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EFFECT OF MALATHION ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN THE INDIAN LIZARD CHAMELEON ZELENICUS

EFFECT OF MALATHION ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN THE INDIAN LIZARD CHAMELEON ZELENICUS

The mean blood glucose values of the control and the lethal dose treated lizards are presented in Table 4 and illustrated in the Table 2. The lethal dose treated lizards had decreasing trend in thei r blood glucose levels when compared to the control values upto 18 hours and later they died. The blood glucose level of lizards, after administrating with the pesticide malathion, at different hours viz 6, 12 and 18 were 98.43.+8.32 mg/100ml and 83.85 +7.86 ml/ 100ml of blood, while the control values were 115.28 ± 5.63 mg/100 ml, 114.40 ± 5.26 mg/100 ml and 114.83 ± 5.73 mg/100 ml of blood during the respective the hours. The difference between control and treated lizards were statistically significant during all the experimental hours and their ‘t’ values were 5.09, 6.12 and 8.65 (P<0.05) at 6, 12 and 18 hours respectively.
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Hypoglycemia in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic Japanese patients by continuous glucose monitoring

Hypoglycemia in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic Japanese patients by continuous glucose monitoring

In the analysis of CGM data of Groups 1–3, the mean blood glucose and were significantly lower for the hypo- glycemia patients than hypoglycemia-free patients in Group 1 and 2, maximum glucose levels, as well as the proportion of AUC > 180, were significantly lower for the hypoglycemia patients than hypoglycemia-free patients only in Group 3, whereas the proportion of AOC < 70 was significantly higher in the hypoglycemia group in all three HbA1c groups. These results highlight the importance of ongoing hypoglycemia and that it should be considered in patients showing discrepancies between HbA1c and randomly measured blood glucose levels even when the HbA1c level is high. In addition, one previous report stated that the rate of hypoglycemia among insulin users tended to increase along with increasing variations in blood glucose level [25]. In the present study, the vari- ations in blood glucose level were significantly larger for the hypoglycemia patients than hypoglycemia-free patients in any of the HbA1c groups. In Group 1, the per- centage of insulin users was high among the hypoglyce- mia cases. The treatment to reduce variations in blood glucose level is important to prevent hypoglycemia.
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A study to assess the effectiveness of guava leaf tea in reducing blood glucose level among Type II Diabetic Adults residing at selected urban area Choolai, Chennai

A study to assess the effectiveness of guava leaf tea in reducing blood glucose level among Type II Diabetic Adults residing at selected urban area Choolai, Chennai

The study was conducted in selected urban area of Choolai, Chennai, after obtaining permission from the City Health officer , Corporation of Chennai, Zonal Officer and Medical Officer Of Choolai Health Post. A self- introduction was given by the investigator and the informed written consent was obtained from the adults and benefits of guava leaf tea was explained to the participants. The objectives and purpose of the study were explained and confidentiality was maintained. The data collection procedure was done for a period of 4 weeks and the time taken for data collection from each patient was 10-15 mts and 5-10 mts for doing blood test for each adults and the investigator selected 60 samples (30 participants in experimental and 30 in control group) by simple random sampling technique using lottery method based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pretest of fasting and postprandial blood glucose level was assessed by Glucometer for both experimental and control group, same instrument was used for both the group and then for experimental group 50 ml of guava leaf tea was given in the morning half an hour after breakfast daily in person for 14 days and post assessment was conducted on the 15 th day for both experimental and control group.
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EFFECT OF EDOSULFAN ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN THE INDIAN LIZARD CHAMELEON ZELENICUS.

EFFECT OF EDOSULFAN ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN THE INDIAN LIZARD CHAMELEON ZELENICUS.

hypoglycemia and death in cases where the adrenal cortex fails to function. It may be concluded that hypoglycemia in treated animals may be either due to failure of the adrenal to secrete the adrenocorticoidal secretion or due to the damage caused in the adrenal due to the administration of the pesticide. The fall in the blood glucose level much below its normal threshold value resulted in hypoglycemic convulsions which might have caused the death of the treated animals while hyperglycemia has been reported for C. versicolor when administered with lindane (Thiyagesan 46 , 1981) and when administered with endosulfan (Rajes wari 42 ,
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SELF-MONITORED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL TIMING TO REPRESENT HEMOGLOBIN A1C LEVEL IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

SELF-MONITORED BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL TIMING TO REPRESENT HEMOGLOBIN A1C LEVEL IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS

studies. One reason might be that the patients in this study were type 2 diabetic patients who were either using oral antidiabetic agents alone or using oral agents plus insulin. Due to the differences in the combination of medication used and the mechanism of action of the medication, the effect on blood glucose level might be difference. Therefore the glucose level timing that showed correlation might be different. In this study the correlation between SMBG level and HbA 1C at pre breakfast for all
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The Effect of Nasturtium Officinale on Blood Glucose Level in Diabetic Rats

The Effect of Nasturtium Officinale on Blood Glucose Level in Diabetic Rats

Nasturtium officinale, which has been used in folk medicine by the people of south eastern region of Iran, has a high hypolipidaemic activity and this may be attributed to its antioxidative potential (11). Based on unpublished data, the aqueous extract of this plant could reduce the plasma glucose level. There fore, in this article we examined the effect of several extraxts of N. officinale on the blood glucose level in the streptozotocin diabetic rats. Streptozotocin or streptozocin is an antibiotic which cause pancreatic -cell destruction and widely used for inducing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the animal models. (12).
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Is nonlinear model predictive control with fuzzy predictive model proper for managing the blood glucose level in typeI diabetes?

Is nonlinear model predictive control with fuzzy predictive model proper for managing the blood glucose level in typeI diabetes?

In recent decades, due to the increasing risk of diabe- tes, the measurement and control of the blood sugar is of great importance. In typeI diabetes, because of the lack of insulin secretion, the cells cannot absorb glucose, and thus have a low level of glucose. To con- trol blood glucose, the insulin must be injected to the body. In fact, the injection must be in a completely controlled environment. If the level of the insulin ex- ceeds the physiological limits, it may cause death. This paper presents an online approach to control the blood glucose level using a nonlinear model predictive con- trol. This method, maintains the level of blood glucose concentration within a normal range. Thus, the blood glucose level is measured in each minute and pre- dicted for the next time interval. If that is not in the normal range, amount of the insulin which must be injected will be determined. The proposed control approach includes important features such as model uncertainties and prevents acute decrease in the blood glucose level, and instability. In order to assess per- formance of the proposed controller, computer simu- lations have been carried out in Matlab/Simulink. Simulation results will reveal the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear model predictive controller in ad- justing the blood glucose level by injecting required insulin. So if the nutrition of the person decreases instantly, the hypoglycemia does not happen.
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The Effect of Eating Even or Odd Number of Dates, on Blood Glucose Level

The Effect of Eating Even or Odd Number of Dates, on Blood Glucose Level

However, there is a common belief among Muslims, most of them, they advised to consume dates in odd number rather than even (Mahmoodi et al., 2012), although, nobody knows the effect of date number on blood glucose level or other metabolic effects in the body, as well as there was no previous scientific research spot the light on this subject. For these reasons, we try in this study to determine effect of the date number on blood glucose levels.

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The Potential Application of Amplitude Modulated Ultrasound with Infrared Technique for Blood Glucose Level Determination in Non Invasive Manner

The Potential Application of Amplitude Modulated Ultrasound with Infrared Technique for Blood Glucose Level Determination in Non Invasive Manner

Signal amplifier block amplifies the desired signal. The acquired signal is then processed by MATLAB software. It also automates the process of collecting the amplitude modulated ultrasound wave based light waveform data from Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO) at specified intervals. Infrared light detector senses the amplitude modulated ultrasound based light signal embedded with blood glucose information. Precautions had been taken to achieve good SNR (signal to noise ratio) and to reduce the effect of random noise, external interferences, etc. After signal processing, the blood glucose level is displayed.
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Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System to Determine the Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic

Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System to Determine the Blood Glucose Level of Diabetic

Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. The main aim of this research work was to determine the blood glucose level of diabetic patient using adaptive Neuro-fuzzy. Data of 80 diabetic patients were collected from Federal Medical Centre Jalingo. It was used for training and testing the system, Gaussian Membership function was used, hybrid training algorithm was used for training and testing, the error obtain is 0.0008333 at epoch 4 which shows that the training performance is exactly 99.99% and testing performance of the system are 99.99% at epoch 4. This shows that adaptive Neuro-fuzzy system can be applied to medical diagnosis because of the error obtained.
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Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia L) Fruit Decreased Blood Glucose Level and Improved Lipid Profile of Streptozotocin Induced Hyperglycemia Rats

Bitter Melon (Momordica Charantia L) Fruit Decreased Blood Glucose Level and Improved Lipid Profile of Streptozotocin Induced Hyperglycemia Rats

Bitter melon fruit feeding decreased blood glucose level on the hyperglycemia rats group due to effect of glucose metabolism. Bitter melon fruit suppressed the increase of blood glucose was presumably related to the existence of pectin and other dietary fiber (Table 1). Predominant soluble fiber in bitter melon is pectin. Pectin is able to form high viscosity in the digestive tract thus decreases postprandial blood glucose by inhibiting glucose absorption. Gel structure of pectin entrap nutrients absorption 40 .
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Assessment of blood glucose level using gingival Crevicular blood in diabetic patients: A cross sectional study

Assessment of blood glucose level using gingival Crevicular blood in diabetic patients: A cross sectional study

Thus, one touch select simple (second generation glucometer) offers the advantage over the first generation glucometer, which needs a larger blood sample i.e. about 10-15μl and that the blood sample had to be placed on the test strips to be wiped off later by the user after a certain time interval. Thus, giving a reading by color matching (Parker et al., 1993). The present clinical study was designed to develop a rapid, simple, non- invasive, chairside test for estimation of blood glucose level of a patient using gingival crevicular blood elicited during periodontal probing, using a glucometer, by comparing it to the glucose level from nger stick blood and venous blood.The study included 100 patients, which were divided into two group’s i.e.
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The Effect of Cortex Lycii on Rattus norvegicus’ Blood Glucose Level Using a High Glucose Diet

The Effect of Cortex Lycii on Rattus norvegicus’ Blood Glucose Level Using a High Glucose Diet

Although research on Cortex Lycii is limited, there has been other research on testing different substances on diabetes [18]. Tsuneki, Ishizuka, Wu, Sasaoka, and Kimura conducted a research on green tea effects on diabetic mice. After letting the diabetic mice ingest green tea, blood glucose levels were tested after 2 - 6 hours. The result shows their blood glucose levels were lowered. Similar tests could be done on the rats with Cortex Lycii replacement of green tea [19]. There are other herbs that researchers have tested for diabetes treatments. Panax gin- seng was tested on type 2 diabetic mice and resulted in enhancing insulin sensi- tivity. By improving insulin, the blood glucose level was also lowered [20]. In another experiment Corni Fructus and Lycii Radicis Cortex were combined and tested on diabetic rats. The results also showed improvement in blood glucose levels [21]. Codonopsis javanica root is also used in Chinese traditional medi- cine, and was tested on fructose-fed insulin resistant rats. The finding was that fructose intake can damage cell function and this herb can significantly improve the antioxidant enzyme activities [22]. In 2005, an experiment with Mangiferin on diabetic rats was done. The drugs showed significant effect on lowering plasma glucose level. This drug is extracted from the plant Mangifera indica [23]. This means that future research in developing new drugs, plants can also be part of the research.
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The importance and the relationship of blood glucose level in the development  of atrial fibrillation in coronary bypass surgery  in diabetic patients

The importance and the relationship of blood glucose level in the development of atrial fibrillation in coronary bypass surgery in diabetic patients

In a study conducted by Vlahos et al. (Vlahou et al., 2016) on 446 patients against this data, the use of blood and blood products during and after the operation was reported to have no role in postoperative AF development. The acid-citrate- dextrose mixture in blood storage bags increases the need for exogenous insulin. In this case, hyperglycemia occurs also in non-DM patients, but this increase is more pronounced in DM patients. In our patients there was no difference in blood transfusion rates for both groups. In patients with poor cardiac function, isotropic agents may cause changes in blood insulin levels leading to deviations in glucose levels (Mansur et al., 2015). In particular, changes in serum glucose levels are observed with the use of catecholamine. In our study, we found that glucose levels were high in blood gas parameters, especially at the initial onset of AF. Blood glucose levels are high during AF formation, usually seen in the morning of the second postoperative day. This may be due to steroid hormones secreted in the morning. The result of our study is that strict control of blood glucose levels in diabetic patients may reduce the incidence of postoperative AF.
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Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

prevalence of diabetes mellitus; the present study is of great concern in context to Indian population as well as globally to the countries with the greater prevalence of diabetes. The present study highlights the importance of early diagnosis and the utilization of non-invasive saliva analysis over the invasive blood analysis. To our knowledge, present research is one of those few studies that have included the evaluation of the critical correlation of SGL and BGL. In addition, the study compared the subjects according to gender for correlation; the data for which is meagre; though the findings were insignificant. Although the study results were inconclusive and with shortcoming of relatively insufficient sample size, nonetheless, the study has unquestionably put forth some observations deserving explanation, which likely suggests enormous scope for further research.
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Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidaemic Effects of Solanum Xanthocarpum Total Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats.

Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidaemic Effects of Solanum Xanthocarpum Total Extract in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevation of blood glucose level. DM is found worldwide and becoming a serious threat to mankind. It is third killer of human beings after cancer, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases [1]. DM is of two types: type 1 and type 2. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are known to be multifactorial diseases caused by a combination of genetic (inheritance) and environmental (diet and lifestyle) factors [2, 3]. DM also leads to hyperglycemia, which is the landmark of this disease syndrome [4] and it has also been associated with an increased risk for premature arteriosclerosis due to increase in triglycerides and low density lipoprotein levels and ultimately results in Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). CHD morbidity is two to four times higher in patients with diabetes than nondiabetics, and the mortality from CHD is up to 100% higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetics over a 6-year period. So, an ideal treatment for diabetes would be a drug that not only controls the glucose levels but also prevents the development of arteriosclerosis and other complications of diabetes [5]. For a long time, DM has been treated with several medicinal plants or their extractives. Before the discovery of insulin in 1922, the options for treatment of diabetes were based on traditional knowledge [4]. Ethnobotanical knowledge played an important role in historical diabetes therapies; with over 1200 medicinal plant species recognized throughout the World for their ability to treat diabetes. Although different types of hypoglycemic agents are available, along with insulin, for the treatment of DM, there has been an increased demand for natural products with antihyperglycemic activity [5] and also antihyperlipidaemic activity. However, there is a need for thoroughly controlled studies on the effectiveness and potential risks of treatment with natural products [6].
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Mathematical modeling of glucose insulin 
		system behavior in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan intensive care unit 
		patients

Mathematical modeling of glucose insulin system behavior in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan intensive care unit patients

By fitting clinical data (i.e. blood glucose levels, insulin infusion and nutrition rates) obtained from critical unit in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan, Pahang, patient-specific SI is identified hourly as shown in Figure 1(d). Although discrepancy occurred in collecting clinical data especially blood glucose levels due to the design algorithm in insulin infusion therapy protocol, with integral based-method (Hann et al., 2006) and ICING model, it allows prediction of the next hour blood glucose level based on the previous measurements. Thus, the glucose-insulin behaviour system can be observed hourly to understand the underlying mechanism that might contribute to hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia incident.
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Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas

Partial characterization, antioxidative properties and hypolipidemic effects of oilseed cake of Allanblackia floribunda and Jatropha curcas

Results: Our results showed that J. curcas contains 10 times more storage proteins than A. floribunda while A. floribunda contains twice as much total dietary fibre than J. curcas. An evaluation of the different families of storage proteins showed that J. curcas has glutelins as the major storage proteins in its seeds (61.65 mg/g d.m), followed by globulins (25.30 mg/g d.m) and albumins (18.30 mg/g d.m). The electrophoretic analyses revealed a diversity of bands at the level of the different families and for both species. The evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activities showed that A. floribunda extracts had higher antioxidant properties. Although the composition of A. floribunda and J. curcas oilseed cake are different, they lowered serum triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and blood glucose level.
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 EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY
OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CARDIOSPERMUM
HALICACABUM LINN STEM ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED
DIABETIC RATS

 EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM LINN STEM ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

Purpose: To investigate antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn on Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats modeldiabetic rats.Methods: Streptozotocin (45 mg/kg b.w) was administered to wistar albino rats via the intraperitoneal route. The diabeticrats were then placed in 5 groups, following stabilization of hyperglycemia. The first group was untreated, thenext receives Streptozotocin (45 mg/kg b.w) the next two groups received, each day 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of the ethanol extract Cardiospermum halicacabum and the fifth group received a reference standard, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg). Treatment was via the oral route for 28 days and fasting blood sugar level was monitored over this period. Acute toxicity (oral )studies on the extract was carried out, as well as phytochemical screening of the extract. Results: All doses of the extract ( 200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.0001, p <0.05,respectively) lowered fasting blood glucose level, notably at the 7th , 14th 21th and 28th day. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg /kg) also significantly lowered fasting blood glucose (p < 0.0001). The results on acute toxicity revealed that for the oral route is high safety status of the plant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids. Conclusion: This study supports the use of Cardiospermum halicacabum in traditional medicine as well as highlights the need to further explore the potentials of the plant extract as a antihyperglycemic agent.
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The effect of route of administration in thymoquinone toxicity in male and female rats

The effect of route of administration in thymoquinone toxicity in male and female rats

blood glucose level was measured for male and female rats which showed signs of toxicity and a significant reduction (P<0.05) in blood glucose was observed in one‑half (50%) of these rats after 24 h postdose. This could lead to the assumption that all male and female rats which were found to suffer from toxicity experienced reduction in blood glucose level sometimes during the 24 h postdose. Subsequently, one‑half (50%) of rats recovered with an insignificant blood glucose level and the other half stayed hypoglycaemic. TQ effect on blood glucose was explained to involve
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