lidity method and to assess reliability test-retest interval of ten days run on a number of agreed subjects’ coefficient was calculated that the score 0.80 obtained for this index. Also to determine the amount of tolerance, the Connor-Davidson’s tolerance Scale in 2003 was used, which reliability and validity of its Persian form also in preliminary studies of normal samples and patients was confirmed and surveyed (Cronbach’s Alpha Index 0.86). Finally, in order to measure prob- lem-solving skills in chess players, Cassidy & Lang strategies questionnaire in 1996 was used. The reliability of this test in a study by Saber (2011) through test-pretest (after one week) has been reported at 0.89. Also Babapour et al. in 2003 reported reliability of the scale by internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha) equal to 0.77. In order to examine the relationship between research variables Chi-square Test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test (KS test), Kruskal-Wallis Test & Spearman correlation Test were used.
Interestingly, none of the studies of Masters Athletes has considered them relative to other forms of engage- ment. To this end, we compared the physical health of older adults, who participated in competitive sport with similar aged older adults (i.e., 50 years and above) who competed in chess competitions during the time of data collection. This activity was chosen because of its popular- ity, objective performance measure (i.e., Elo score), and the intense practice required to become an expert com- petitive participant [47, 48]. This allows for an intriguing comparison between older adults who are highly physic- ally active with those who are highly cognitively active. Moreover, exploring competitive chess may increase our understanding on the health outcomes associated with older adults who are actively engaged in a sedentary activ- ity. Based on limited past research [32, 49], we hypothe- sized Master Athletes would have the highest rates of injury and the lowest prevalence of chronic disease when compared to chess players and normative groups, due to their continual participation in vigorous activity.
The results of this study showed that there is no significant difference between blind male and female chess players’ mental skill in Iran. This result is consistent with Noorbakhsh and Maleki (2005); Sharifi Far (2008); and Riahifarsani, ’ s (2013) study that the results of Noorbakhsh and Maleki’ s (2005) study showed that there is no significant difference in all skills athletes, mental skills in individual and team sports (7). Also, there is no significant difference between athletes in each of 12 mental skills (the components of three part: basic, physical – psychological, and cognitive) (7) and the results of Sharif Far’s (2008) study showed that there is no significant difference between gender and each of research variables (10). Also, the results of Riahifarsani, ’s (2013) findings that they expressed that there is no significant difference between male and female athletes’ emotional intelligence and mental skills (12). This result is conflict with Sotoudeh, (2012); Torabi (2005); Ellof’ s (2011) study that the results of Sotoudeh ’s (2012) study showed that the elite taekwondo players were better than non-elite taekwondo players in the relaxation, goal- setting, self-confidence, commitment, and planning competition (11). Also, the non-elite taekwondo players were better than elite taekwondo players in the concentration and reaction to stress and the results of Torabi’ s (2005) study showed that male and female athletes’ mental skills in individual and team sports are evaluated in a good level (9). Ellof (2011) stated that women are better than men in goal-setting, self-talk, and commitment while men were better than women in response to stress (8). According to that there was no significant difference between blind male and female chess players in mental skills and all players were almost at the same level. It should be noted that there is special conditions in every sport and every sport is demanded special psychological and physiological needs. So, the special psychological and physiological factors are played more decisive role in athletes’ success of every sport. The precision and concentration on the opponent’ movements, correct reaction, and prediction of opponent’ movements are played an important role in the chess sport and its win. According to this issue and the results of this study, it can be stated that mental training is played more important role in chess players’ success. Of course we can not ignore the role of other mental skill because they have a share in chess players’ success too. The findings of this study indicate the importance of this psychological variable in chess players’ success. So, coaches and sport psychologists should pay attention to mental training in the athletes’ planning competitions and preparation programs. Todays, there is more emphasis on psychological preparation than physical fitness.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the amateur male and female chess players’ mental skills in Iran. The statistical population of this study was all amateur male and female chess players in Iran. 160 male (n=99) and female (N=61) chess players were selected as a statistical sample through stratified sampling. The instrument for collecting of data is included the Ottawa Mental Skills assessment Tool (OMSAT-3) under three broader conceptual components: foundation, psychosomatic, and cognitive skills. The collected data were classified by descriptive statistical methods and were analyzed by MANOVA (P≤0.05). the results of study show that there is no significant difference in none of the components of foundation, psychological, and cognitive skills between amateur male and female chess players. Therefore, it seems that the gender factor has no decisive role in amateur female and male chess players ,
The objective of the study was to assess and compare the neurocognitive test performance, visual and auditory reaction time in adolescent chess and non-chess players. Our results demonstrated that there was a significant improvement in all the measured paper and pencil neuro cognitive test parameters in the chess group compared to non- chess group except in the omission and commission of LCT scores where there was no significant difference observed. The various cognitive functions that are assessed by the neurocognitive tests like LCT, TTA & TTB include attention, executive functions, visuo-spatial perception, motivation, working memory and decision making. It is seen from our study that the neurocognitive domains are statistically significant in the chess players compared to the non-chess players. The mechanism behind this has been proposed by Sridharan et al in his study, which states that central executive network (CEN), which includes the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is getting activated and is responsible for working memory, attention control, judgement and decision making in the context of goal-directed behaviour and in chess players during playing increased activity is found in these areas, thus indicating a better cognitive function (Sridharan et al., 2008), this study supports our finding. But on the contrary in a fMRI study of Atherton et al. he had showed the paucity of activation in the frontal lobes in expert chess players during playing indicating poor executive functions compared to novice players (Atherton et al., 2003; Nejati and Nejati, 2012).
nian chess federation and had more than 5 years experience of participation in national and international chess tournaments. The chess rating scale is an international meas- ure of the skill of chess players that scores from 1200 to more than 2700 and is as- signed to each player of the International Chess Federation (17). The individuals in two groups were matched in terms of age and education level (Bachelor’s and Mas- ter’s degree). The inclusion criteria for par- ticipants in the two groups were based on other cognitive studies performed in con- texts similar to this study including being right handed, speaking Persian and being monolingual, having normal auditory (pure tone average better than or equal to 25dBHL) (18) and symmetric hearing in both ears (difference less than 10dB for each of frequencies 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 hertz between two ears) (19), negative history of ear diseases, traumatic head inju- ry or accident, brain surgery, epilepsy and any type of neurological or psychological diseases, and negative history of consump- tion of nerve or psychotropic drugs and cognitive disorders (2,3,11,12,20,21). In addition, none of the members of the two groups had musical experience, formal ed- ucation in music, or professional skills in other art or sport fields. The Research Dep- uty of Tehran University of Medical Sci- ences approved this study in terms of ethi- cal considerations.
Why did poker and chess players overestimate their relative performance? There are at least four alternative explanations for this bias in the economics’ literature. According to the reference group neglect explanation proposed by Camerer and Lovallo (1999) individuals overestimate their relative skill because they are not aware that the people who chose to participate in the tournament are more skilled than a random person. The bias may also be due to a positive correlation between risk preferences and skill. If low skilled players are risk averse and high skilled players are risk seeking, then forecasts may be biased towards the positive side even though there is no overestimation of relative per- formance. Another possibility is that the bias results from individuals’ tendency to attribute failure to bad luck and success to skill. 23 Finally, Santos-Pinto and
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We carried out an experiment on hypothesis testing in chess players (see Cowley & Byrne, 2004, for details). The 20 participants (19 men and 1 woman) were registered members of the Irish Chess Union. The participants were classified according to the Elo system, which calculates expected playing strength value on the basis of tournament and league results, and the value varies from approximately 1000 for an absolute novice and over 2800 for the world champion. We tested experienced novices (mean rating of 1509) and experts (mean rating 2240). The expert group included experts from different Elo categories of expertise, including one grandmaster (Irish Elo >2500) two international masters (Irish Elo > 2300), three Fide masters (Irish Elo > 2200, i.e. International Chess Federation masters), and four initial category experts (Irish Elo > 2000). All international class masters living in Ireland at the time participated in the study (for further information on participant details see Cowley & Byrne, 2004).
civilizations, is not perfect. Second, only one kind of game was used, which limits its degree of generalization. Finally, the nature of the costs incurred by chess players might not representative of costs in other situations. Although rating points impact upon a chess player’s career and income, they are a resource that can be replenished. In comparison, confrontations leading to physical damage might lead to the framing of such situations differing substantially from the framing of situations involving non-physical damage. Future research should look into the civilization differences in risk-taking for physical damage.
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For risk taking itself, Gerdes and Gränsmark (2010) measured differences in risk-taking behavior between female and male chess players. The researchers analyzed data from 1.4 million chess games and found that women were more risk-averse than men. For priming, Kiesel et al. (2009) used masked priming of impoverished chess configurations (with a mere two pieces on the board) entailing a checking or a non-checking position. Subsequently, the same types of target positions were presented for speeded decision of checking or non- checking configuration. The researchers found that chess experts responded faster when the prime and target po- sitions were congruent (both checking and both non-checking) than when they were incongruent. Priming did not influence decisions by novice chess players.
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The purpose of this study is to explore the performance in Chess and in Ma- thematics of the college players in Cabanatuan City, Philippines. Specifically, it aimed to determine the respondents’ mathematics and chess performances, their playing styles and their beliefs regarding chess players and mathemati- cians. The descriptive correlational research design was utilized in this study and the data gathered by the researcher were tallied and tabulated using fre- quency, percentage, mean and Pearson’s r. Furthermore, open-ended ques- tions were used to solicit remarks/comments from the respondents regarding the role of chess in enhancing their thinking skills. It was found out that the general weighted average (GWA) in Mathematics of the respondents was above average. Most of them are barangay/school level champions. Males are tactician type of players while females are positional players. A respondent who performed better in higher chess competition also performed better or obtained higher GWA in Mathematics. Furthermore, the respondents be- lieved that a chess player can be a good mathematician especially if they start playing early in life and if chess was a part of the school curriculum since playing chess continuously has helped them in developing and improving their problem solving and critical thinking skills.
into a team concept. The various types of offenses are designed to use teamwork to free up or isolate players for good shots against a multitude of defenses. Offenses must be simple with the emphasis on execution and fundamentals. Offensive spacing should provide for strong offensive rebounding position as well as allowing for defensive balance. Offenses must be flexible to meet various types of defensive pressure. They must also have counter options that take advantage of any defensive overplays and traps. Offenses can be categorized into Early, Set, Motion, Zone, and Spread. In a badminton doubles rally you will either be attacking or defending, and it’s important to understand which tactical situation you’re in, where you and your partner should be standing, and the effect your shot will have on the situation. In other words, it is important to understand basic badminton tactics! So if you are uncertain about these tactical aspects, read on.
People have been fascinated with being able to make a machine play chess. For instance, Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen’s mechanized chess playing machine, called The Automaton Chess Player, which was first exhibited by him at the Royal Palace in Vienna in 1770. This machine played very good chess and nearly always won but had a man elaborately hidden inside. While it was strongly believed to be a hoax, it was not revealed until 1824 (Levy, 1976). The first genuine work on mechanical chess was in Charles Babbage’s paper Passages on the Life of a Philosopher in 1864, where he considered how his analytical engine might play the game and even formulated some simple rules such as lookahead (Smith, 1999). At around 1900 Torres Quevedo constructed an actual machine that played the endgame of king and rook against king, which worked well providing the original setup conformed to a particular pattern (Hayes and Levy, 1976).
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Dual function of both study and entertainment electronic toys popular with the children, today's science and technology as yesterday's rock and roll: Most of the parents, even their claim is cool, also can't keep up with the trend. Nowadays, people have found a balance between technology and entertainment in the new technology products. Many high-tech products are particularly popular with children and young people, as they adapt to their lifestyle, needs, and teach them how to integrate with the growing electronic world . However we are familiar with this kind of toy of flight chess. So we can broaden thinking, combined with the existing single chip microcomputer technology, voice broadcast technology, wireless communication technology to make this game into electronic toys. There are such high demand of product, for example, football robot, intelligent chess robot, go bang robot etc. Not only need image recognition, processing, algorithm, and the cost is very high. In the field of current education and entertainment is difficult to get promotion and popularization [2,4]. Not only need to design simple smart board device, but also the development of low price. This design can also carry voice module simulation dialogue scenes when people play chess. Therefore, how to do intelligent chess robot can give attention to both teaching and entertainment become the intelligent robot is an important research direction in the field of study.
By profiling consulting patients, we draw from a cohort of patients who consult more frequently – maybe because they have difficulty with bleed control, due to joint degeneration, suboptimal therapy, or adherence. It is possible, therefore, that our sample is biased towards those older, more costly, and less adherent patients, and that our extrapolated costs may be an overestimate of the actual disease burden. However, the age distribution of the CHESS cohort is similar to that of another recent study that sourced data directly from haemophilia treat- ment centres and data registers across the EU5, Belgium and Sweden .
Not all of the non-chess activities were antifeminist. For example, I walked up to the park one evening and Lenard, Johnny, and Amy were standing around one of the chess tables forming a small circle. They were singing Gospel songs, clapping their hands, and appeared to be in high spirits. Their genuine happiness was contagious as I found myself smiling as I stood and listened. Amy saw me and she turned and gave me a hug. I jokingly said to her, “You guys starting a band?” She responded, “Yeah, want to join?” I smiled and told her I would listen for a little bit. I stepped to the side of the table and listened for a few more minutes. I had not seen individuals singing and “jamming” at the park like this before. I remember thinking how sweet this moment was that they all shared and how it represented an important element present at the park: community and fellowship.
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among the said games of intelligence, this study has reached several findings. When the attitudes of the teacher candidates towards chess are analyzed, it can be said that the general attitude is at the medium level. The study entitled “Opinions of Social Science Teacher Candidates on Games on Intelligence” conducted by means of group interview by  found that the teacher candidates generally thought positively about the games of intelligence, which they thought to have the characteristics to enrich and variegate the teaching-learning environment. In the study entitled “Opinions of the Primary School Mathematics Teachers about the Course on Games of Intelligence” conducted by , it is stated that the teacher candidates in general expressed their positive opinions and believed that the course of games of intelligence would contribute to mathematics education in general, and to mathematical skills in particular. According to the findings of the study conducted by , a high correlation was observed between the levels of chess knowledge of middle school students and their attitude scale scores about solving mathematical problems. Accordingly, it was found that the more knowledgeable were they about chess, the more positive attitudes the students had towards solving mathematical problems. The study by , concluded that teaching chess to five and six year old children at pre-school period could contribute to improving children’s attention. A study conducted by , entitled “Chess Training and Mathematical Problem-solving: the Role of Teaching Heuristics in Transfer of Learning” verified the hypothesis that chess training improved children’s mathematical skills and that knowledge of general problem solving methods in chess can be transferred to the field of solving mathematical problems. A study by , concluded that chess training given to pre-school children positively affect children’s cognitive development and contribute to their social development as well. When it is examined whether the teacher candidates’ attitude levels concerning chess vary with respect to their gender, findings show no statistically significant difference. Therefore, it is not possible to say that gender has a significant impact in this regard.
The incremental clinical burden of inhibitors observed in the CHESS cohort mirrored the trends observed in the European Study on Orthopaedic Status of Haemophilia Patients (ESOS), a cross-sectional, case-control study of patients with hemophilia enrolled during the period from March 2004 to December 2005. In the ESOS, patients aged 14–35 years who had severe hemophilia with inhibi- tors (N = 38) had significantly worse joint pain (p < .05), more mobility problems (p < .001), and poorer orthopedic scores (p < .05) than patients without inhibitors (N = 49) . Greater proportions of patients with inhibitors in the ESOS, irrespective of age, were also hospitalized for mus- culoskeletal bleeding or orthopedic procedures (16% of patients aged 14–35 years and 27% of patients aged 36– 65 years [N = 41]) compared to patients without inhibitors (4%). The mean AJBR was comparable between the inhibi- tor cohorts and controls, although patients with inhibitors had significantly worse orthopedic scores . Although orthopedic status was not analyzed in the CHESS sample, the higher AJBR in the inhibitor cohort (vs non-inhibitor cohort) may nonetheless signify increased morbidity as chronic joint bleeds have been associated with a greater frequency of orthopedic complications . Comparing orthopedic status and the associated HRU between the PS-matched CHESS samples in future research may more
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manuscripts where Celtic revivalists found legends of the earliest people in Ireland, they often also found references to board-games. What may be called the myth of Celtic Chess then emerged. The weak version stated that the pre-Norman Irish played chess; the strong form, more rarely seen, actually claimed a native origin for the game. The myth was especially publicised during the period of re-awakening Gaelic identity from the 1880s to the First World War and persists in some quarters to this day. This article examines the role that chess, and board games of skill that were mistaken for chess, played in Irish cultural nationalism, particularly in the nineteenth century.
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In the schools, chess often serves as a bridge, bringing together children of different ages, races and genders in an activity they can all enjoy. Chess helps build individual friendships and also school spirit when children compete together as teams against other schools. Chess also teaches children about sportsmanship how to win graciously and not give up when encountering defeat. For children with adjustment issues, there are many ex- amples where chess has led to increased motivation, improved behaviour, better self-image, and even improved attendance. Chess provides a positive social outlet, a wholesome recreational activity that can be easily learned and enjoyed at any age.