NaSH for 10 min resulted in the reduction of lipid peroxidation levels in IFM and SSM as compared to CoCl 2 induction group. The corresponding GSH levels were elevated 10%, in IFM and 18% in SSM (fig. 1e). Antioxidant enzymes like catalase, SOD, GPx activities were improved to the near control level (fig. 1), suggesting the effectiveness of H 2 S post treatment. Similarly, mitochondrial enzymes like MDH, SDH and NADH dehydrogenase activities were also significantly improved as compared to the cobaltchloride control group. However, the observed improvements in antioxidant, mitochondrial TCA and ETC enzymes were no as that of mitochondria that were co-treated with H 2 S.
had a toxic effect by inhibiting cell survival, browning of cotyledons and conversion of embryos into plantlets (Roustan and collaborators, 1989). Chae et al. (2012) established an efficient and reproducible in vitro shoot regeneration protocol in Gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa) by optimizing the ethylene inhibitors. They reported that shoot induction medium including 6-benzyl amino purine (2 mg/L), naphthalene acetic acid (0.1 mg/l) and cobaltchloride (1.0 mg/l) improved significantly the regeneration frequency and increased the number of shoots by 12% as compared to control. Similarly, cobaltchloride had a promotive effect on in vitro shoot regeneration and enhanced the number of shoots produced per cotyledon explants at 4.24 mg/l. It suggested that ethylene had an essential role in in vitro morphogenesis of cowpea (Brar and associates 1999).
We developed a chemical model to analyze ionic equilibria in a cobaltchloride solution at 298 K. The chemical model consisted of chemical equilibria, mass and charge balance equations. The activity coeﬃcients of solutes and water activity were calculated with Bromley equation. Values of the equilibrium constants for the formation of cobaltchloride complexes at zero ionic strength and of the interaction parameters were estimated by applying Bromley equation to the reported equilibrium constants at diﬀerent ionic strength. The eﬀect of CoCl 2
Experiments were performed on NMRI female mice weighing about 30 gr. Mice were housed at temperature 23±2°C and relative humidity of 40% with a 12-hour light and 12-hour dark cycle in the animal house , and received a standard mice chow with water ad libitum. After 1 week of acclimatization to the laboratory conditions, male and female mice were housed by pairs in each cage. Pregnant mice were inspected daily by the presence of the vaginal plug, which indicated day zero of pregnancy. Thirty-six Pregnant mice were randomly divided into six groups of 6 each: (1) did not receive any substance. (2) received 10 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride (3) received 40 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride (4) received 50 mg/kg bw chromium chloride (5) received 10 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride and 50 mg/kg bw chromium chloride (6) received 40 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride and 50 mg/kg bw chromium chloride intraperitoneally on day12-14 pregnancy. After pups delivery, female pups were divided into 2 groups: (1) 21days (36 pups), (2) 60days (36 pups), Each group were divided into 6 subgroups of 6 each that their mothers were administered CobaltChloride and Chromium Chloride intraperitoneally Treatments 1-6, respectively, at the concentrations of (1) 0, (2) 10 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride, (3) 40 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride (4) 50 mg/kg bw chromium chloride (5) 10 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride and 50 mg/kg bw chromium chloride (6) 40 mg/kg bw cobaltchloride and 50 mg/kg bw chromium chloride on day12-14 pregnancy, then pups were sacrificed on days 21 and 60 and livers were rapidly excised, weighed and processed for histological assays.
Ionic equilibria in the mixed solution of nickel and cobaltchloride were analyzed by considering the complex forma- tion reaction, the mass balance equations and a charge balance equation. The activity coeﬃcients of solutes and water activity were calculated by using Bromley equation. In the pH range of 0:5 to 6.4, the measured pH values for the NiCl 2 -CoCl 2 -HCl-NaOH-H 2 O system at 298 K agreed well
The sections of the liver of control rats showed normal histological features with the hepatic lobules showing irregular hexagonal boundary defined by portal tract and sparse collagenous tissues. The hepatic portal veins, bile ductules and hepatic artery within the portal tract were all visible. (Fig.1). Following exposure to cobaltchloride (Fig.2), the trabecular structure of the lobules was slightly or distinctly blurred. The cytoplasm of hepatocytes, contained empty vacuole-like spaces and were enlarged. Some sinusoids were overfilled with erythrocytes and the walls of most sinusoids showed numerous Kupffer cells.
While the sensitivity of the above humidity sensors based on electrospun fibers were detected by precise in- strument, [14, 15] it may do not work in practical appli- cation limits to conditions. Optical humidity sensors will be a possible solution. Since RH do not have measurable intrinsic optical properties, some intermediate agent will be introduced to show a change in optical property. At present, several intermediate agents have been adapted to realize colorimetric indicator for humidity including photonic crystal [8, 9, 18], polymer electrolyte thin films , doped cholesteric liquid crystal , and crystalline covalent organic framework nanofibers . In addition, cobaltchloride has been applied as colorimetric RH indicator for its color changes when contaminated by
and bFGF), which are the most potent angioge- nic factors. In previous studies the expression of VEGF by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1 cells) under hypoxia conditions evoked by low oxygen partial pressures (1 and 3%) and co- balt chloride was observed [2, 14, 16]. In the pre- sent work, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, valde- coxib, did not change the production of VEGF by HMEC-1 cells under chemical hypoxia (Fig. 1). Hypoxia as well as cobaltchloride potently inhi bits HIF-1α degradation and activates transcription of VEGF via binding of HIF-1 to HRE (hypoxia re- sponse element) on VEGF genes . Palayoor et al.  have shown that higher concentrations of NSAIDs, than those needed to inhibit prostaglan- din synthesis, can reduce VEGF formation by af- fecting HIF-1α. In the present study, valdecoxib at 10 and 100 µM not only did not block VEGF gene- ration in the absence or presence of LPS but also, when used at the higher concentration of 100 µM, it stimulated VEGF production in HMEC-1 cells.
Thin films of Cobalt(II) Oxide were deposited from equimolar concentrations of CobaltChloride, and Hexamethylene- tetramine on clean glass substrates using the Aqueous Chemical Growth method in order to determine the effect of pre- cursor concentration on their optical and solid state properties. The analytical tools used for the study include, Ruther- ford Back Scattering (RBS) spectroscopy for elemental analysis and determination of film thickness, X-Ray Difftraction (XRD) for crystallographic structure, a UV-VIS spectrophotometer for optical and other solid state properties and a photomicroscope for photomicrographs. The results indicate that an increase in the concentration of precursor materials makes ACG CoO thin film a better absorber of ultraviolet radiation, a better transmitter of infra-red radiation, a reflec- tor of visible radiation and a material having an increased band gap. The ACG CoO thin film deposited from 0.1 M pre- cursor concentration was found to be a suitable material for the construction of thermographic devices, poultry houses etc. It can also serve as window layer in solar cells among other optoelectronic applications.
stated, these combinations can have wildly different colors, even with the same chemical composition. There are multiple ways to synthesize coordination complexes. Cobalt hexahydrate is easy to synthesize; once it is poured into water, it forms a hydrate. To form other coordination complexes requires a bit more work. In order to form octahedral ammonia coordination complexes, the cobalt (II) needs to be oxidized to cobalt (III). This can be done using multiple methods. The first method is adding hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen chloride to the solution. As is well known, hydrogen peroxide is a powerful oxidizer in acidic solution. When it is added to the cobaltchloride, the hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen ions are reduced to water. In addition, the chloride ions from the hydrogen chloride are left behind and are added to the solution. After that, it is necessary to catalyze the addition of the ammonia to the cobalt cation. To do this, multiple reagants are required. First, an excess of ammonia is required. This is accomplished by adding ammonia to the solution. In addition to this, ammonium chloride may also be added. The addition of the ammonium ions shifts the chemical equilibrium of the ammonium hydroxide to the ammonia side, increasing the amount of ammonia ions inn the solution
Adoption of positions near side walls has also been observed in some species of adult fish (Baker and Montgomery, 1999; Coombs and Grossman, 2006; Windsor et al., 2008; Sharma et al., 2009). Wall-following behaviors in these species emerge in novel environments, particularly when visual cues are unavailable, and may reflect exploratory or predator-avoidance functions (Sharma et al., 2009). Assuming that an approaching predator induces disturbances in the ambient current, bullfrog tadpoles’ preferences for tank sides may also serve a predator-avoidance function. A preference for tank walls and bottom also highlights the importance of tactile cues in positioning behaviors. Coombs and Grossman suggested that orientation in a flow tank may be mediated not only by lateral line function but also by tactile cues contributed by the alignment of the animal’s body along the sides of the tank (Coombs and Grossman, 2006). Our data show that such tactile cues are important in both no flow and flow conditions. But we also show that preferences for the side walls and bottom of the flow tank were not significantly affected by cobaltchloride treatment, suggesting that the lateral line did not markedly contribute to these behaviors. Though bullfrog tadpoles do not exhibit the positive rheotaxis evident in other species tested under similar experimental conditions, rigorously defining their behavior presents a difficult problem. Whereas positive rheotaxis is easily defined as behavioral orientation in opposition to the flow of water, movement in the direction of flow does not necessarily imply an active behavior. These results raise the question of whether flow elicits an active behavioral response in bullfrog tadpoles, or whether their movements downstream are merely the result of a passive push by the current. One simple way to think about passive movement in current is to consider the dynamics of an inanimate object such as a cork. Under the ‘cork’ model, animals under flow would be swept downstream at about the velocity of the flow, until they came to rest against the downstream wall of the tank. The tadpoles in this study clearly did not behave like inanimate objects. Rather than move directly to the back of tank upon the initiation of flow, many animals moved gradually downstream and continued to change their position throughout the course of the trial. Some animals even reversed position and swam upstream, where they positioned themselves in areas of reduced flow (Fig.3).
Corporation, Lakewood, NJ, USA), in low-glucose DMEM culture media containing non-essential amino acids, HEPES (10 mM), 5% fetal bovine serum, and 100 U/mL penicillin-streptomycin and incubated overnight. Cells were strained through a 70-μm filter, counted, and assessed for viability by using trypan blue exclusion and a Cellometer AutoT4 cell counter (Nexcelom Bioscience, Lawrence, MA, USA). Finally, cells were re-suspeneded in 2.0% alginate 150 mM sodium chloride solution (pH 7.4) at 4 × 10 6 cells/mL. The cell solution was carefully pipet- ted into a 102 mM calcium chloride solution (pH 7.4) to encapsulate the cells in alginate beads. Beads were cul- tured in 6 mM glucose culture media or no-glucose, no pyruvate culture media enriched with 6 mM galactose for a period of up to 5 days. For 1-day galactose experiments, cells were maintained in glucose-supplemented media for 4 to 5 days prior to replacing with fresh glucose or galact- ose media, thereby minimizing differences in total culture duration. To compare the difference between galactose treatment and glycolysis inhibition on cell viability, we also cultured cells in 6 mM 2-deoxy-D-glucose (Sigma- Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), a glucose analog that in- hibits glycolysis. To quantify HIF-2α nuclear expression, 200 μM cobaltchloride (CoCl 2 ) (ACROS Organics from
www.wjpr.net 26 elimination is also the primary route of excretion in animals following oral exposure. Faecal clearance has been noted to decrease as cobalt particle solubility increases. In several species, oral exposure to cobalt(II,III) oxide (with 57Co tracer) resulted in little gastrointestinal absorption and a rapid elimination in faeces (>96%)  . No significant differences in cobalt(II,III) oxide elimination were observed among species ;;; . Cobalt(II) chloride, which is more soluble, was excreted primarily via faeces (70–83% of the administered dose) in rats, with urinary excretion accounting for the remainder of the dose  . In lactating dairy cows, 97% of an oral dose of cobaltchloride was recovered in the faeces by 70 days after exposure, whereas urine and milk contained 0.26% and 0.012% of the dose, respectively. Single exposures in beagle dogs demonstrated that insoluble cobalt(II,III) oxide was eliminated in the faeces and urine at 90% and 5%, respectively, while the more soluble cobalt nitrate was eliminated at 70% in the faeces and 25% in the urine. Similar to humans, iron deficiency in rats also caused less elimination in the faeces, whereas co-administration of iron caused an increase in faecal elimination  . After an intravenous injection of cobaltchloride in humans, 30% of the dose was excreted in urine within 24 h, 56–73% within 48 h, and 57% within 2 weeks. In various animal species, urinary excretion has also been shown to be the primary elimination route following intravenous injection of cobalt nitrate ;;; . In animals, 80% of the dose was excreted via urine within 21 days. Most of the remaining dose (5–30% of the total dose) was excreted in the faeces, with little long-term retention. Biliary excretion has also been reported in animals, at 2–7% of the injected dose.
concentrations of Nickel Chloride. Different concentrations of Lead Chloride significantly influenced the growth of shoot, root, number of leaves and nodulation and the highest growth performance for all the parameters was seen in control treatment but there was gradual decreased with increasing the concentration. In case of biomass accumulation studies, different levels of Cobaltchloride, Nickel Chloride and Lead chloride in soil showed statistically significant variation in leaves dry matter of above ground parts and below ground parts, total plant along with shoot / root ratio and found control was superior for maximum biomass accumulation.
The crucial negative effects of cobalt on testis were rendered to its ability to induce conditions characterized with more or less decreased level of oxygen. Cobaltchloride is widely used pharmacological agent for inducing hypoxia. In the testis degenerative changes in adult seminiferous epithelium include vacuolation of Sertoli cells and germ cell nuclei reported by Elbetieha et al. 5 In rats cobaltchloride (with 58 Co tracer) complexed with histidine, lysine, glycylglycine,
is known that in general, the catalytic properties depend on reaction conditions, catalyst composition, metal dispersion, and types of inorganic supports used. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of all FT catalysts strongly depends on the methods of catalyst preparation. The preparation of cobalt supported catalysts involves choice of the appropriate catalyst support, deposition of active phase, its promotion, oxidative and reductive treatments. The deposition of the precursor on the support surface is a complex phenomenon, which involves physical or chemical interactions between the precursor and the support. It is known that cobalt dispersion depends on the type of cobalt precursors. Van De Loosdrecht et al.  showed that alumina-supported cobalt catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using cobalt EDTA and cobalt citrate precursors resulted in smaller cobalt oxide particles compared to the one prepared from cobalt nitrate. The use of cobalt oxalate, cobalt acetate, or cobalt acetylacetonate as cobalt precursors for titania-supported cobalt catalysts has been found to give higher cobalt dispersions than the catalysts prepared from cobalt nitrate . Rosynek and Polansky  reported that use of cobalt acetate yields higher dispersion than cobaltchloride on silica. Sun et al.  concluded that catalysts prepared by mixed impregnation of cobalt nitrate and cobalt acetate result in higher Fischer–Tropsch synthesis activity than catalysts prepared from either monoprecursor. In previous study, Panpranot et al.  has presented a comprehensive model for how cobalt precursors on MCM-41 support influenced the catalytic activity of the cobalt catalysts. A balance between dispersion-enhancing strong support–precursor interaction and metal loss by retarded reduction was suggested. However, compound formation between cobalt and the supports such as cobalt-aluninate, cobalt-silicate can occur during the catalyst activation and/or reaction conditions resulting in irreversible catalyst deactivation [16, 17].
magnesium chloride, manganese chloride, calcium chloride, cobaltchloride, mercuric chloride, (sulphates) like ferrous sulphate, magnesium sulphate , manganese sulphate, zinc sulphate, calcium sulphate, potassium hydrogen sulphate and macronutrients (phosphates) like dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate, aluminium phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, zinc phosphate were screened for maximum production of dextran. The yield of dextran obtained in grams/ 100ml broth was tabulated and results were analyzed using Indostat software. The efficient micro and macro nutrients were selected based on highest positive regression coefficient and t–values. The most important nutrients under different categories were selected after statistical analysis, based on regression coefficients and highest t-values. Those with p-values less than 0.005 were considered to be significant and shortlisted for further optimization studies. The probability of the experiment was 0.00001 and highly significant. Nutrients with highest positive regression coefficients and their corresponding t- values were ranked first, second and so on. The cultured broth containing micronutrients (chloride) like magnesium chloride, manganese chloride (Table-1), (sulphate) like magnesium sulphate, manganese sulphate (Table-2), and macronutrients (phosphate) like dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (Table-3) influenced dextran production significantly(Table-4).