We sought to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilianchildren with SLI and explore whether be- havior problems and low social competence are associ- ated with language deficits among this clinical group. This sample included a group of children with substan- tial expressive language problems, mainly from low- to mid-SES Brazilian families. We found that, similar to international studies, Brazilianchildren with SLI had more behavior problems and showed less social compe- tence than the general population (Macharey and von Suchodoletz 2008; St Clair et al. 2011; Van Agt et al. 2011; van Daal et al. 2007). The percentage of children in this sample classified as “at risk of” total behavior problems (50 %) was higher than rates reported in previ- ous studies with younger children (van Daal et al. 2007; Willinger et al. 2003), but lower than those from German language-impaired children from the same age range (Noterdaeme and Amorosa 1999). Behavior prob- lems included both internalizing and externalizing difficul- ties, but were more evident for the former. This finding is in line with Gallagher’s review (1999) reporting higher
The present study aims to compare the performance between Brazilianchildren with Developmental Dyslexia (DD) and children without learning difficulties on tests of attention and Executive Functions. The study sample consists of study group (20 subjects) attending the Learning Disability clinic of Univer- sity Hospital and control group (20 subjects) from public school in Campinas-SP. The instruments utilized were: WISC-III factor indexes and subtests, cancellation test, Trail Making Test, Stroop Color Word Test, Tower of London, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and verbal fluency test. The results revealed differences between groups in scores of different instruments. The findings suggest that children with dyslexia have difficulties in performing visuospatial and auditive attention tasks, as well as tasks involving different components of executive functions, such as flexibility, inhibitory control, strategy use, working memory and verbal fluency. Such changes may be part of dyslexia and accompany the core deficit in the phono- logical component of language.
Brazilianchildren had a wider rearfoot during the early ages (3 and 4 years), a narrower forefoot for 5 to 10 years, a wider mid-foot for 4 year-olds, and a nar- rower mid-foot for 10 year-olds. These differences demonstrate the distinct morphology of German and Brazilian feet. Footwear manufacturers supplying both countries should consider these results. The common use of European lasts in Brazilian shoe companies might affect children’s shoe fitting. Brazil is a country of ethnic diversity due to its history. Brazil used to be a Portuguese colony until 190 years ago, with plantations that in- volved many African immigrants. Indians, Africans and Europeans could be the greatest influence in the anthro- pometric characteristics of Brazilian people, while the German population is predominantly Caucasian with only 8% of the population classified as non-European . Hawes et al.  showed that African feet are slightly narrower in the forefoot and wider in the rearfoot when compared to Caucasian feet of similar length. This may explain different widths between German and Brazilianchildren. However, the Brazilian population origins did not affect the maturation of the medial longitudinal arch. Echarri and Forriol  found a higher proportion of flatfeet in urban Congolese children compared to children from rural regions due to the habitual footwear use. It was expected that the tropical climate of Brazil, with habitual Table 2 Means and standard deviations of forefoot (FFW), midfoot (MFW) and rearfoot widths (RFW) normalized by children ’ s height (%), Chippaux-Smirak Index (CSI) and Staheli ’ s Index (SI) of the Brazilian and German populations
originally tested as a numerical variable, indicating the like- lihood of a child being in higher or lower categories of phy- sical activity . However, the ability of the questionnaire to discriminate between active and inactive children has not been assessed. This questionnaire was chosen because it contains a small number of questions, it includes usual activities performed by Brazilianchildren, it is workable in large scale studies and allows the assessment of cut-off points or specific questions that are more likely to categor- ize children as sufficiently active or not. Thus, the aim of the present study is to identify cut off points of the NPAQ to accurately categorize children as physically active or inactive. We used accelerometry as the gold standard measure of physical activity for comparison.
Background: More than 15 million people worldwide have rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease due to RF. Secondary prophylaxis is a critical cost-effective intervention for preventing morbidity and mortality related to RF. Ensuring adequate adherence to secondary prophylaxis for RF is a challenging task. This study aimed to describe the rates of recurrent episodes of RF, quantify adherence to secondary prophylaxis, and examine the effects of medication adherence to the rates of RF in a cohort of Brazilianchildren and adolescents with RF. Methods: This retrospective study took place in the Pediatric Rheumatology outpatient clinic at a tertiary care hospital (Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and included patients with a diagnosis of RF from 1985 to 2005.
Similar studies are still scanty in South American countries, where both peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma are very common, and we are not aware of any investigation, in Brazil, of iceA genotype distribution among H. pylori strains isolated from patients presenting with the different clinical situations associated with the bacterium. Furthermore, no such study has yet been performed on strains obtained from chil- dren. For these reasons, we undertook this study in order to investigate, in Brazilianchildren and adults, the distribution of iceA in H. pylori strains isolated from gastritis, duodenal ulcer, and gastric carcinoma patients. Studies on the diversity of H. pylori genes may be important not only for predicting the clinical outcomes of the infection but also to understand better the worldwide distribution of the microorganism and its evo- lutionary origins. Also, we aimed to investigate the frequency of infection by more than one H. pylori genotype, an aspect still * Corresponding author. Mailing address: Edilberto Nogueira Mendes,
There is some evidence concerning the association between parental education and the consumption of unhealthy foods. The IDEFICS cohort study in Europe analyzed data from children aged 2 to 9 years old and showed that low parental education level was associated with higher intake of sugar-rich and fatty foods among children, while high parental education levels were asso- ciated with higher intake of low-sugar and low-fat foods . However, the studies conducted in less affluent parts of the world focused primarily on the risk of undernutrition, and very few studies addressed the determinants of obesity . Moreover, most of the studies conducted in this field focus on preschool and school age groups, indicating that factors in early child- hood (< one year) could be important for understanding the determinants of obesity in later life and provide insights into the importance of adequate nutrition during early life in obesity prevention.
The children were clinically examined for dental caries, gingivitis, fluorosis, and malocclusion by two examiners, who were calibrated in accordance with the WHO Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods criteria . All examina- tions took place at the children's school, out of doors in daylight, but not in direct sunlight. The dmft (sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the primary denti- tion) and DMFT (sum of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition) indices were used to assess caries status. The periodontal status assessment cri- teria were those proposed in the WHO's 1997 oral health survey methods manual , employing the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). This index classifies periodontal status based on six index teeth (16, 11, 26, 36, 31, 46) in patients under the age of 20 years. The codes were: 0 = healthy and 1 = bleeding observed directly or by using a mouth mirror, after probing. The presence or absence and severity of dental fluorosis were evaluated using the Dean's index criteria (DI)  at the following levels: 0 = normal; 1 = questionable; 2 = very mild; 3 = mild; 4 = moderate; and 5 = severe. The recording is made on the basis of the two teeth that are most affected. Malocclusion was scored using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) , which assesses the relative social acceptability of dental appearance by collecting and weighing data on 10 intraoral measurements. This enables each individual to be placed on a dental appearance continuum, ranging from 13 (the most socially acceptable) to 100 (the least acceptable), and orthodontic treatment needs can be pri- oritized based on the predefined categories of 'minor/ none' (scores 13 to 25), 'definite' (26 to 31), 'severe' (32 to 35), or 'handicapping' (36 or more) .
Injuries to the head and face are common in victims of motorcycle accidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of head and facial fractures among victims of motorcycle accidents in a trauma center. A cross-sectional study was developed through the analysis of 95 medical records of children and adolescents hospitalized due to motorcycle accidents in Campina Grande, Brazil. Data were analyzed with the SPSS software version 18, also using the Pearson’s chi-square test. The significance level adopted was 5 %. 77.9 % of victims were male and 22.1 % were female, representing a sex ratio of 3.5:1. As for age group, most had between 10 and 19 years (87.4%) and with respect to the day of the week, 55.8 % of incidents occurred over the weekend. The existence of bone fractures was observed in 85.3 % of victims and 17.9 % had fractures in the head and face. The occurrence of deaths was 3.2 %. There was association between age group and sex (p = 0.001). The motorcyclist road traffic accidents are more common in young male individuals and occur on weekends, with a male to female ratio of 3.5:1. The occurrence of bone fractures was high and most victims had a single injury however the number of deaths was very low.
emia and hyperlipidemia. Besides, it has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized countries, negatively affecting the health of children and adults, and leading to excessively high costs for society as a whole (Ma et al., 2016; et al., 2016). Obese children may have greater chances of becoming obese adults, and also be at higher risk of contracting these obesity-related diseases. In industrialized countries, childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions, exceeding the rates of malnutrition and infectious diseases. Brazil is no exception, and the high rates of childhood obesity have become a major public health concern, particularly due to the impact it causes in children’s lives, with its physical, social, economic and psychological consequences ., 2016; Lee et al., 2016; Buckley et al., ., 2015). In line with the latest census performed in Brazil, there are 33.5% of overweight in children and adolescents are 14.3% are obese (Costa Junior et al., 2015; INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH
The past decade has seen the world make considerable progress in reducing malaria cases and deaths. However, most endemic areas are still far from achieving coverage with antimalaria programs. Globally, an estimated 198 million people have become infected with Plasmodium spp. and 584,000 people have died of malaria, with the heaviest burden in African countries, where children aged below 5 years account for 78% of all deaths . Brazil contributed with a reduction in incidence of 76.8% between 2000 and 2014. Nevertheless, transmis- sion remains dominant in the Amazon region, account- ing for almost all reported cases in Brazil . In contrast, our study did not show reported cases in the Amazonas, Acre, Tocantins, and Pará states, suggesting either successful prevention campaigns, underreported cases, or both. Although malaria prevalence has grad- ually been declining in Brazil [43, 44], we believe that the number of underreported cases in the North region is high, as some studies have described cases in children [45, 46] in this area. On the other hand, the spatial dis- tribution of malaria has been found to be heterogeneous in other Brazilian regions. Cases were reported with
It can be seen that SES and parental education (espe- cially maternal education) had a moderate, but signifi- cant effect on children’s performance in written and oral language, as previously demonstrated by other studies (Noble et al. 2006, 2007). The acquisition of written lan- guage continuously improved with new skills, as the individual grows and it is totally dependent of the inter- actions with the environment (Finkbeiner and Coltheart 2009) that provides stimuli and experiences that are es- sential for this development as a primary means of social interaction (Kim 2009; Peeters et al. 2009). Low SES children are more likely to reside in an environment that exhibits sharply lower attainment levels and, in addition, that repeatedly manifests higher rates of crime, divorce, unemployment, and population density than high SES children. On the other hand, parents with high educa- tional level tend to have substantially better educated spouses and higher family income. Also, they are more likely to invest in their children through books, providing special lessons, or availability of a computer, for example (Carneiro et al. 2013). That exposure to written material is essential for language development (Marturano 2006) and there is evidence that children whose parents read to them when they are very young are more prepared for the development of reading when they enter school due to
two years old) whose body mass index percentile was calculated, 37 were underweight, 277 had a healthy weight, 50 were overweight, and 55 were obese. Mean waist circumference achieved 55.4±10.9 cm and mean hip circumference corresponded to 61.1±13.9 cm, while mean neck circumference was 27.6±3.4 cm. Mean waist-to- hip ratio corresponded to 0.92±0.1, mean waist- to-height ratio achieved 0.5±0.1 and 44.1% of patients presented high waist-to-height ratio. No difference was detected when data of girls and boys was compared. Weight, height, body mass index, body mass index percentile, neck and hip circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to- height ratio were significantly correlated with both waist and neck circumferences. conclusion: the prevalence of overweight and obesity in brazilianchildren is remarkable and similar to that obtained worldwide. this study is in accordance with those that considered waist and neck circumferences highly correlated with other anthropometric measures. We consider that these easily performable measures are helpful in the evaluation of visceral adipose tissue and should be part of the routine evaluation of brazilianchildren and adolescents.
The DDQ-B offers unique benefits in the assessment of toothache and the subsequent prioritization of dental treatment among Brazilianchildren. For the assessment of toothache, there is only one validated Brazilian in- strument (the Child Dental Pain Questionnaire, child- DPQ) with good psychometric properties (ICC = 0.99 and Cronbach’s alpha 0.81), but it is used only with children between the ages of 8 and 10 years . More- over, relevant oral health epidemiological data shows children’s need for a validated instrument: more than half of Brazilianchildren who are 5 years of age and under have caries in primary dentition according to a recent national government study . Similar high caries prevalence are found in this age group in Southern (40% of children 0 to 5 years old)  and Northern Brazil (62% of children 2 to 4 years old) . Moreover, 25% of parents/caregivers of preschoolers in Brazil indicated their child had a history of some type of toothache in their lifetime .
Although there has been a large amount of research on reading performance among Brazilianchildren, very little has been done on both home and school experiences and their influence on children’s literacy and language skills and research has fo- cused on children rather than on adolescent samples. The main question we ask on this study is whether perceived early print experience by adolescents and reading en- joyment relates to students reading performance in present day. Thirty-one adoles- cents participated in this research. They were enrolled in middle school and were from less affluent areas of the State of Rio de Janeiro. They answered a questionnaire about their perceived home literacy experiences in early age, a reading enjoyment scale and three reading measure tests. The results of the correlations carried out in the data showed that teenagers with higher home literacy scores made fewer errors in reading single words.
In this study, we investigate whether words that are more frequent have a higher chance of earlier acquisition. For this purpose, we com- pare data from children and adults, native speak- ers of Brazilian Portuguese, on an action naming task, looking at lexical evolution, using statistical and topological analysis of the data modeled as graphs. Our approach innovates in the sense that it directly simulates the influence of a linguistic factor over the process of lexical evolution.
It is clear that the seriousness and scope of this issue in so far as this study seeks to better understand the phenomenon in order to support decision-making aimed at pre- vention and control, in addition to supporting other studies. From this premise, based on experience and coexistence in the Child and Adolescent Protection Service—SOS CHILD, which belongs to the State Foundation for Children and Adolescents of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil (FUNDAC/RN), the question is: What are the epidemiological characteristics of children and adolescents victims of violence assisted at the emergency rooms in the city of Natal and referred to children and adolescents’ protection agencies?
The weaning process represents a period of particular concern in developing countries because it is often ac- companied by malnutrition, most commonly during the second semester of life, when foods other than breast milk are added to the diet . It is well recognized that the period of 6 - 24 months of age is one of the most critical time periods in the growth of the infant because at this time, children have high demands for nutrients and there are limitations in the quality and quantity of available foods. Infants older than 6 months require com- plementary foods of appropriate energy and nutrient densities in addition to breast milk to meet their physiologic needs. The relatively high energy requirements of young children, together with their limited gastric capacity, make it difficult for them to eat enough food, particularly if only a few meals per day are offered or if the foods have low energy density, or both . Adequate complementary feeding is a matter of great concern for interna- tional health agencies, which have published technical guidelines on optimal complementary feeding practices  . These guidelines address the following components: a) the introduction of foods other than breast milk at 6 mo of age; b) an adequate energy density and frequency of feeding of complementary foods; and, c) satis- factory nutrient density in these foods. Ensuring optimal complementary feeding practices for young children living in developing countries is a global public health priority because of their importance for the optimal growth, development, and well-being of infants and young children.