ABSTRACT: Unstable slopes create numerous problems for forest management and may destroy the road network and disturb access to forest. Soil bioengineering is a solution that can prevent these problems and reinforce the hillslope. Persian ironwood is considered as a good protective species for hillslope stability in Iran with an extensive lack of information about biotechnical properties. In this research the root strength of this species and also the relation between root diameter and cellulose content were investigated. The results showed that the mean tensile force and tensile strength were 99.70 ± 2.01 N and 173.23 ± 4.94 MPa, respectively, for the root diameter range between 0.22 and 3.78 mm. The results of ANOVA showed that the power models between root diameter and tensile force and tensile strength were statistically significant and the results of t-test showed that coefficients and constants of the models are also significant. The values of the parameters of the power law (α and β) obtained for Persian ironwood do not fall in the range that has already been suggested for hardwood roots, which may be due to a narrow diameter range. The mean cellulose content was 56.87 ± 5.79% and the relationship between root diameter and cellulose content was not statistically significant. The data presented in this study expand the knowledge of biotechnical properties of Persian ironwood and support the idea that there is still an extensive lack of information about plant roots as a bioengineer- ing material.
While studies on CC (%) and its implication for dendrocli- matological studies are scarce, even less is known about the influence of environmental conditions on the annual variabil- ity of the CC (%) (Genet et al., 2011). For instance, Gindl et al. (2000) discussed lignin content as a temperature proxy for the late growing season (September–October). As lignin and cellulose are among the major components of a tree ring, and changes in one component affect the cellulose/lignin ratio, a link between CC (%) and temperature can be expected as well. However, the study of Gindl et al. (2000) covers only a short time period of 10 years and the method used is rather time consuming, whereas the production of CC (%) is often a by-product during the extraction of α-cellulose for stable- isotope analysis in tree rings. A study on CC (%) in roots revealed influences of topography and soil moisture status on root CC (%) (Hales et al., 2009). However, variations in CC (%) over time may also be related to tree metabolism and the availability in non-structural carbon (NSC), which occurs in the form of starch and sugars. The sugars provide the nu- trients for cell wall components such as cellulose (Haigler et al., 2001; Hoch et al., 2002). Studies on NSC concentra- tions at the Alpine treeline provide evidence that trees grow- ing in the treeline ecotone are not depleted in carbon; on the contrary, NSC concentrations are found to increase with elevation, implying that the limitation of tree growth at the upper treeline does not result from insufficient nutrition but rather thermal conditions, i.e. temperature, which limits the sink activity and thereby growth (Hoch et al., 2002; Hoch and Körner, 2003, 2009, 2012; Körner, 2003). Applied to the CC (%) of a tree ring, it can be hypothesised that tempera- ture acts as the main control, as it steers the sink activity, i.e. tissue formation.
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Development of FC loaded ethyl cellulose microcap- sules represents a promising sustained release drug delivery system that offers prolonged and uniform drug release. The formulation H3 (1:2 drug to polymer ratio) is the most fit one for extended drug delivery among other formulations. The current data proved that for- mulation H3 provided the best formulation in physi- cal, in-vitro and in-vivo results. This formula showed best entrapment efficiency, highest followability and no interaction between the EC coat and FC as presented in the FTIR, DSC. In terms in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation H3 proved an effective and drug release sustained over 12h timeframe suggesting decreasing the frequency of daily dosing.
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and a complex mixture of polymers formed from simple sugars knows as hemicelluloses (Smook & Kocurek 1998, Higuchi 1997). α-cellulose content is related to the amount of pulp which can be produced from wood. Wood with higher α-cellulose content can produce more pulp. Therefore, a mill that can produce more pulp from higher α-cellulose trees can maximize its production efficiency and reduce its costs. Like lignin, α-cellulose shows variation from pith to bark, as well as vertically throughout the stem. α-cellulose content is also genetically controlled and does have a large economic impact on production. Previous studies have found significant differences in α-cellulose content among and within families of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) (Sykes et al. 2003). However, α-cellulose is inherited in a non- additive manner and therefore the improvement of cellulose yield may be accomplished through the use of a controlled pollination breeding program or vegetative propagation (Zobel and Jett 1995). Studies involving the use of rooted cuttings of Eucalyptus grandis have found that pulp yields could be increased by 23% by using clones displaying high density and cellulose (Zobel and Jett 1995). Pulp yield and cohesiveness are positively associated with α-cellulose and hemicellulose content, respectively, and energy consumption during pulping is inversely related to lignin content (Smook & Kocurek 1998).
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Table. I shows the chemical composition of the Muntingia calabura fibers which was determined by means of using standard methods, is compared with natural fibers .Cellulose content in natural fiber is considered to be main component of strength, stiffness, structural stability .This fiber has much cellulose content lower than phoenix fiber  .The lignin content in the fibers contributes to the rigidity and its value is greater than Jute fiber. The wax content is low in comparison with hemp. The fiber has low ash content. The moisture content present in the fiber is higher than comparable to existing fibers like hemp and okra. 
Significant genetic variation was detected for all chemical wood traits for loblolly pine, except for lignin content. Heritabilities were generally moderate for cellulose content and coarseness, and weak for lignin content and fiber length. There were family rank changes between the two sites for these traits, which were caused by large site by specific combining ability interaction. Tree straightness appeared to have favorable correlations with several wood traits, suggesting that selection for straightness may lead to the increase of cellulose, fiber length and coarseness, while decreasing lignin content. There was a weak negative correlation of these traits with growth, indicating it may be possible to improve these traits simultaneously in a tree improvement program by developing a selection index for multiple traits. Additional sites need to be analyzed in order to better estimate genetic parameters and GxE for wood traits.
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In this work it was found that the sawdust from all the three wood species have the ability to be used as compost in the cultivation of the Oyster mushroom. Triplochiton scleraxylon had the highest cellulose and the lowest lig- nin content amongs the three and it gave the highest mushroom yield and for the proximate composition it was found to be highest in carbohydrate content, protein content, fibre content and ash content. Ceiba pentandra had the lowest in cellulose and hemicelluloses and the highest in lignin content. Ceiba pentandra produced the lowest yield of mushrooms and highest fat content. This shows that the yield and nutritional content of the pleu- rotus ostreatus cultivated on sawdust depends on the chemical constituents such as the cellulose content, the hemicellulose content, the lignin content, of the particu- lar substrate used.
Generally, higher performance is achieved with varieties having higher cellulose content and with cellulose microfibrils aligned more in the fiber direction which tends to occur in bast fibers (e.g. flax, hemp, kenaf, jute and ramie) that have higher structural requirements in providing support for the stalk of the plant. The properties of natural fibers vary considerably depending on chemical composition and structure, which relate to fiber type as well as growing conditions, harvesting time, extraction method, treatment and storage procedures. Strength has been seen to reduce by 15% over 5 days after optimum harvest time  and manually extracted flax fibers have been found to have strength 20% higher than those
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It is the purpose of these operations to produce medication of superior efficacy, safety and elegance and to provide assurance to physician, pharmacist and the consumer that the given product performs uniformly and in a manner satisfactory for the purpose for which it is recommended. Quality of a pharmaceutical product i.e. solid dosage form (tablet) can be guaranteed by evaluating different physical, chemical and microbiological test of from raw materials to finished product 1, 3 . All parameters of excipients and API’s should lie under limit such as bulk density, particle size and moisture content etc. If moisture content of excipients and API’S are above limit it may effect the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of final product 4 .
Abstract— The process of bioethanol production from rice straw consists of two steps: (1) conversion of cellulose into simple sugars which is conducted by using microwave-NaOH pretreatment and straw hydrolysis using mold catalyst T.reesei and A. niger; and (2) fermentation of simple sugars into ethanol. In a microwave-NaOH pretreatment process has been obtained the best value content of cellulose in straw size of 100 mesh and a long exposure of 40 minutes for 72.70+1:10%. Crude cellulase enzyme activity of T.reesei isolation, A.niger and it mixtures were optimum at temperature of 50°C. The addition of crude enzyme from A.niger and T.reesei on a comparison of 1: 2 (v/v) was able to increase the yield of the rice straw cellulose hydrolysis which is produces sugar at 12.89 mg/ml (1.29% w/v) or 0.15% (w/v) when converted into ethanol. The glucose yield from rice straw was 25.47% with 3% ethanol.
Besides the cellular systems, the activity of the enzymes on the substrate for the release of inducer molecules and products will be a bottleneck step. Factors that have been described to affect enzyme activity include: reversible and irreversible adsorption (to cellulose or lignin, respec- tively), end product inhibition, synergism and others (e.g. [46, 67, 68]). Many studies have looked at the interac- tion of cellulose structure and enzymatic hydrolysis, and particularly structural characteristics such as crystallin- ity and surface area have been shown to be determin- ing factors (e.g. [41–46, 48, 49, 51]). It has been pointed out, however, that the effects of crystallinity and surface area are difficult to be evaluated individually, since they are often highly interrelated (at least when celluloses are mechanically (pre-) treated) . In our experiments, surface area did not appear to be limiting, since the per- formance of Emcocel could not be improved by further ball-milling. This observation is in line with other studies that did not detect any impact of particle size on the rate and extent of sugar release or enzyme binding [42, 45, 69]. However, depending on the fermentation condition and molecular crowding, this might change .
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Hydrogels are based on hydrophilic polymers, which are cross linked to prevent dissolution in water. The crosslink density is an important factor that determines the water content of the gels at equilibrium swelling. Because hydrogels can contain a large amount of water, they are interesting devices for the delivery of proteins[19,20]. First, the hydrated matrix results in good compatibility with proteins [21,22] as well as living cells and body fluids . Second, many parameters, such as the water content, the amount of crosslinks and possible protein-matrix interactions, can be used to control the release of proteins from hydrogels. These parameters can be made time dependent by swelling and/or degradation of the gel. Since crosslinking is performed with highly reactive crosslinking agent and at a high pH, the gels have to be loaded after preparation. This leads to a low entrapment of the protein and a rapid release(Figure 3-10).
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The experiment was performed on 40 male Wistar rats kept under a 12-h light: dark cycle, controlled temperature of 21–22ºC, relative air humidity of 50–70%, and intensive ventilation of the rooms (15×/h). The experiment was commenced on rats aged ca. 4 weeks and weighing 91.5 ± 3.1 g. The rats were assigned randomly to one of the four groups and had free access to experimental diets and tap water. The composition of experimental diets is presented in Table 1. The diets contained ca. 13.5% total protein, a standard amount of mineral mixture (according to AIN-93G Mineral Mix) and vitamin mixture (according to AIN-93G Vitamin Mix). The diets to be compared were administered for 4 weeks to 10 rats from each group housed individually in wire cages. In the experimental diets, 5% of maize starch was substituted with cellulose (Sigma, C8002) or two types of fructan preparations (inu-
Jeoh et al.  claimed that the hydrolysis rate and/or yield is directly related to the amount of adsorbed enzymes. Figure 3 shows the initial adsorption capacity of cellulase onto corn stover after pretreatment with G. trabeum . The pretreated corn stover showed a signifi- cant increase of the initial adsorption capacity. The ini- tial adsorption capacity increased about 7-fold after pretreatment with G. trabeum . Lignin is believed to im- pede enzyme access to glucan chains by its binding and steric hindrance [28,29]. In this study, the lignin ratio in corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum KU-41 increased by 30% (Table 1), while the CCG was enhanced by 46% (Figure 2). Evidently, the lignin content is not the main reason of the increase of the cellulase initial adsorption capacity in corn stover pretreated with G. trabeum. Kumar and Wyman  proposed that lignin did not directly control the cellulose accessibility but restricted the xylan accessibility, which in turn controlled access to cellulose. The xylose yield of pretreated corn stover increased 2.8-fold (Figure 2). So we have reason to believe that the relationship among lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose changed such that the lignin influence was weakened in cellulose hydrolysis during the process of corn stover pretreatment with G. trabeum KU-41 and G. trabeum NBRC6430.
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A slight modification of the method by  was adopted in preparing microcrystalline cellulose. The α-celluloses (109 g and 161 g) of pod and stalk respectively were each placed in a beaker and hydrolyzed with 2 L of 2.5 N hydrochloric acid at a boiling temperature for 15 min. The resulting mixture was poured into 3 L of distilled water followed by vigorous stirring, then allowed to stand overnight. The crystals obtained were washed with distilled water until neutral to litmus paper, filtered through a muslin cloth and then oven-dried at 65°C for12 h. Further milling and sieving were carried out to produce smaller crystals of the aperture sieve size of less than 250 μm.
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The XPS analyses of wood dowel and welding interface was performed because the materials of the welding inter- face were mostly generated from the wood dowel . Dur- ing the XPS test, Cu and Cl were not identified, because few of them existed in the samples. So in the XPS test, the element of C, O, and N were detected. But according to the pyrolysis–gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PY-GC- MS) test, little amount of Cl existed in the treated wood dowel and welding interface. The content of elements and the oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratio for the wood dowels and the welding interface were shown in Table 2. The quantitative analyses were performed by peak fitting for the C1s cate- gories. Deconvolution for the four types of carbon bonds was performed (Table 2) for the peaks from the wood dowel and welding interface and were determined as C1 class (C–C/C–H bonds, 284.6 eV), C2 class (C–O bonds, 286.5 eV), C3 class (C=O/O–C–O bonds, 287.9 eV) and C4 class (O=C–O bonds, 289.2 eV) .
The objective of this study was to develop uncoated HPMC matrix tablets, evaluating the relationship and influence of different content levels of microcystalline cellulose (MCC), starch and lactose, in order to achieve a zero-order release of Aceclofenac HPMC matrix tablets of Aceclofenac using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), starch and lactose were prepared by wet granulation process. The USP paddle method was selected to perform the dissolution profiles carried out in 900 ml 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer. There was no significant difference in drug release between the hydrophilic matrices when the HPMC concentration was modified in low percentage. Release kinetics of Aceclofenac from these swollen matrices was principally regulated by starch (17 percent) or lactose (17 percent), even in the presence of MCC. When starch (8.5 percent) and lactose (8.5 percent) were mixed at lower concentration in a ratio 1:1, MCC (5 percent or 7.5 percent) appeared to control the drug release. The release profile remained unchanged after three months storage of tablets. The best-fit release kinetics was achieved with the zero-order plot, followed by the Higuchi and first-order equations. The data obtained proved that the formulations are useful for a sustained release of Aceclofenac, due to the percentage released after 8 hours is nearly to 70 percent. The release of Aceclofenac was influenced by the presence of MCC, and by the different concentrations of starch and lactose. Compared to conventional tablets, release of the model drug from these HPMC matrix tablets was prolonged; as a result, an oral release dosage form to avoid the gastrointestinal adverse effects was achieved.
Over decades, the most polymers used are produced from non-biodegradable petrochemically based products . These polymers exhibit very long time of environment decomposition, which represent a serious problem with long life of plastic waste, subsequently causing increases volume of commercial and industrial dumps in the landfills . Moreover, the petroleum shortage is a real threat throughout the world. Considering these two problems, many countries are trying to replace the commodity synthetic polymer with non-petroleum resources called biodegradable polymer which is readily susceptible to microbial action. Biodegradable polymers are generally produced from renewable natural and abundant biodegradable polymeric materials such as polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, or combination of these components . Cellulose, as one of the most abundant polymers, is renewable and natural and has been increased attention as reinforcing filler in biocomposites materials. Natural fibers, such as kenaf, ramie, flax, jute, and bamboo have been studied to reinforce biodegradable polymers to produce biocomposite materials . The source of fiber is not only from plant but also agricultural waste such as peel, husk, and hull. Generally, these wastes are burnt or sent to landfills which cause
researches that focus on super absorbent polymer based on crops residuesare rare. Rice straw is one of the source of cellulose with so many advantages, such as abundantly available, biodegradable, renewable, since these are waste biomass. The composition of rice straw consists of cellulose (36,5%), hemicellulose (33,8%), lignin (12,3%), extractive compound (3,8%), ash (13,3%), and silica (70,8%) 13 .
From Table 1, it can be seen that pineapple leaf contains a high holocellulose content (85.7%), followed by corn stalk (82.1%) and napier grass (80.4%). Holocellulose is a combination of cellulose and hemicellulose content. The greater the holocellulose inside the material is, the better will be the quality of the paper produced. In this study, pineapple leaves have the highest cellulose content (66.2%), followed by corn stalk (39.0%) and napier grass (12.4%). Cellulose is the component that makes the fiber of the non-wood materials stronger (Enayati et al. 2009). Higher content of cellulose can provide stronger fibers, hence increasing the quality of the paper produced (Khalil et al.2006). However, for hemicellulose, napier grass has the highest content (68.2%), followed by corn stalk (42.0%) and pineapple leaf (19.5%). As mentioned earlier, these are the important parameters in determining the suitability of a raw material for pulp and papermaking. Therefore, the quality of the fiber produced from a non-wood material depends on the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and holocellulose. This result suggests that pineapple leaves have an acceptable chemical composition of their fibers when compared to wood material (Aziz and Zhu 2006) and therefore have the potential to be an alternative fiber source for use in the paper making industry.