aeration conspire to cut off oxygen supplies, areas of the worm bed, or even the entire system, can become anaerobic. This will kill the worms very quickly. Not only are the worms deprived of oxygen, they are also killed by toxic substances (e.g., ammonia) created by different sets of microbes that bloom under these conditions. This is one of the main reasons for not including meat or other greasy wastes in worm feedstock unless they have been pre-composted to break down the oils and fats. Although composting worms O2 requirements are essential, however, they are also relatively modest. Worms survive harsh winters inside windrows where all surfaces are frozen: they live on the oxygen available in the water trapped inside the windrow. Worms in commercial vermicomposting units can operate quite well in their well insulated homes as long as there are small cracks or openings for ventilation somewhere in the system. Nevertheless, they operate best when ventilation is good and the material they are living in is relatively porous and well aerated. In fact, they help themselves in this area by aerating their bedding by their movement through it. This can be one of the major benefits of vermicomposting: the lack of a need to turn the material, since the worms do that work for you. The trick is to provide them with bedding that is not too densely packed to prevent this movement. Temperature Control
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It is important to construct the bin to allow adequate airflow. Holes may be drilled on the upper sidewall of the bins for air circulation. Holes drilled on the lid may allow water inside during the rainy season. The type of bedding used also influences air circulation. Coarser bedding such as chopped leaves allows more air to circulate than fine textured bedding such as peat moss or shredded paper. As the composting process progresses, the bedding periodically adding fresh bedding. Other ways to promote aeration includes occasional fluffing of the bedding material, avoidance of deep bedding (a maximum of 30 cm), over-feeding and over-watering.
This study brings attention to Lebanon’s linear production-to-consumption-to-waste market economy and proposes vermicomposting biotech- nology as one component of a sustainable solution. Many scientific studies attest to the environmental value of earthworms and vermicast in the soil, but few consider its utility as a two-in-one soil amend- ment and how vermicomposting can be introduced practically in such a way as to maximize positive socioeconomic impacts. Our qualitative study paints a portrait of who is likely to adopt vermi- composting and why, while the feasibility study estimates the economic potential of a vermicom- posting industry in Lebanon. It becomes clear that there are very few drawbacks and many advantages to investing in rurally based vermicomposting microenterprises and that such development would have resounding benefits that cannot be captured within the scope of this study. These direct and indirect impacts may be the most difficult to measure and assign a dollar value, but they make the best argument for this biotechnology within a long-term national vision for sustainable and effective solid waste management.
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In the Canterbury region of New Zealand, two organic waste streams need to be recycled. The first waste stream is the organic municipal waste collected in green wheelie bins from local households weekly in the Selwyn District of Christchurch. This waste is a mix of all types of organic wastes generated from local families in the district with a substantial garden waste content. However, due to limitations of the composting facility, only few of the waste type can be thermophilically composted. Most of this organic waste are sent directly to landfill after windrowing. As a result of the raise in municipal waste disposal price, Selwyn District Council is looking for an alternative method to decompose of this waste. The second waste stream is used animal bedding from dairy farms in Eyrewell, Canterbury, New Zealand. The used animal bedding is made up of small wood chips mixed with dairy cow slurry. This waste has been piled outside the farms in Eyrewell and left for several years. However, the manured wood chip seems unsuitable as a feeding material for earthworms directly and a very high mortality rate was noted due to its low pH and high ammonia content (Chapter 3).
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Three composting species of earthworms two exotic (Eisenia fetida and Eudrilus eugeniae) and one indigenous (Perionyx excavatus) were chosen for the experiment. In the present study exotic earthworms E. fetida and E. eugeniae were cultured in the laboratory and were randomly picked for experimentation. The indigenous species, P. excavatus was collected from the drainage area in Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee campus by hand sorting method. The species were identified at National Zoological Survey of India, Solan, India, before culturing in the field laboratory. Vegetable waste was procured from the hostels of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. After size reduction of fresh vegetable waste to 1-2 cm, it was kept in shade for 2- 3 weeks before using for the vermicomposting process. The partially degraded vegetable waste (0.85 kg) was then blended with saw dust (0.1 kg) and cattle manure (0.25 kg) to improve the C/N ratio. The obtained vegetable waste mixture (VWM) is used as the raw material for the vermicomposting process. The main characteristics of VWM are: pH, 8.47±0.2; electrical conductivity (EC), 0.24±0.05 S/m; ash content, 23 ±0.3 %; total organic content (TOC), 1.61±0.2%; total nitrogen (TN), 1.74±0.11%; total phosphorous (TP), 6.09±0.1 g/kg; C/N, 25.70±1.5; sodium (Na), 0.6±0.05%; potassium (K), 1.60±0.5%; calcium (Ca), 3.02±0.75%. The experiments were conducted in triplicate, in perforated cylindrical plastic containers of capacity 6 L. The containers were kept in temperature controlled experimentation room of 25±1 o C which is the optimum temperature range for all the three species 6 . Bedding (10 cm) was kept in all the containers using old vermicompost. Approximately 50 g (~100-120 in numbers) of earthworms, having both clitellated and juvenile, were inoculated in the bedding for acclimatization of the earthworms to the new environment for 15-20 days then VWM was added the next day. Eight different reactors including three monocultures and four polycultures of E. fetida, E. eugeniae and P. excavatus and one control were used for the experiment which are: i) E. fetida (R 1 ), ii) E.
The C/N ratio of organic materials reflects the extent of mineralization and stabilization during the process of composting or vermicomposting. As shown in Figure 1, the C/N ratio decreased by 47.3% in the earthworm treat- ment systems, which is much higher than in the control (p < 0.001); and the differences between the tested two earthworm species were insignificant (p > 0.05). The final C/N ratios of the vermicast, i.e., the vermicast after treatment for 30 days, by E. foetida and B. parvus des- cended to 5.16 and 5.08, respectively. The decrease in C/N is probably a combined effect of the loss of carbon as carbon dioxide due to microbial respiration and of the simultaneous addition of nitrogen by earthrms in the form of mucus and nitrogenous excretory materials during ver- micomposting, as suggested by . Compared to pre- vious studies, in which some bulking materials, such as cow dung, straw and compost, were added into sludge before vermicomposting [5,6,13,14], although the C/N ratio in the material (activated sludge) of the present stu- dy was lower, apparent decreases of its value in the treat- ment systems with earthworms were still observed. This may thus suggest that a greater extent of organic matter stabilization of municipal activated sludge was achieved through vermicomposting even if no bulking materials and pre-treatment were employed.
requirements. Graziano and Casalicchio (1987) recommended the integration of thermophilic composting and mesophilic vermicomposting as a means of sludge processing, using the coarser compost for “less specialized” crops and the finer, concentrated vermicompost for specialty horticulture. Frederickson et al. (1997) measured the reduction of volatile solids (VS) in thermophilic compost and vermicompost of fresh green waste after eight weeks in order to determine organic matter stabilization. They found that vermicomposting reduced VS up to 12% more than composting alone. Two weeks pre-composting followed by six weeks of vermicomposting resulted in a similar reduction. Ndegwa and Thompson (2001) also observed a 45% reduction of total solids (TS) and 13% reduction of VS compared to vermicomposting reductions of 36% for TS and 10% for VS. Other agricultural waste residuals used in vermicompost include potato (Solanum tuberosum) waste, brewery waste, crop residues, and spent mushroom (Basidiomycota) waste (Edwards, 1988). Gajalakshmi et al. (2001b) studied combinations of the aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and cow manure, and found that vermicompost production was equal when water hyacinth was added to cow manure at rates of 6:1 and 4:1. Grappelli et al. (1987) found that a mixture of 300 L of olive oil wastewater per cubic meter of organic municipal solid waste (MSW) was an effective feedstock in a municipal vermicomposting pilot facility.
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Composting is a biological process in which micro- organisms, mainly fungi and bacteria, convert degradable organic waste into humus like substance. This finished product, which looks like soil, is high in carbon and nitrogen and is an excellent medium for growing plants. The process of composting ensures the waste that is produced in the kitchens is not carelessly thrown and left to rot. It recycles the nutrients and returns them to the soil as nutrients. Apart from being clean, cheap, and safe, composting can significantly reduce the amount of disposable garbage. The organic fertilizer can be used instead of chemical fertilizers and is better specially when used for vegetables. It increases the soil’s ability to hold water and makes the soil easier to cultivate. It helped the soil retain more of the plant nutrients. 2.1.4 Type of Composting:
Earthworms use a wide variety of organic materials for food, and even in adverse conditions, extract sufficient nourishment from the soil to survive. The growth of the earthworm population causes a reduction in the weight of the substrate used for vermicomposting through bio-oxidation and stabilization of organic material through the interactions between earthworms and microorganisms . Although microorganisms are mainly responsible for the biochemical degradation of organic matter, earthworms play an important role in the process by fragmenting and conditioning the substrate, increasing the surface area for growth of microorganisms, and altering its biological activity . High population densities of earthworms in vermin-composting systems result in a rapid turnover of fresh organic matter into earthworm casts and a higher reduction in weight of the vermicompost. Based on the results of measurements carried out during the study, data on the effect of density of worms on the bioconversion of organic waste into compost are listed in Table 5 and Figure 1.
Abstract: Cibodas Village, Pasirjambu district, Bandung Region is a place that has high potential in developing dairy industry and the producer of vegetables. The high interest of the citizens to plant various vegetables and raising cattle cause an increase in the amount of waste production. Cow manure (CM) and vegetable waste (VW) are mostly thrown into the river and made the water turned to green and thus contains a lot of bacteria. One way to handle this waste is to use vermicomposting method using Lumbricus rubellus. The purpose of this study was to observe the speed of waste degradation and quality of compost with variations of worm density and variations of row material. The research method using three variations of the worm density (1.5kg/m2; 2kg/m2; 2.5kg/m2), 4 variations of raw materials (100%CM, 100%VW, 50%CM and 50%VW, 30%CM and 70%VW). Biodegradation calculation is performed by calculating the percentage difference before and after the process of composting. The results showed that the worm density effect on the biodegradation of organic matter. Worm density 1.5 kg/m2 is the highest earthworm biomass and also giving a lower number of vermicompost. Variations materials 30%CM and 70%VW shows that the Lumbricus rubellus worm has high potential to reduce waste into compost and the analysis result showed that nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and C/N ratio has met the standard of SNI 19-7030-2004 (2,201%; 1,348%; 2,741%; 9,523). Furthermore, because of the analysis result has fit into the standard, it can be known that vermicomposting can be used for the growth and development of healthy plants.
Reuse and recycle saw dust-based SMC need to be comprehensive and practical yet environmentally sound. The amounts of nutrients available in the saw dust-based SMC after harvest enable the cultivation of pea sprouts and subsequent conversion of the waste generated postharvest of pea sprouts into a valuable product i.e. vermicompost. Hence, the saw dust-based SMC can be reused to cultivate other vegetation i.e. pea sprouts and yet recycled into a bio-fertiliser via vermicomposting. In this study, the pre-composting period was excluded and there was no amendment of the substrate with other bulky organic waste. Thus, the process can be shortened and inclusively utilise the same substrate while still yielding material that is rich in nutrient elements. Vermicomposting using L. rubellus has succeeded to convert a reusable biomass residue into a nutrient-rich end product for sustainable agricultural farming as an alternative to synthetic chemical fertilisers.
Incessant disposal of organic waste in Malaysia landfills today is a quandary to organic waste management. The organic waste can be recycled into value added product and it is widely known that composting is an efficient method to unravel this problem. Conversely in a more ingenious way, vermiconversion or vermicomposting is acceptably better than the accustomed method of composting whereby the nutritional content of vermicompost is frequently higher. Apart from that, vermiconversion is considered as green technology, an environmentally sound method to practice
A study by Kostecka shows that one ton of earth- worm biomass can convert one ton of sludge into vermicompost within five days [Kostecka 1995]. Vermicomposting is a combination of tradition- al composting and the physiological activity of earthworms. The processing of sewage sludge takes place through the activity of microorgan- isms occurring in the organic matter and digestive tract of earthworms and the enzymes they pro- duce. In their digestive tract, earthworms trans- form organic matter into an amorphous form with a high degree of humification. During the process, the forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium which are easily absorbable by plants are produced [Konopska 2011].
ABSTRACT: Urban conglomerations, with their ever-increasing population and consumerist lifestyle generate voluminous solid wastes. A substantial portion of solid waste is non-toxic and organic in nature. Existing methods to its treatment and disposal are rather expensive.Vermicomposting technology is one of the best options available for the treatment of organics-rich solid wastes . The term vermicomposting is coined from the Latin word ‘Vermis’ meaning to the ‘worms’ . Vermicomposting refers to composting or natural conversion of biodegradable garbage into high quality manure with the help of earthworms . The driving forces behind the introduction of vermiculture and other reuse processes, is the global recognition of the need to recover organic material and return this to the natural cycle. Legislations are being enacted to prevent the dumping of organic material into landfills. Simultaneously, as the cost structures for dumping are increasing, people are becoming more aware of the need to change their practices. There is pressure for waste processing and the consumption of the end products .In the present study an effort has been made to check the efficacy of Eisenia Fetida (red worm) in vermicomposting  .Moisture content in bed is maintained by spreading water over it and to cover with moist gunny bag. The temperature was monitored at every week. The parameter such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, bulk density, C/N Ratio, N, P and K are measure during the specifics interval of time in which result show that the nutrient content at the end of 45 day is increased. Vermicompost is the process which will convert organic waste into valuable fertilizer.
vermicomposting, earthworms accumulate metals on their body and bioaccumulation causes reduction in soil metals which is affected by pH and moisture content (Macki Aleagha, 2012; Macki Aleagha and Ebadi, 2011). The objectives of this research were to measure the rate of bioaccumulation of different concentrations of various metal compounds in the mixture on Eisenia fetida and the effects of moisture and pH on this rate.
vii 4.1 Willingness to participate in the study ............................................................................. 68 4.1.1 Participation and refusal rates recorded by each of the two interviewers in the telephone survey ................................................................................................................ 69 4.2 Reasons for declining to participate in the study ............................................................. 70 4.3 Proportion of home composters and non-home composters .......................................... 72 4.3.1 The adjusted actual proportion of home composters and non-home composters in the present study ................................................................................................................ 72 4.3.2 Number of years of home composting practice ........................................................ 73 4.4 Reasons given by the home composters for practising home composting ...................... 75 4.4.1 Categorisation of the reasons for practising home composting in the present study ............................................................................................................................................ 77 4.5 Exploring the reasons given by the non-home composters for not practising home composting ............................................................................................................................. 78 4.6 Home composting systems identified in the present study ............................................. 81 4.7 The range of feedstock/organic waste inputs for home composting identified in the present study .......................................................................................................................... 83
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A windrow is constructed by stacking the prepared feedstock in the form of an elongated pile. The procedure involved in stacking the material is influenced by the volume and nature of the feedstock, the design and capacity of the available materials handling equipment, and the physical layout of the windrow pad. If more than one feedstock is involved (e.g., composting sewage sludge and MSW, or yard waste and food waste), or an additive is to be employed, the incorporation would take place at this time. If composting or additives are not involved, the windrows are set up directly after pre-processing is completed. If composting is involved, one approach is to build up the windrow by alternating layers of one of the feed stocks with layers of the other feedstock or doses of the additive. The first and subsequent turning accomplishes the necessary mixing of the components. If turning is not the method ofaeration, necessary mixing is done immediately prior to constructing the windrow. Conventional materials handling equipment such as a bulldozer or a bucket loader can be used for windrow construction. An alternative approach involves the use of a conveyor belt as follows: directly after having been pre-processed, the feedstock is transferred to the windrow pad by way of a conveyor belt, the discharge end of which has been adjusted to the height intended for the completed windrow (Tchobaonglous, 2002).
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ratio decreased rapidly from initial values of 30 to 13.8, 17.99 and 20.65 in R1, R2 and R3, respectively after 23 days of composting (Figure 5). The excess carbon tends to utilize nitrogen in the soil to build cell protoplasm, if the C/N ratio of compost is more. This results in the loss of nitrogen in the soil and is known as robbing of nitrogen in the soil. On the other hand, if C/N ratio is too low, the re- sultant product does not help improve the structure of the soil. It is therefore desirable to control the process so that the final C/N ratio is less than or equal to 20 (39). Thus, it can be concluded that compost from all the vessels were primary stabilized after 23 days of composting, similarly as Huang et al (36) and Varma and Kalamdhad (18), but are below the optimal C/N ratio of 25. It is suggested that this amount of bulking agent does not require further ni- trogen to obtain a compost mixture of C/N ratio between 20 and 25. Although, the C/N ratio cannot be used as an absolute indicator of compost maturation due to the large differences that is dependent on the initial compounds (5); a value around or below 20 could be considered satis- factory (39). It is only the values of C/N ratio that are not sufficient to say that organic compost is mature, or that, the composting process has reached the maturation phase, because the maturation phase is related to the synthesis of humic substances.
The submitted results of the research have proved that the bio-technological agents can be utilised for reduction of NH 3 , CO 2 , CH 4 , H 2 S emis- sions. Their application is suitable mainly in the case when for various reasons it is not possible to provide correct course of the composting process and thus also the odour reduction by regular heaps turning.
Composting effectively recycles organic food scraps into usable soil, and it can be done under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. At the household level, food scraps can be collected in a small container and then added to an outdoor bin or pile, fed to red wiggler worms living in a worm bin, or placed into a shallow trench and buried under soil. Community efforts to live sustainably through such approaches as composting and reducing food waste can be aided by the development of survey tools assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers
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