Bryophyllum pinnatum is usually known as Panphuti which belong to family Crassulaceae growing widely in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China, and Australia. It is a perennial herb grows 3–5 feet tall, fleshy dark green leaves that are distinctively scalloped and trimmed in red, and bell-like pendulous flowers. The plant contains various active compounds such as alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, bufadienolides, lipids, and organic acids. The pharmacological studies are reviewed and discussed, focusing on that different extracts from this plant have anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antianaphylactic, antileishmanial, antitumorous, antiulcerous, antibacterial, gastroprotective, immunosuppressive, insecticidal, muscle relaxant, sedative, central nervous system depressant, and analgesic. Conventionally, it is used for the treatment of fever, constipation, nourishment of the hair and treating grey hair, intestinal disorder, and leucorrhea. The current review is created with an intended to focus on the numerous ethnobotanical and traditional use as well as the phytochemical and pharmacological report on B. pinnatum.
Consequently pharmaceuticals and allied companies should avail themselves of this rare opportunity and incorporate Bryophyllum pinnatum and Citrus lemon as part of their active ingredients in oder to get their synergistic actions against the aetiologic agents that infects humans.
ABSTRACT: In vitro antibacterial activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum (in vivo generated and in vitro regenerated roots) were analysed in this study. Traditional uses for these plants treat specific conditions or diseases. The present study examined the antibacterial activity using the disk diffusion method using Ethanolic & Methanolic extract as part of the process of understanding the chemistry, toxicity and efficacy of these plant extracts. Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts of this plant was examined using a standard antimicrobial disk diffusion method. Extracts were tested against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) & Gram positive (Bacillus cereus & Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Methanolic in vitro regenerated roots showed higher inhibition zone against all bacterial species while natural growing plant root extract showed minimum inhibition. In vitro regenerated root extract showed moderate inhibition zone against all bacterial species. S. aureus showed maximum (25.2 mm) inhibition zone in in vitro root methanolic extract while V. cholerae showed minimum (14 mm) in natural growing root extract. In ethanolic extract maximum inhibition zone (22.1 mm) was observed against S. aureus and another maximum inhibition zone (21.3mm and 21mm) was reported against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa respectively. These results served to validate our procedures and indicate the need for the present study. Implications of these results for bioactivity and drug discovery potential of plant extracts can be further explored. This study serves as basis for further research on these weed plants.
nterest on the role of complementary and alternative drugs for the treatment of diseases has increased in recent time. Different types of herbs due to their high concentration of antioxidants have exhibited high potential for use in the treatment and management of certain clinical alteration. One of such herbs is bryophyllum pinnatum whose extract is known to be rich in alkaloids, triterpenes, glycosides, flavonoids, cardienolides, steroids, bufadienolides and lipids (Marriage and Wilson, 1971; Costa et al, 1995). The leaves contain a group of chemicals called bufadienolides which are very active. Bufadienolides like bryotoxin A, B, C are very similar in structure and activity to two other cardiac glycosides, digoxin and digitoxin and possesses antibacterial, antitumorous, cancer preventative and insecticidal actions (Steyn, and Van Heerden, 1998; Rastogi, and Mehrotra, 1994). Bryophyllum pinnatum contain fatty acid fractions including palmitic acid (89.3%), stearic acid (10.7%), traces of arachidic and behenic acid (Takashi et al 1988, Almeida et al,
Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Oken [syn. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Pers.; family Crassulaceae] is a perennial succulent plant that grows widely in tropical and subtrop- ical areas. In Europe, B. pinnatum started to be used in anthroposophic medicine  as treatment of preterm labour [15, 16]. Retrospective analyses of the clinical prac- tice revealed good efficacy of B. pinnatum preparations in this indication [15, 16], which was corroborated by a matched pair study . Results of a prospective rando- mised trial on acute tocolysis are in line with good efficacy, but have to be interpreted with caution since - due to poor recruitment rate - the study was discontinued before com- pletion . All clinical studies demonstrated a very good tolerability of B. pinnatum. The use of such preparations in the treatment of pre-term contractions was supported by in vitro studies [19, 20].
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Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.), syn. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.), and B. calycinum (Salisb.) is a widely distributed perennial medicinal herb. It is native to Madagascar, but has been naturalized in several other regions, including the temperate regions of Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. B. pinnatum is known by some common names including, life plant, air plant, maternity plant, love plant, miracle leaf, cathedral bells, mother of thousands, leaf of resurrection plant, and Lao di Sheng gen. The plant is locally called “Never Die” in Nigeria, and is very popular in folklore medicine. It has been used for the treatment of a variety of conditions in tropical America, India, China, Australia and Africa, including, rheumatism, body pain, arthritis, heartburn, skin ulcers, peptic ulcer, diabetes mellitus, microbial infections, and hypertension [1-6] . In Nigeria, the plant
Free radical scavenging activity of the crude extracts of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum and the alkaloidal feaction of methanol extract was established by measuring the decrease in absorbance of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. Equal volume of 10 -4 and 0.01% (w/v) solution of vitamin-E as a natural antioxidant and 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol (BHA) as a synthetic antioxidant were mixed and incubated at 30 O C ° for 15 min in the dark. Final mass ratio of the components in the mixture was 1/25 for DPPH/ Bryophyllum pinnatum extract and 1/0.5 for DPPH/reference. Control solution containing equal volume of DPPH and methyl alcohal was used as blank (A blank ). Methyl alcohal crude extract mixture was also
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In our research we used juice of a leaf which scientific name is Bryophyllum Pinnatum .In some countries it is called mother leaf or miracle leaf. In Bengali it is called PATHORKUCHI leaf. Generation of electricity from mother Leaf is quite simple. It is possible to produce electricity from BPL even for a layman. Though the produced voltage and current as well as the power is low but there is almost no danger for human as the usual electricity has. To get the electricity from BPL we have to undergo with some very simple process. These processes are as below:
Researchers are increasingly turning their attention to traditional medicine, looking for a new leads to develop better drug against bacterial infections. Bryophyllum pinnatum bark is used traditionally in treatment of diarrhea (Kiritikar, 1975), pains and inflammations, upper respiratory infection, stomach ulcers, hypertension and various bacterial, viral and fungal infections (Silva et al., 1995). This study was designed to undertake phytochemical screening and in-vitro antimicrobial activities of Bryophylum pinnatum stem bark against clinically important pathogen
Fresh Bryophyllum pinnatum is highly perishable and does not store long due to high level of moisture content and other chemical compounds in it that encourages deterioration. Over the years, drying has been the simplest and most economic means of decreasing moisture content, inhibit the development and activities of microorganisms thus prolonging the shelf life of the product (Azam, 1986). Drying also reduces cost of packaging, storage and transportation, and the acceptability of the product (Okos et al., 1992) although certain problems like shrinkage, unfavourable changes in colour, texture, flavour and nutritive value may occur if adequate precautions are not taken (Crivelli et al., 2002).
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CONCLUSION: The outcome demonstrated the nephroprotective impact of concentrate of Bryophyllum pinnatum in ethylene glycol actuated urolithiasis show. In this manner, Bryophyllum pinnatum may anticipate measurably noteworthy calcium oxalate precious stone testimony in the kidney by forestalling hyperoxaluria-initiated peroxidative harm to the renal cylindrical film surface (lipid peroxidation), which thus can avoid factually critical calcium oxalate gem connection and the resulting improvement of kidney stones. Urinary science is one of the essential factors in deciding the sort of precious stone shaped and the idea of macromolecules included on the outside of the gems. Thus, the investigation of the urinary science identified with the calculi framing minerals will give a decent sign of the degree of stone arrangement. In this manner; the concentrate of Bryophyllum pinnatum is useful to keep the repeat of the illness as it demonstrated its impact on beginning times of stone improvement.
Chemical investigation of the bioactive constituents from the leaf of a versatile Nigerian medicinal plant Bryophyllum pinnatum resulted in the isolation of two new novel flavonoids; 5 I Methyl 4 I , 5, 7 trihydroxyl flavone 1 and 4 I , 3, 5, 7 tetrahydroxy 5-methyl 5 I -propenamine anthocyanidines 2. The structure of these compounds were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy in combination with UV, IR and MS spectra data. Antimicrobial studies showed that the isolated compounds successfully inhibited Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The antimicrobial observation of the above compounds could be responsible for the activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum and its use in herbal medicine in Nigeria.
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an array of side effects but also because plant based inhibitors are important biochemical tools for studying the mechanism of enzymes ,  . The drugs that have inhibitory effect on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes have been shown to decrease postprandial hyperglycemia and improve glucose metabolism without promoting insulin secretion .The mode of inhibition studies show that the extract HMBP acts as an allosteric inhibitor, binding to another site on the enzyme such that, when bound, it changes the entire shape of the enzyme so that its active site is also altered rendering it unable to bind to its natural substrate. As with increasing extract concentration, fewer active sites are available, so reaction velocity decreases. Thus the present work shows that hydro-methanolic extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum is beneficial against oxidative stress by activation of various antioxidants and effective in the control of Diabetes.
The phlogistic agents induced inflammation was significantly inhibited by the treatment given when compared with the standard drug. Bryophyllum Pinnatum exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in a dose dependent manner. Egg albumin induced paw edema: The effect of Bryophyllum Pinnatum on egg albumin induced paw edema was depicted in the table 1. The Bryophyllum Pinnatum at a dose of 500mg/kg showed significantly greater inhibitory activity (46.25%) against standard diclofenac sodium (47.02%). Turpentine oil induced paw edema: The inhibitory activity on turpentine oil induced paw edema are shown in table 2. The Bryophyllum Pinnatum at a dose of 500mg/kg showed inhibitory activity of 68.75% against standard (65.28%). Formaldehyde induced paw edema: As shown in table 3 the Bryophyllum Pinnatum
There are major concerns about rising levels of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This is due to the difficulties in treating the infections which they cause and .the ease with which they spread in hospitals. This has necessitated the continuous search for alternative anti-MRSA agents. Efforts in this study was therefore directed at isolation of MRSA from the urine of patients and its susceptibility to the methanol extract and aqueous fraction of Bryophyllum pinnatum . Urine samples from the urine of patients were screened for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus using conventional microbiological methods. Confirmed isolates were screened for methicillin resistance by confirming their susceptibility or otherwise to 30µg cefoxitin. Detection of Mec A gene by Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was further used to confirm some MRSA isolates. Conventional susceptibility testing methods were used to compare the activity of both methanol extract of Brophyllum pinnatum and its aqueous fraction on the MRSA isolates. Results obtained confirmed the susceptibility of the MRSA isolates to the extracts and that their activity was time dependent. It also showed that the extract was only moderately toxic with an LD 50 of 866.03mg/kg body weight
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The Bryophyllum pinnatum has antimicrobial potential on various multidrug resistant clinical isolates from patients with UTI. By preparing solvent extracts of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves in various organic and aqueous solvents observed for antibacterial activity against wide variety of isolates from UTI. UTI caused by variety of gram positive and gram negative bacterial species like E.coli, S.aureus, P.aeruginosa, Streptococcus spp. Bryophyllum pinnatum has great
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Monoamine oxidase (EC, 22.214.171.124) is an important biological enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of monoamines. It is critical for the inactivation of neurotransmitters. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) exists in two isoforms; A and B. Abnormality in the activity of the monoamine oxidase B has been associated with neurological dysfunctions such as Alzheimer’s disease. An insight into the interaction of monoamine oxidase B binding site with inhibitors is crucial for the development of new pharmaceutical agents. In this study, we examined the inhibitory activity of human MAO-B and a series of bioactive ligands from Bryophyllum pinnatum as potential Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors. Computational docking analysis was performed using extra precision (XP) feature of Glide module, version 5.6. The final products of molecular docking were clustered to specify the binding free energy and Kinetic inhibition (Ki) was calculated. Docking results showed all the compounds tested (patuletin, luteolin, kaempferol and acacetin) had high binding score compared to the standard reference drugs. Specifically, patuletin, an O- methylated flavonol had the optimum binding affinity (-10.105kcal/Mol) compared to the standard drugs selegiline (−7.82 kcal/mol) and rasagiline (-7.82). Hydrogen bond interactions between the 3-OH of patuletin and Tyr-435 and Ile-199 of the active residues were found to have played a critical role in stabilizing the ligand bond at the active site. This present study provides salient information for the rational drug design of more potent and selective Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors in the management of neuro-degenerative disorders. Further in-vitro and in-vivo studies validating the inhibitory activity of Patuletin is highly recommended .
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Alcoholic extracts of B. pinnatum showed antimicrobial activity against a number of Gram (+ve) and (-ve) bacterial strains 14 . Three compounds make Bryophyllum their unique medicinal value that is Bryophilin A which shows anti-tumour activity others Bersaldegenin-3- Acetate and Bryophilin C which shows insecticidal properties 15 . It can also lower blood pressure, blood sugar levels showed antioxidant effects which makes it health strengthening agents. Its roots contain glycosides, essential oils and alkaloids.
Furthermore, the aqueous extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum antimicrobial activity followed concentration gradient and organism dependent. Fig. 3.7 showed that the higher the concentration, the higher the efficacy of the extract. The significant level of variation between the extract and the control (oflodazole) was low on E. coli (P>0.05) (Table 3.8) at 75 mg/ml (Fig. 3.7). This implies that at higher concentration of the aqueous extract of B. pinnatum there was no significant variation in the level of efficacy between the extract and the control on E. coli. However, the aqueous extract showed higher zone of inhibition on P. aeruginosa compared to E. coli and S. aureus isolates used in this study. These contradict the study of  and  that recorded S. aureus as the more sensitive isolate to aqueous extracts of B. pinnatum leaves. The experiment performed on the effect of combined extracts of B. pinnatum and V. amygdalina leaves had effect on all the test isolates but showed more efficacy on the gram-negative bacteria isolates than the gram positive isolate. P. aeruginosa compared to E. coli and S. aureus showed the highest zone of clearance at all concentrations (mg/ml) (25, 50 & 75). The findings of this present study revealed a uniform effect of both herbs when combined together on the test bacterial isolates used. At concentrations of 25 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 75 mg/ml combined extracts, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S. aureus were effectively inhibited. Many authors like [42,35] had previously documented the antimicrobial capabilities of each of these important herbs particularly when used as single therapy at high concentrations.
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collected directly from traditional healers and herbal sellers in this area indicated that, leaves or the whole plant are used as analgesic and to treat blennorrhoea, syphilis, jaundice, candidiasis, dysmenorrhoea, external ulcers, burns and convulsions. B. pinnatum is also used elsewhere for treatment of ear infections, cough and dysentery . This wide range of traditional uses justi- fies its being called “life plant“, “resurrection plant“ or “goodluck“ [3,4]. Previous phytochemical studies revealed the presence of terpenoids , cytotoxic bufadienolides  and antileishmanial flavonoids  in this plant. In addition, 60% methanolic extract of leaves of B.