Biocompatibility is always an important con- cern of biomedical materials . In this study, we compared the blood compatibility between valved bovine pericardium patch and autolo- gous pericardium based on a series of in vivo and in vitro hematological indexes. Interestingly, they showed similarly satisfactory blood com- patibility. Autologous pericardium was well known as the most ideal materials in blood compatibility at present. Consequently, this novel Chinese valved bovine pericardium patch demonstrated wonderful blood compatibility. During the establishment of animal model, the operation time for autologous pericardium was 20-30 min longer than that for valved bovine pericardium patch, because the former opera- tion needed temporary preparation of valved pocket. Although this temporarily prepared valved pocket could prevent backflow, urgent time of operation and great difference in suture techniques of different doctors made it difficult Figure 2. The thrombosis was investigated by naked eye and microscope. A: Thrombosis was not observed in and around valved pockets in both treatment and control groups; B: Infarct lesions did not appear in lung tissues; C: Sutures were revealed in focal lesions and no thrombosis was adhered (HE × 400); D: No infarct lesions was found in distal lung tissues (HE × 400).
11 Read more
With the recent advances in modern dentistry, localized gingival recessions and root exposure represent an aes- thetic problem to the discerning patient. Further, root caries, dentine hypersensitivity and persisting gingival inflammation are frequently observed. All of these situa- tions represent an indication for periodontal plastic sur- gery. With this intervention being a highly elective one, treatment modalities have to focus on complete cover- age of the exposed root, leaving no millimetre uncov- ered. Furthermore, a perfect match of colour and texture of tissues should be achieved. Coronally advanced flaps, laterally repositioned flaps, free gingival grafts, and subepithelial connective tissue grafts appeared as novel approaches to achieve improvements in recession depth, clinical attachment level and width of keratinized tissue [6,24,25]. Techniques such as free gingival grafts are reported to fail frequently [26,27]. Connective tissue grafts, however, are described to cause excessive tissue thickness as a post surgical complication [9-12]. The major drawbacks of this technique are bleeding of the donor site, sensations of pain and hypo- sensitivity of the palate [9-12]. In multi-recession cases connective tissue grafts can be applied only with reten- tion as the amount of donor tissue limits the treatable area. Multiple surgeries have to be performed in those cases, imposing physiological and psychological stress on the patient. On the basis of these complications, a large number of biological biomatrices have been intro- duced within the last decades, all of which have been reported to contribute to clinically relevant root cover- age [23,28,29]. These matrices were developed with the intention to reduce the major disadvantages of connec- tive tissue grafts. When looking at the success rate, long term stability and aesthetical outcome every matrix has to face the comparison with the connective tissue graft. Due to its perfect colour match, the bilaminar blood supply and the high grade of clinical success this techni- que is still regarded as the gold standard. In the present study Copios ® (Zimmer, Germany), a matrix derived from bovine pericardium was used in order cover teeth with recession of Miller class I and II. The matrix was well tolerated by all of patients with no allergic reaction or other complications observed within the study period. The data of this study were able to prove that obviously, the application of the Copios ® matrix leads to a marked increase of the clinical attachment level after the obser- vation time point of 6 month. These results are in accordance with previously published data employing a similar human dermal derived matrix . In this study no change was observed in the probing depth within the six months. The width of gingiva increased in average 0,9 mm, which is slightly less compared to the values reported for connective tissue grafts. However, when
Introduction: Simple suture isn’t always possible in large congenital diaphragmatic hernia (cdh) defects. Synthetic materials are used for correction such as Silastic®, Gore-Tex® (GT), Teflon® or biological, such as autologous muscle patches. It was shown that bovine pericardium (bp) was effective to correct those large defects with many positive outcomes when compared with syntactic materials. Aim: This study aims to establish an experimental model of correction for large diaphragmatic defect with PB and GT patches to compare histologically the tissue interaction between them and diaphragm in young Wistar rats. Materials & Methods: 15 wistar rats were divided in 3 groups: Rats that used BP was named G1; Rats that used GT was named G2; and rats with only scraping in the diphragm, named G3 (control). Animals were submited to a laparotomy and fixed pathces to diaphragms and harvested 3 weeks later. Area between normal diaphragm and patches were isolated and separated for histological analysis, such as lymphocytic infiltration (inflam- mation), neovascularization and fibrosis. Results: G1 presented inflammation be- tween BP and Diaphragm In 5 Samples. G2 Presented Neovascularization In 5 Sam- ples, But No inflammation. Fibrotic tissue overlapping GT patches occurred in 3 samples in G2. Comparing G1 with G2 there was a significant statistical difference concerning inflammation ( P = 0.0079), in G1. Comparing neovascularization there is no significant statistical difference ( P = 0.4444), despite a slight higher incidence in G2. Fibrosis in both groups presented no significant statistical difference ( P = 0.4444), despite a slight higher incidence in G2. There were no alterations in G3. Discussion: Despite the statistical difference in the inflammatory process was more frequent in G1 ( P = 0.0079), neovascularization and fibrosis were more frequent in G2. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model was satisfactory to reproduce How to cite this paper: Guerra, A.F., Filho,
10 Read more
Pericardium is a collagenous tissue which surrounds the heart, and is harvested for leaflet manufacture. Prior to valve mounting, the pericardial tissue is sterilised and fixed with glutaraldehyde. There have been a number of published studies on the mechanical characterisation of this tissue, however results differ greatly between authors . Furthermore, there is limited knowledge of the mechanical fatigue performance of glutaraldehyde fixed bovine pericardium (GLBP) and the mechanical properties of GLBP have been previously investigated only in specific orientations of highly aligned specimens; exclusive of fibre dispersion. Furthermore, these studies were not conducted on commercial tissue specimens, but rather tissue fixed ‘in-house’ for 1-7 days, and stored in saline thereafter –.
22 Read more
We used a bovine pericardium produced by Braile Biomedica. However, several other industries also pro- duce the same patch. Some industries use special proce- dures to reduce the prevalence of calcification. For example, Synovis, who produces Vascu-Guard , fol- lows Apex-Processing. Briefly, in this process, the levels of residual glutaraldehyde are below the limits of detec- tion by the sophisticated analytical methods now avail- able (< 0.5 ppm) and products undergoing Apex- Processing have levels of cellularity that are four times lower than a variety of competitive materials including products conventionally treated.
Structural dysfunction, due to calcification and non-calcific deterioration, is the major cause of failure of bio- prosthetic heart valves. Glutaraldehyde (GA) was introduced for fixation of bioprosthetic valves to decrease immunogenecity, increase crosslinking of connective tissue proteins, and increase strength and durability . Consequently, it has been used extensively for the preservation of bovine pericardium derived valves and por- cine aortic valves. However, it has been found that GA fixation stimulates dystrophic calcification, as a conse- quence of xenograft cells devitalization and a toxic effect of unstable cross-linking. The mechanism of minera- lization of GA-fixed bioprosthesis consists of attraction and precipitation in which activated phosphatases bind to calcium upon lipid-based cell debris, which are full of phospholipids  . Despite the controversies around the different effects of GA on the calcification process  , GA-fixed tissue remains the basic concept of xe- nograft engineering and GA is the standard fixative with no alternative in view. Nevertheless, additional antical- cificant treatments have been developed to block calcification at the cellular level and to provide better structur- al integrity  .
10 Read more
trich pericardium was higher than bovine pericardium . Daar et al. investigated the effects of penetrating ionising photon radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium in the uniaxial tensile test. In this re- search, it was concluded that UTS was reduced to the dose of 80 Gy . Paez et al. studied the mechanical behavior of calf, pig, and ostrich pericardium in unsu- tured and sutured states using a statistical method; it was concluded that ostrich pericardium had suitable mechanical resistance, relative to pig and calf peri- cardium, and it could be used as new biomaterials in the fabrication of bioprosthesis . Claramunt et al. studied the fatigue behavior of young ostrich peri- cardium and presented the relationship between the number of cycles until the failure of each sample and the maximum pressure by the least square method . Cohn et al. compared the mechanical behavior of ca- nine, human, and bovine isolated pericardium in tensile testing . Zioupos and Barbenel, on the other hand, proposed a constitutive law for the investigation of the mechanical behavior of native bovine pericardium in
12 Read more
With respect to the use of the bovine pericardial tissue, the main advantages are the lack of limitation in the length of the graft and lower risk of pericardial infec- tion and thrombosis as compared to PTFE. However, Ciccone et al.  recommended the administration of continuous anticoagulant therapy for 6 months after sur- gery when bovine pericardium grafts are used. This is because bovine pericardium is heterogeneous and rejec- tion at different levels of severity may still occur, which would increase the overall cost of the graft when com- pared with an autologous pericardium graft. Thus far, no reports have indicated the application of bovine peri- cardial tubes in SVC reconstruction . Therefore, the safety and long-term effects of bovine pericardial tubes are still controversial.
The structural response of collagen ﬁ brils in pericardium and other tissues when subjected to strain and the e ﬀ ect of cross linking on those structural changes are not well understood. Speci ﬁ cally, there is uncertainty about whether natural cross links of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and synthetic cross links of glutaraldehyde have a mechanical function. Bovine pericardium was treated either with chondroitinase ABC to remove natural cross links or with glutaraldehyde to form synthetic cross links. The collagen ﬁ bril orientation index (OI) and D -spacing was measured on pericardium subjected to strain using synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Under strain the collagen ﬁ brils become much more oriented in the direction of the strain, with OI increasing from 0.25 to 0.89 in chondroitinase ABC-treated material, 0.22 to 0.93 in native material, and 0.22 to 0.77 in the glutaraldehyde-treated material. The proportion of ﬁ brils that are recruited during stress varies from 36% in chondroitinase ABC-treated material, 12% in native material, to 45% in the glutaraldehyde-treated material. The increase in D -spacing shows the individual ﬁ brils are strained in chondroitinase ABC-treated material by 2.4% on average or 4.6% for those in the direction of applied strain, in native material, 2.7% and 4.1%, respectively, and in the glutaraldehyde-treated material, 3.2% and 6.4%, respectively. Glutaraldehyde cross links are, therefore, shown to constrain the collagen ﬁ brils and link them together mechanically. GAGs do not have such a marked mechanical e ﬀ ect; contrarily, the nature of internal structural responses to strain suggests that GAGs may have a lubricating rather than a binding e ﬀ ect.
213 Read more
Despite the fact that BHVs have been in use for almost 50 years, the durability of these valves has essentially remained unchanged (Zilla et al. 2008). This points to an inadequate understanding of the critical mechanisms of BHV failure and in particular, calcification of tissues such as bovine pericardium and porcine heart valves. Interestingly, since it is well established that calcium is present in various forms of phosphates in human soft tissues (most prominently calcium hydroxyapatite) (Bertazzo et al. 2013; Ronchetti et al. 2013), there is an implicit assumption in the literature that one can safely accept that calcium also exists in similar chemical forms in animal tissue such as bovine pericardium. This would imply that the mechanism of continuous calcification in BHVs post-implantation is closely parallel to that of calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. However, if the chemical forms of calcium present in these tissues are not the same or similar to those present in human soft tissues, the eventual chemical forms and their rate of deposition could be different. More importantly, the approaches currently used to control calcium content and its deposition in BHV may not be optimal.
140 Read more
estimating the number of cells settled on a substrate over a fixed time period (Herbst et al, 1988). Direct or indirect methods of estimation can be employed. Visual counting under a light microscopy is the most obvious direct assay and an indirect assay is to label the cells with a radioisotope and measure the resultant activity in a scintillation counter. Static settlement assays have limited value in assessing the interaction of one cell type with an underlying monolayer as they will only record the events in one time frame. Time-lapse filming of the interactive process is of more value because although the number of samples are small of necessity, it allows the observer to follow the entire progress of a single cell or group of cells over a prolonged time period. Procedures used to investigate the effects of cell density and age on the adhesion of lymphocytes, macrophages and smooth muscle cells to bovine aortic endothelial monolayers (de Bono and Green, 1983), have been adapted in this investigation to study the settlement and invasive behaviour of the cell types involved in the formation of complex ERMs.
267 Read more
Copyright © 2018 J. S. Foo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Congenital absence of pericardium is a rare condition with electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and echocardiographic ﬁndings which may mimic those of other cardiac conditions. We present a case of a 19-year-old asymptomatic female with incidental car- diomegaly on chest X-ray and electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes, which meet the revised task force criteria for deﬁnite arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy but subsequently conﬁrmed to have congenital partial absence of pericardium on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
The thickened, constricting pericardium affects the posterior left ventricle (pericardial thickness is 8 mm) more than the posterior left atrium, which then expands at a more acute angle respected to the LV wall  as shown in Figure 5. IVS bounce (septal shudder or shivering septum) is the most consistent sign of CP as shown in Figure 6 with a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 93% . It is an abnormal ventricular coupling manifest by pronounced septal displace- ment during deep inspiration as a “paradoxical bouncing motion” of IVS initial- ly directed towards and then away from the LV during early diastole. The infe- rior vena cava is plethoric (dilated without any respiratory variation in its di- ameter) in constrictive pericarditis as shown in Figure 10 as a manifestation of elevated venous pressures, but right ventricle may show normal contour with tubular morphology (tubularization).
19 Read more
The USDA (USDA 9 CFR 113.46-53) and EU (EMEA- CPMP-BWP-1793-02) regulations require that all FBS, regardless of country of origin, be tested and/or treated (by heat or gamma irradiation) to assure its freedom of the following eight adventitious viruses: bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), parainfluenza 3 (PI3), rabies, reovirus 3 (REO3), bovine adenovirus (BAV), bovine parvovirus (BPV), and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Because these eight viruses affect cattle in all continents of the world, they may unintentionally be present in FBS from any origin. The cell culture testing procedures required by USDA and EU serve not only to detect these eight viruses, but also to detect hemagglutination/hemadsorption and cytopathic effects caused by other viruses, which can contaminate FBS.
Naïve lymphocytes that respond to infection in the lung express CCR genes 1–10 . Specifically, human monocytes have been shown to respond to respiratory syncytial virus by increasing expression of CCR1 recep- tors . Mice lacking the CCR1 gene produce little if any inflammatory responses during the acute phase of viral pneumonia . The pneumonia virus of mice (PVM) produces similar chemokine responses as human respira- tory syncytial virus (RSV). In this study, we detected an increase in the transcript abundance of CCR1 at the time of illness. Moreover, of the five sick animals, one tested positive for bovine BRSV and two were positive for BCV.
Collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in animal kingdom belongs to a family of fibrous proteins, which transfer load in tissues and which provide a highly biocompatible environment for cells. This high biocompatibility makes collagen a perfect biomaterial for implantable medical products and scaffolds for in vitro testing systems. To manufacture collagen based solutions, porous sponges, membranes and threads for surgical and dental purposes or cell culture matrices, collagen rich tissues as skin and tendon of mammals are intensively processed by physical and chemical means. Other tissues such as pericardium and intestine are more gently decellularized while maintaining their complex collagenous architectures. Tissue processing tech- nologies are organized as a series of steps, which are combined in different ways to manufacture structurally versatile materials with varying properties in strength, stabil- ity against temperature and enzymatic degradation and cellular response. Complex structures are achieved by combined technologies. Different drying techniques are performed with sterilisation steps and the preparation of porous structures simultane- ously. Chemical crosslinking is combined with casting steps as spinning, moulding or additive manufacturing techniques. Important progress is expected by using collagen based bio-inks, which can be formed into 3D structures and combined with live cells. This review will give an overview of the technological principles of processing colla- gen rich tissues down to collagen hydrolysates and the methods to rebuild differently shaped products. The effects of the processing steps on the final materials properties are discussed especially with regard to the thermal and the physical properties and the susceptibility to enzymatic degradation. These properties are key features for biological and clinical application, handling and metabolization.
74 Read more
the traditional left parasternal view, more of the right ventricle is seen due to the left shift of the heart and, as a result, the patient may be falsely diagnosed with RV dilatation (figure 3A). 12 In the apical window, there is marked lateral displacement of the heart and the appearance of compressed atria with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position (figure 3B). 12 As a result, some find that images are better obtained in supine position rather than left lateral decubitus. 12 Exagger- ated movement of the heart may also be seen during stress echocardiography examination. 12 The paradoxical movement can be cancelled in the right lateral position since the right- sided pericardium restricts the abnormal shift of the heart. 20 Cardiac hypermobility and abnormal ventricular septal wall ‘rocking motion’ are described in most patients. 29 The typical findings with the complete
Unfortunately, the idea presented is not exclusively new. A method not significantly different from ours was first described by Calvin in 1971. He suggested the para- sternal mediastinotomy as a possible clinical application for pericardial fenestration . We have found one art- icle of a case report using the same approach for solving the problem of tension pneumo-pericardium  and another about pericardioscopy performed with the same armamentarium . However our Pub Med search was unable to reveal any publication that discussed an appli- cation of parasternal pericardial fenestration in cases of neoplastic pericardial effusion.
Introduction: The Argus II retinal prosthesis is composed of an epiretinal electrode array positioned over the macula and connected to an extrascleral electronics case via a silicone cable, running through a sclerotomy. During implantation, the manufacturer recommends to cover the sclerotomy site with a patch of processed human pericardium to prevent postoperative hypotony and conjunctival erosion by the underlying electronics case. Due to biomedical regulations prohibiting the use of this material in France, we developed an alternative technique combining a scleral flap protecting the sclerotomy and an autogenous graft of superior temporalis fascia overlying the electronics case.
of the heart potentially involving all layers (endocardium, pericardium and myocardium). The resulting damage to the heart from rheumatic fever is termed as rheumatic heart disease, a chronic condition characterized by . Acute rheumatic fever is a complication of up to 3 % of sporadic upper respiratory infection caused by group A B hemolytic streptococci. A complication results from acute rheumatic fever is chronic rheumatic carditis. It resuls from tructure. It resuls in fibrous tissue groth in valve leaflets and chordea tendinea with scarring and contractures. Mitral valve is most frequently involved. Needs