize was that while I was parlaying with Max, the three women had moved closer to sit near my friends. We all end up chatting for a bit but I really don’t pay attention to everyone else because I was still chatting with Max. Somehow, the conversation had become flirtatious. Then it became explicitly sexual. I was being very direct. We started discussing him coming home with me. I had some questions though. One: did he eat pussy? The first guy I had started fucking with did not and I refused to end up in that situation again. Second: how big was his dick? This is crass but, BUT I am a large woman so I need a dick to match. He said it was a nice size but I needed details. I wanted to see it. During this
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crossed over at the back, starched belt and collar ‘which nearly cut your head off’ and of course a cap. First years wore a little cap with pleats at the back. From the second year onwards the hospital cap was worn, with a red and blue band on the uniform denoting second year and a red band for third year. Stockings were black, as were shoes, which had to be of a specific design supplied by a shop for the hospital. Towards the end of her training the hospital decided to modernise the uniform. The starched collars were replaced by peter pan ones, sleeves became short and coloured ‘lisle’ stockings with brown shoes were permitted.
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suffrage were complex, Stanton and Anthony focused on their opponents instead of their supporters, decreeing that the majority of black men were against women voting while the ideas of black women went mostly unrecorded. This source demonstrates the racist ideas used by the women’s suffrage movement to further their own agenda, proving it belongs in this category. Dudden, like Watkins, mentions that the suffragettes overlooked the support they received from prominent African Americans. However, Dudden puts a larger emphasis on the direct attacks launched by the women at the black rights movement, especially the incredibly racist comments made by leaders of the suffragettes. These attacks may have gained prominence after the black rights movement refused to support the suffragettes, but they were not caused by the betrayal.
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Radioembolization (RE) is a selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) delivering targeted, high-dose, intra-arterial radiation directly to the vascular supply of liver tumors. Complications can occur due to aberrant deposition or migration of radiation microspheres into nontarget locations, including normal hepatic parenchyma, lungs, pancreas, and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract. We report a case of gastric ulcers due to yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) seed migration to the stomach to alert clinicians to this rare cause of gastric injury. A 57-year-old woman with stage IV breast cancer with liver and lung metastases presented to the hospital with 2 months of worsening nausea and vomiting. Two months prior, she had received SIRT with 90 Y microspheres without com- plications. Upper GI endoscopy showed diﬀuse gastritis and extensive antral ulceration. Biopsies revealed black, spherical foreign bodies, consistent with 90 Y microspheres, documenting radiation injury. Radiation-induced UGI ulceration is caused by direct