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Photoactivable heterocyclic cages in a comparative release study of butyric acid as a model drug

Photoactivable heterocyclic cages in a comparative release study of butyric acid as a model drug

All compounds were fully characterised by high resolution mass spectrometry, IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The IR spectra of compounds 7-15 displayed stretching vibration bands of the ester carbonyl group from 1711 to 1743 cm -1 . 1 H NMR spectra showed signals of butyric acid, the methyl (δ 0.89-1.02 ppm) and two methylenes (δ 1.58-1.81 and 2.32-2.50 ppm). The heterocycle methylene group, adjacent to the ester link, was visible for all compounds (δ 5.20-6.12 ppm). The newly formed ester linkages were confirmed by 13 C NMR spectra signals of the carbonyl group, at about δ 172.52- 173.42 ppm. The thiocarbonyl group in compounds 13-15 affected the chemical shift of the pyran proton H-2, which appeared downfield in the range δ 7.51-7.59 ppm, while in the precursor compounds 9-11, with a carbonyl group, it occurred at δ 6.58-6.70 ppm. The presence of the new C=S bond (C-3) at the heterocyclic ring was also confirmed by 13 C NMR spectra signals at δ 194.49- 195.27 ppm, when compared to the carbonyl group, which occurred at δ 159.43-160.31 ppm. The chemical shift of the pyran carbon C-2 was also influenced by the carbon-sulphur double bond, being in the range δ 126.97-127.80 ppm for compounds 13-15, and δ 112.72 or 113.14 ppm for compounds 9-11.
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Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran.

Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran.

Yadav and his colleagues (11), studied the production of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt dahi (prepared with buffalo milk) containing L. acidophilus and L. casei, during fermentation and after 10 days storage at 4˚C. They reported that an increased level of fatty acids during fermentation and storage in the probiotic yogurt samples is mainly due the lypolysis of milk fat which was higher in the presence of probiotic bacteria. Compared to their results, the lower levels of butyric acid concentrations obtained in this study could also be attributed to lower milk fat levels of cow milk (1.5% fat yogurt prepared with cow milk) used in this study compared to buffalo milk.
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Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

The model is not media-independent: the media used as described above affects both the cell growth rate and the quantities of butyrate/butyric acid produced, and dif- fering glucose consumption profiles would produce dif- ferent results. To better quantify the optimal glucose concentration for the cell growth, the maximal specific growth rates were determined for the wild-type and irra- diated strains from kinetic data taken from the exponen- tial growth phase and plotted against the concentration of added glucose. As can be seen in Figure 5C, the max- imal specific growth rates for the strains irradiated at 114 AMeV and a dose of 40 Gy were calculated accord- ing to the example where the strain was grown in CGM medium containing 60 g·L -1 of glucose. The best linear range of data points was chosen that corresponded to the exponential growth phase of the strain. In some cases, where the minimum requirement of three experi- mental data points was not satisfied, an alternative ex- pression was utilized that accounted only for two extreme points (at the beginning and at the end of the exponential phase). The straight line slope (m = μ max )
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The Chemoselective Fischer’s Synthesis of Indolenine Derivatives By iso-Butyric Acid As A Weak Organic Acid Catalyst

The Chemoselective Fischer’s Synthesis of Indolenine Derivatives By iso-Butyric Acid As A Weak Organic Acid Catalyst

A mixture of various phenylhydrazines 1a-e (1.0 mmol) and ketones 2a-c (1.0 mmol) were added to iso- butyric acid (2.0 mL) and, then, was stirred under reflux conditions. Reaction progress was monitored by TLC (n-hexane:ethylacetate 4:1). The mixture was cooled and neutralized with 1 M NaOH, diluted with water (100 mL) and extracted with CHCl 3 (3×50 mL). The

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The Effect of Inhibitors on Butyric Acid Fermentation by Clostridium Tyrobutyricum.

The Effect of Inhibitors on Butyric Acid Fermentation by Clostridium Tyrobutyricum.

Generally, there are three methods of producing butyric acid. At the industrial scale, butyric acid is obtained mostly from petroleum feedstocks by a petrochemical method (Jones et al., 1986; Liu et al., 2013). This chemical process is related to the oxidation of butyraldehyde. Butyraldehyde comes from propylene, which is derived from crude oil by oxo synthesis (Cascone et al., 2008). This method is preferred due to its relatively low production cost and the availability of the crude material (Dwidar et al., 2012). The second method is extracting butyric acid from butter directly. The concentration of butyric acid in butter ranges from 2% to 4%, but the extraction process is so complex and expensive that this method is not a promising alternative (Zigová et al., 2000). The third method is a biological method via microbial fermentation (Liu et al., 2013; Jones et al., 1986). Even though the current cost of the biological method is higher than the chemical-synthesis method, the microbial resources are renewable and they are more abundant, compared to limited crude oil (Dwidar et al., 2012). In addition, the demand for bio-based organic and natural products makes the biological method more desirable, especially for food additives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals (Dwidar 2012; Dwidar et al., 2013; Liu et al., 2013; Zhang et al., 2009).
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2,3 Di­methyl 2 (p tolyl­sulfon­yl)butyric acid

2,3 Di­methyl 2 (p tolyl­sulfon­yl)butyric acid

Arylsulfonylalkanoic acids have been synthesized as potential sweeteners (Polan´ski et al., 1997; Dolez˙ych et al., 1999; Ratajczak & Polan´ski, 1991). Crystal structures have been reported for the compounds 2,3-dimethyl-2-phenylsulfonyl- butyric acid [which differs from the title compound, (I), an effective artificial sweetener, only in the missing p-methyl group (Polan´ski et al., 1997)] and ethyl p-nitrophenyl- sulfonylacetate (Anulewicz et al., 1990).

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Enhanced extraction of butyric acid under high-pressure CO2 conditions to integrate chemical catalysis for value-added chemicals and biofuels

Enhanced extraction of butyric acid under high-pressure CO2 conditions to integrate chemical catalysis for value-added chemicals and biofuels

To operate a continuous process integrated with extractive fermentation and catalytic process, the prop- erties of extractant in the extractive fermentation should be considered for downstream processes such as cata- lytic upgrading of a fermentation product to value- added chemicals. For example, tertiary amines are easily extractible but, due to its corrosive nature and high reac- tivity with chemical catalysts, it requires special atten- tion as extractants may not react with catalysts in future steps. We also considered the process by which butyric acid is integrated with value-added chemicals by inves- tigating the use of CO 2 -mediated pH swings, and chose
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Relationship between periodontal disease and butyric acid produced by periodontopathic bacteria

Relationship between periodontal disease and butyric acid produced by periodontopathic bacteria

periodontal diseases are less resistant to LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis than HGFs collected from healthy subjects. The pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in inflamed subjects is reportedly upregulated by lower LPS and shorter stimulation time compared to that in healthy subjects [22]. There- fore, there is a possibility that healthy and inflamed gingival fibroblasts may show different reactions to butyric acid stimulation. In the above research [16], the exposure to butyric acid was up to 24 h. As peri- odontal disease is chronic in nature, we considered that periodontal tissues are exposed to pathogenic fac- tors for a long time during periodontal disease pro- gression. Furthermore, it is considered that normal (healthy) human gingival fibroblasts are also exposed to butyric acid for a long time in the process of peri- odontal disease progression. Therefore, we investi- gated and reported the effects of long-term exposure to butyric acid in normal HGFs, which constitute a major part of periodontal tissues [23].
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Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose

Co-culturing a novel Bacillus strain with Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 to produce butyric acid from sucrose

Interestingly, it was found that the amount of butyric acid produced by the co-culture in serum bottles using sucrose is actually higher than that produced from C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 T when grown alone on the same amount of glucose (Figure 4A). In contrast, the final acetate concentration in the co-culture was signi- ficantly lower than that seen from C. tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 T cultured solely on glucose (Figure 4B). These two findings are likely related as the final total acid concentrations within the cultures were similar, 14.6 g/L for the co-culture and 14.8 g/L for C. tyro- butyricum , indicating that the co-culture is capable of utilizing more of the acetate within the media and pro- ducing a subsequently higher amount of butyric acid. One possible explanation that can account for the lower acetate levels found in the co-culture is the glucose con- centration, which was undetectable (< 0.1 g/L) during the exponential growth phase. Consequently, it would
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Cytenamide–butyric acid (1/1)

Cytenamide–butyric acid (1/1)

Cytenamide (CYT) is an analogue of carbamazepine (CBZ), a dibenzazepine drug used to control seizures (Cyr et al., 1987). CYT-butyric acid solvate was produced during an automated parallel crystallization study (Florence, Johnston, Fernandes et al., 2006) of CYT as part of a wider investigation that couples automated parallel crystallization with crystal structure prediction methodology to investigate the basic science underlying the solid-state diversity in CBZ (Florence, Johnston, Price et al., 2006; Florence, Leech et al., 2006) and its closely related analogues, CYT (Florence, Bedford et al., 2008), 10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (Bandoli et al., 1992; Harrison et al., 2006; Leech et al., 2007) and cyheptamide (Florence, Shankland et al., 2008). The sample was identified as a new form using multi-sample foil transmission X-ray powder diffraction analysis (Florence et al., 2003). Subsequent manual recrystallization from a saturated butyric acid solution by slow evaporation at 278 K yielded a sample suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Fig. 1).
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A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum

A comparison of three pH control methods for revealing effects of undissociated butyric acid on specific butanol production rate in batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum

To determine at what time and pH level the acid crash will occur, we added 5 mL of 0.5 M NaOH at 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h individually during the fermentation to control the pH between 4.7 and 5.3. These three time points corresponded to the beginning of the exponential phase, the end of the exponential phase, and the stationary phase of cell growth. The results of butanol and butyric acid yields were given in Table 1 and further details of pH profiles, cell growth, glucose consumption and buta- nol production were shown in Figure 1. Without pH control (Figure 1A), the fermentation pH dropped to 4.1 at 12 h, 3.6 at 24 h, and remained at 3.6 until 36 h. After that, the fermentation pH started to increase and reached 4.4 at 72 h. The cells grew slowly in the first 12 h of lag phase, and then increased dramatically from 12 to 24 h (the exponential phase). When the pH dropped to approximately 3.6, the cell growth ended at 24 h and the cell biomass reached 0.40 g/L. Similar results have been reported previously when pH uncon- trolled batch fermentation of C. acetobutylicum was per- formed in a fermentor (Husemann and Papoutsakis 1990). The butanol production started from 12 h and slowly increased to 5.7 g/L at 72 h. More than 50% of glucose was not consumed due to the potential acid crash. The acid crash seemed to take place before 24 h and the glucose consumption was ceased afterwards. This phenomenon can be described more precisely as “acid flush” because the excessive acids or low pH cause a weak fermentation in the solventogenic phase, rather “crash” solvent production and fermentation completely (Figure 1A).
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Induced systemic resistance to Meloidogyne spp by β,amino butyric acid in tomato

Induced systemic resistance to Meloidogyne spp by β,amino butyric acid in tomato

infected plants. The growth of the nematode infected plants by decreasing root weight and increasing shoot weight of BABA treated tomato plants. These findings also support previous reports indicating that treatments with β,amino butyric acid reduced root knot disease through decreased penetration of J2, gall number on roots and nematode development [4,11,12]. Root weight increase in heavy Meloidogyne spp infection was previ- ously reported and thought to be caused due to biomass accumulations in infected roots [16]. Meloigogyne spp infection is known to have negative effects on water and nutrient elements as well as photosynthesis [17]. It was reported that M. incognita infection caused biomass ac- cumulation in roots and this is controlled by the effi- ciency of the pathogen in capturing the light energy and directing it in favor of the pathogen or the infected host [18]. Because of the relative large size of females of Meloigogyne spp and its ability to produce large number of eggs, it requires large amount of energy. Beside this energy requirement, these pathogens caused obvious distortion in xylem vessels, swellings of root cells and formation of giant feeding cells which alter root normal functions. Treatments of nematode infected plants with the high concentration of BABA produced more shoots compared with untreated nematode infected plant. This is mainly due to the fact that Meloidogyne infections em- bed photosynthesis and chlorophyll synthesis which ne- gatively influences plant growth [17]. It was clear from the results of this study that treatments with BABA was more effective when applied before nematode inocula- tion, which is probably due to the mechanism of induce resistance of this chemical inducer. The mechanism of induce resistance to Meloidogyne in tomato by BABA is not fully understood. It was believed that treatments with this inducer render roots less attractive to J2 through al- tered plant nutrient assimilation or render plant cell walls harder to penetrate by J2 or that giant cells were smaller or not able to provide enough nutrients for the develop- ing nematodes [11]. Treatments with BABA were re- ported to increase levels of salicylic acid (SA) and patho- genesis related proteins (PRP) [19], and enzymes like catalase (CAT), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX) [4,7] and phenol compounds [20]. BABA was also reported to induce the accumulations of PPO, GPOX, H 2 O 2 , CAT and phenols in M.javanica in-
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Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Ameliorates Jejunal Oxidative Damage in Diabetic Rats

Gamma Amino Butyric Acid Ameliorates Jejunal Oxidative Damage in Diabetic Rats

Changes of oxidant and anti-oxidant biomarkers The results obtained in the present study showed that the administration of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) (200 mg/Kg/day) to normal rats (GABA group) for 3 weeks showed insignificant changes in catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH­Px) activities, malondial­ dehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) levels and they were within the normal values in the small intestine tissues Tables 1 and 2. The administration of STZ to rats (DM group) showed a significant increase in AOPPs and MDA values and a significant decrease in CAT and GSH-Px values Tables 1 and 2. Administration of GABA to STZ­treated rats (DM+GABA group) improved the status of the above mentioned parameters Tables 2 and 3 which was evidenced by a significant increase in the antioxidants combined with a significant decrease in the oxidant biomarkers levels in small intestine tissues compared to those of the diabetic group.
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Cytenamide-butyric acid (1/1)

Cytenamide-butyric acid (1/1)

Cytenamide (CYT) is an analogue of carbamazepine (CBZ), a dibenzazepine drug used to control seizures (Cyr et al., 1987). CYT-butyric acid solvate was produced during an automated parallel crystallization study (Florence, Johnston, Fernandes et al., 2006) of CYT as part of a wider investigation that couples automated parallel crystallization with crystal structure prediction methodology to investigate the basic science underlying the solid-state diversity in CBZ (Florence, Johnston, Price et al., 2006; Florence, Leech et al., 2006) and its closely related analogues, CYT (Florence, Bedford et al., 2008), 10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (Bandoli et al., 1992; Harrison et al., 2006; Leech et al., 2007) and cyheptamide (Florence, Shankland et al., 2008). The sample was identified as a new form using multi-sample foil transmission X-ray powder diffraction analysis (Florence et al., 2003). Subsequent manual recrystallization from a saturated butyric acid solution by slow evaporation at 278 K yielded a sample suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction (Fig. 1).
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2 (L Alanylamino) L butyric acid

2 (L Alanylamino) L butyric acid

In a series of investigations, we have focused on the crystal structures of dipeptides with two hydrophobic residues (Go¨rbitz et al., 2005, and references therein). One of the most important results is that compounds constructed using the three amino acids l -alanine (A), l -valine (V) and l -isoleucine (I) as building blocks form nanotubular packing patterns with hydrophobic pores [with the exception of AA (Fletterick et al., 1971) and II (Go¨rbitz, 2004)]. The size of these pores is inversely related to the bulk of the two side chains, and ranges from 3.3 A ˚ for IV and VI (Go¨rbitz, 2003) to 5.2 A˚ for VA (Go¨rbitz & Gundersen, 1996) and AV (Go¨rbitz, 2002a). An attempt to build still larger pores was made by replacing the isopropyl side chains of valine in VA and AV by ethyl groups in BA and AB, where B is the non-natural amino acid l -2- aminobutyric acid. However, nanoporous structures were obtained for neither AB nor BA (Go¨rbitz, 2002b); BA proved to have a tetragonal crystal packing arrangment, just like AA, while AB crystallized as a close-packed 0.33-hydrate, AB-w, in the monoclinic space group P2 1 with Z 0 = 3.
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Mixed silage of Elodea and wheat straw as a substrate for energy production in anaerobic digestion plants

Mixed silage of Elodea and wheat straw as a substrate for energy production in anaerobic digestion plants

For the analyses of volatile fatty acids (VFA), alcohols, and pH, 5 g of the ensiled samples were previously diluted with 100 mL of distilled water and homogenized by blending for 15 min. The pH value was measured directly using a pH electrode Sen Tix 41 (WTW, Germany) in aqueous extracts. Lactic acid (LA), volatile fatty acids, and alcohols were analyzed in the ensiled samples as described by Apelt [11]. LA, VFA, including acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, n -butyric acid, isovaleric acid, n -valeric acid, hexanoic acid, and benzaldehyde, and alcohols, including ethanol, 2-butanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, furfural, and 5-methylfurfural (5-HFM), were measured using the Headspace GC system, which consisted of a 7890 series II gas chromatograph (Hewlett Packard, USA) equipped with an HS40 automatic headspace sampler (Perkin Elmer, USA) and a flame ionization detector from Agilent FID Technologies.
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Extraction of Volatile Fatty Acids from Leachate via Liquid-liquid Extraction and Adsorption Method

Extraction of Volatile Fatty Acids from Leachate via Liquid-liquid Extraction and Adsorption Method

The determination of acetic and butyric acids concentrations was carried out by gas chromatography (Shimadzu, Japan). The detector applied was flame ionized detector (FID) and the column applied was BP21 FFAP column (SGE Analytical Science, Australia) with the internal diameter (ID) 0.53mm, film thickness 0.5µm, length 30 m and the temperature limit from 35˚C to 250˚C. The part number for this column was 054477. The procedure for detecting of acetic acid and butyric acid contained in fermentation products were followed the standard examination of water and wastewater with the method number 5560D. Standard graph for pure acetic and butyric acids were plotted to calculate the concentration of these acids in the fermentation broth.
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Biomethane production from sugar beet pulp under cocultivation with Clostridium cellulovorans and methanogens

Biomethane production from sugar beet pulp under cocultivation with Clostridium cellulovorans and methanogens

Fig. 4 Cultivation of C. cellulovorans, CCeM and MFMP with SBP. a Total sugar concentration after 11-days cultivation in the culture with SBP, where negative control (open bar), CCeM (closed bar), MFMP (dotted bar) are included. b Cell growth in the culture of CCeM and MFMP with SBP, where CCeM (open circle), MFMP (closed circle). c Organic acid concentration in the CCeM (left) and MFMP (right) cultures with SBP, where lactic acid (Δ), acetic acid (*), butyric acid (black filled circle) are included. d Gas production after 11-days cultivation in the CCeM (left) and MFMP (right) cultures with SBP, where H 2 (closed bar), CH 4 (hatched bar), CO 2 (open bar) are included. Values indicate increments from the volume of negative control
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STUDIES OF UNBOUND AMINO ACID DISTRIBUTIONS IN PLASMA, ERYTHROCYTES, LEUKOCYTES AND URINE OF NORMAL HUMAN SUBJECTS

STUDIES OF UNBOUND AMINO ACID DISTRIBUTIONS IN PLASMA, ERYTHROCYTES, LEUKOCYTES AND URINE OF NORMAL HUMAN SUBJECTS

Alanine a-Amino-n-butyric acid Arginine Glutamic acid Glutamine Histidine Lysine Methionine Ornithine Phenylalanine Proline Threonine Tryptophan Tyrosine Valine Ergothioneine Ethanolamin[r]

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Optimization of Cycling Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells at 60°C by Additives for Electrolytes Based on Lithium bis[1,2-oxalato(2-)-O,O´] borate

Optimization of Cycling Behavior of Lithium Ion Cells at 60°C by Additives for Electrolytes Based on Lithium bis[1,2-oxalato(2-)-O,O´] borate

The investigated additives can be divided in three performance classes as shown in Table 4. Additives such as tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether, propionic acid ethyl ester, methyl chloroformate and butyric acid ethyl ester, cause a remarkable improvement of both the lifetime and the final capacity of the cell. Additives of this group are able to increase the lifetime of the cell by a factor of up to five. In addition, the final capacity is doubled. The change of capacity and internal resistance with prolonged cycling of cells containing these additives is presented in Figures 1 and 2.
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