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The Cost of Community-based Action Research

The Cost of Community-based Action Research

In the spring of 2010, Christine Porter, having recently received a Ph.D. in community nutrition from Cornell University, began the application process for an Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI) grant from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Having con- ducted much of her doctoral research on the relationship between food and public health, Christine was finding herself increasingly interested in and drawn to the development of community food systems work being done at the grassroots level in response to a range of issues related to food security. The call for proposals through the USDA-AFRI initiative at that time appeared to Christine to offer an opportunity for a much deeper exploration of how communities were experiencing and responding to challenges of local food insecurity. She embarked on the development of an application, drawing on input and assistance from her academic and community colleagues and mentors, and national leaders in food systems activism. She also drew input from a diverse mix of CBOs across the country that she was referred to or sought out as potential community-based sites. These sites would serve as the core sites from which project data would be derived.
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The Role of Pharmacist in Managing Hypertension in the Community: Findings from a Community Based Study

The Role of Pharmacist in Managing Hypertension in the Community: Findings from a Community Based Study

Introduction: Pharmacist led health education programs have been initiated to improve Blood Pressure (BP) control in the community and patients’ knowledge on a disease and therapy, lifestyle changes and medication adherence among hypertensive patients. This study aimed to evaluate pharmacist led health education program among hypertensive patients, in local community-based setting, by assessing the changes in blood pressure control, beliefs about medicine, antihypertensive medications adherence and quality use of medication. Methods: This study was prospective convenient sampling, with community- based health education study involving 45 participants at the Community Service Hall in Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaysia. Participants received health education program over 4 months period: Introduction of hypertension, pharmacological management of hypertension, quality use of medication and diet and lifestyle changes. Outcomes included the changes Blood Pressure (BP) level, Malaysian Medication Adherence Assessment (MALMAS), Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and Quality Use of Medication (QUM). Results: Both systolic BP (146.6 ± 11.1 mmHg, P<0.001) and diastolic BP (87.6 ± 9.6 mmHg, P=0.002) decreased significantly after the 2-months intervention. Systolic BP was successfully reduced significantly to 140.1 ± 10.7 mmHg (P<0.001) after the 4-months intervention. Medication adherents increased significantly from baseline (29.3%) to 2-months interventions (58.5%, P=0.005) and 4-months interventions (70.7%, P<0.001). Significant improvement was also noticed in BMQ and QUM. Conclusion: Pharmacist led health education program has significantly desirable effects on improvement of blood pressure, better beliefs about medicine, improvement of medication adherence and better rational use of medication
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Community-Based Initiatives Series 14. Monitoring, supervisory and evaluation tools for community-based initiatives

Community-Based Initiatives Series 14. Monitoring, supervisory and evaluation tools for community-based initiatives

This publication comprises monitoring, supervisory and evaluation tools for community- based initiatives (CBI). It has four sections: site profile, monitoring and supervisory checklist, quarterly report and evaluation tool. Each section has a specific purpose and should be used in a specific location following a particular methodology. These four separate tools have been combined into one manual in order to simplify the task of the local/national evaluators and to ensure a common methodology is followed. All four tools follow the same structure. This will enable data comparison over different periods of time and identification of the successes and failures of the local/national community-based initiatives programme. The tools are all based on the following nine major areas which are fundamental to the CBI implementation process: • Community organization and mobilization
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Community based tourism performance scorecard

Community based tourism performance scorecard

This research is in-line with the national planning especially under the New Malaysia Blue Ocean Strategy. The proposed ICT framework has many benefits and will give an impact on the various CBT stakeholders and areas of concern in terms of socio-economic development especially to local governments that are interested to develop the community based tourism industry.

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Community-Based Knowledge Transfer and Exchange: Helping Community-Based Organizations Link Research to Action

Community-Based Knowledge Transfer and Exchange: Helping Community-Based Organizations Link Research to Action

Background: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion: We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of
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COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN

COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT IN

In the same year, the NDCC formulated the Four-Point Plan of Action for Disaster Preparedness, which calls for the: (a) upgrade of the forecasting capability of the warning agencies; (b) promotion of an integrated and coherent strategic public information on disaster preparedness; (c) enhancement of capacities of local chief executives (LCEs) and their respective disaster coordinating councils (DCCs); and (d) strengthening of mechanisms for government and private sector partnerships. The NDCC is undertaking a program entitled “Partnerships for Disaster Reduction-South East Asia (PDR–SEA) Phase 4”, in collaboration with the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP), and the European Commission Humanitarian Aid Department through its Disaster Preparedness of the European Commission (EC-DIPECHO). The project aims to promote good practices and enhance the role of local authorities in integrating CBDRM into local planning and programming. In June 2007, a stakeholders’ meeting was held to facilitate the crafting of the National Strategic Plan to Integrate Community- based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) into the socio- economic development processes of the Philippines. This plan, tagged as the NDCC’s Strategic Plan for CBDRM, is one of several outputs of the PDR–SEA Phase 4 and is a critical input to NDCC’s Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP).
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Community-based interventions offer one approach to reducing. Community-Based Injury Prevention Interventions

Community-based interventions offer one approach to reducing. Community-Based Injury Prevention Interventions

Results indicate that community-based approaches are effective at increasing some safety practices, such as bicycle helmet use and car seat use among children. The evi- dence is less compelling that such interventions increase child pedestrian safety, increase adolescent vehicle safety by reducing drinking and driving behaviors, or reduce rates of several categories of childhood injuries. Strong evidence supporting the effectiveness of community-based interventions is lacking, in part because few studies used randomized controlled designs or examined injury rates among children and youths as outcome measures. Nonetheless, this review identifies common elements of successful community-based approaches that should be replicated in future studies. First, the use of multiple strategies grounded in a theory of behavior change is critical. Second, to maximize success, interventions should be integrated into the community and approaches should be tailored to meet unique community needs. Third, com- munity stakeholders should be included in the development of community-based strategies. This community involvement and ownership of the intervention increases the likelihood of modeling and peer pressure, leading to widespread adoption of a safety behavior. Finally, when possible, a randomized controlled design should be used to maximize the trustworthiness of reported findings and aid decisions about where to invest resources in community-based approaches to injury prevention.
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Community based Institutions and empowerment of women

Community based Institutions and empowerment of women

The study is an outcome of our association with the programme (Umeed) being implemented by Jammu and Kashmir State Rural Livelihoods Mission (JKSRLM) under National Rural livelihoods Mission (NRLM). We being the implementers and monitors of the project invested a good time to experience the intervention being carried out to improve the income and living standards of marginalized women who have earlier remained deprived of benefits of welfare schemes of the state and neglected by the society to a great extent. This study assumes importance in a way when at once multiple welfare schemes are launched by state and the union government to improve the plight of women, socially, economically and politically across the country, for instance slogans like “Beti Bacchao Beti Padhao” or free education to the girl child, “Ladli Beti”- AASRA Scheme or empowerment drive taken up by both civil society and government for women. This study aims to study the impact of community based institutions on the empowerment of women facilitated by the State Rural Livelihood Mission in livelihoods generation in one of the intervention Block viz:
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Community Based Tourism Development

Community Based Tourism Development

To produce sustainable community-based tourism is done by a variety of systems approach and unified whole, is inter-discipline, participatory, and holistic between the related components. The forms of community-based tourism development can be done in three ways, namely, (1) self- help (entirely from the public); (2) partnership (through employers lifting); and (3) mentoring by NGOs or community college party during deemed not able to be independent, but if they were deemed capable of self then slowly abandoned by chaperones. 2

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Community-based first aid: a program report on the intersection of community-based participatory research and first aid education in a remote Canadian Aboriginal community

Community-based first aid: a program report on the intersection of community-based participatory research and first aid education in a remote Canadian Aboriginal community

received the patients. This simulation integrated an informal pre-nursing station response system with professional nursing care, and it was seen as a success by course participants, local government, nursing staff, and course instructors. This simulation represented a unique intersection of community- based methods and first aid education where the conventional interface between layperson and professional emergency systems was modified to meet the needs in this remote community. Understanding how individuals in a community respond informally to an emergency is a latent strength in the community that can be reinforced through adaptive curricula. Other communities may have similar informal response systems that can be enhanced through a similar approach to community-based first aid. Community-based first response training initiatives must be mindful of these informal systems, and find ways to enhance, rather than supplant or undermine, them.
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From school in community to a community-based school: the influence of an Aboriginal principal on culture-based school development

From school in community to a community-based school: the influence of an Aboriginal principal on culture-based school development

The intent of this paper has been to describe the impetus for change and the processes influencing change for a northern Canadian Aboriginal school. In particular, the role of the principal, a local Aboriginal, as a leader in initiating and facilitating the transformative change is examined. The school’s change has been examined with reference to the tenets of culture- and placed-based education which subscribe to the provision of a secure, nurturing environment that reflects the culture of the community and promotes the participation of educational staff, students, families and the community in making decisions about learning. As well, the processes leading to the attainment of this end have been examined through the lens of Kaupapa Maori Theory, a framework that has been applied to school development in Maori kura in New Zealand. Although Kaupapa Maori Theory does not presuppose that all school reform initiatives are generalizable to the Kaupapa experience, the school described in this paper and its move to becoming a community-based school exemplifies, to a greater extent, the principles of Kaupapa Maori Theory. In the change from school in community to a community-based school there is clear evidence of the principal facilitating change according to the principles of (1) self-determination or relative autonomy; (2) validating and
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Exploring providers’ perspectives of a community based TB approach in Southern Ethiopia: implication for community based approaches

Exploring providers’ perspectives of a community based TB approach in Southern Ethiopia: implication for community based approaches

Since 2010 a project funded by the TB REACH Initia- tive of the STOP TB partnership has been implementing an intervention package involving HEWs in TB control activities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. This community-based approach provides a comprehensive TB diagnosis and treatment package. The existing role of HEWs in TB services was expanded to include inten- sified TB ACSM (Advocacy, Communication and Social Mobilisation), identifying symptomatic individuals using house-to-house visits, collection of sputum and prepar- ation of smears locally and arranging transport of slides to the laboratory for microscopy via supervisors. CHPs supported these processes at household level. District field supervisors were employed as a new cadre of workers to make the link between the HEWs and the formal health system, assure quality, and initiate treat- ment. Existing laboratory technicians process (stain and grade) the additional slides prepared by HEWs and feed- back results to the supervisors. Patients diagnosed with TB were initiated on treatment and followed up in the community, at home or in the health posts.
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Community-based Message Opportunistic Transmission

Community-based Message Opportunistic Transmission

In this paper, we concern nodes’ mobility and social characteristic, suppose a time- varying community network model, and propose a community-based message opportunistic transmission algorithm (CMOT). We assume m communities for n nodes in the mobile social networks. The m communities are empty at first. After the network runs for a period of time, the n nodes are assigned into m communities according to the probability of visiting different communities. In this community-based network model, the number of m and n are variables which are assigned by user, and one node can belong to different community in different periods. So this network model is time-varying. The CMOT includes messages intra- community forwarding and inter-community transmission. Messages intra-community forwarding adopts multi-copy forwarding strategy according to counter probability between nodes within a community. Messages inter-community transmission selects optimal path between the connected communities according to nodes’ transmission probability. Since this scheme considers not only local community characteristic, but also the connectivity among communities in global network, so it can achieve the optimal performance. Our major contributions are summarized as following:
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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND COMMUNITY: COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM – A MODEL THAT NEEDS ATTENTION

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM AND COMMUNITY: COMMUNITY BASED TOURISM – A MODEL THAT NEEDS ATTENTION

As the tourism industry has become increasingly important to communities all over the world, the need for sustainable tourism development has also become a primary concern. The role of the community in the development of the cultural and economic environment has been underlined in the last few years, and has been seen from several perspectives. The community of a region is seen as a primary source on which tourism in that region depends, and their existence at a certain place at a given time may have been used to justify the development of tourism itself. The community is one of the basic reasons for tourists to travel, in order to experience other new ways of life and traditional products from different community countries. Communities are also considered as the "Natural" landscape in which many tourists consume. They are also the source of tourists, tourists are attracted by special places and social facilities that will find themselves about the experiences of tourists in the host community. Community support, in particular the community has become an essential element of sustainable tourism. The reason for sustainable tourism development lies in the sustainable economic, social and cultural benefits for the community and its environment. One of the most active and proven models that provide sustainability is the CBT Model (Community Based Tourism). This paper addresses this crucial issue by focusing on how local communities can contribute to sustainable tourism and what sustainable tourism can provide to local communities.
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Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development

Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development

In almost all cases, the experience of a community-based tourism pro- gramme will have an impact on how people think in future about the area and habitats they have visited. However, this can be made more or less meaningful depending on the information they receive before, during and after the visit, and how it is delivered. Careful attention should be paid to the messages put out by tour operators to their clients and to the quality of guiding and interpretation on site. Mechanisms for follow-up contact should be explored. Visitors should be encouraged to ‘multiply’ their experience by writing and talking about it. Many websites now offer this opportunity (see www.responsibletravel.com).
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COMMUNITY-BASED TOURISM MANAGEMENT FOR ENTERING TO ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (AEC)

COMMUNITY-BASED TOURISM MANAGEMENT FOR ENTERING TO ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (AEC)

Licensed under Creative Common Page 496 research in term of “Community-based Tourism" which focuses on "people in the community" as an important player of tourism management. This research will not only respond to the need of the tourists but also build the potential of local people, business owners and service providers. The research will act as the tool for establishing learning processes for local people to get involved in community tourism management which will lead to the protection and restoration of natural resources in relation with local wisdom and cultural identity. Moreover, this will be beneficial to the local community economy in the coming future.
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Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action

Community-based knowledge transfer and exchange: Helping community-based organizations link research to action

Background: Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion: We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of
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Participatory Evaluation for Community-based Rehabilitation

Participatory Evaluation for Community-based Rehabilitation

These examples show that on-going traditional and spontaneous methods of rehabilitation existed in many communities for a long time before the term CBR was used and that rehabilitation of persons with disabilities in the communities has been practised in most parts of the world for a long time (29). For this reason, traditional and indigenous ways of rehabilitation, how these efforts were influenced and affected by broader socio-political events inside and beyond the health sector, including developments in the disability sector, deserve greater appreciation and further research. Limited research on this subject suggests that CBR was invented neither by the UN nor other international agencies in the late 1970s but that at this time these agencies acknowledged the effectiveness and great potential of self-rehabilitation and rehabilitation provided by community members. It can therefore be argued that rehabilitation experts in the late 1970s did not invent a new community based approach to rehabilitation, but recognized and conceptualized what they had observed in communities and presented it to the world as an effective rehabilitation strategy for all.
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Supporting Community-Based Watershed Efforts

Supporting Community-Based Watershed Efforts

The more successful community-based efforts assemble a collaborative, interdisciplinary team to more fully understand the ecologic, economic, and social issues at play in the watershed and to take appropriate action. Depending on the nature of the goals of the community- based effort, the team could require individuals that have expertise in the areas of: hydrology, geology, biology, aquatic chemistry, civil engineering, limnology, sociology, anthropology, economics, education, communications, and facilitation and conflict resolution, to name just a few. Most, if not all, of these areas of expertise converge within universities. In this place-based paradigm, the scientist, or technical expert, serves as an advisor and educator to these civic efforts, rather than as the central decision-maker (Foster 1998).
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Community Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

Community Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

Abstract. Community-based ecotourism (CBET) is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.
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