Most publications are the fruit of research on an assessment of the application of partnering in the implementation of particular construction projects. For example, in their analysis of the construction of clean rooms in Canada, Shields and West (2003) emphasize how innovative the partnering approach is. The success of this project was due to the relationship between the employees, who treated the task as a challenge, which allowed for developing mutual trust. According to Franke and Grebenc (2008), the construction of the BMW World building in Munich was possible only thanks to the adoption of the partnering approach. The success of partnering co- operation is also described by Eriksson and Nilsson (2008) in the construction of a pharmaceutical factory in Sweden. The investor in question reduced stress on price and on his own authority, and facilitated the relations based on trust and co-operation. The results of other research (Chan, Chan, Ho 2003) show that improved relations and communication between project participants as well as feedback in cases of emergency changes in the project and its implementation are the crucial advantages of applying the partnering approach. Research by Baxendale and Greaves (1997) show that most of the general contractors in Great Britain either apply or intend to apply the partnering approach with their subcontractors as they see its advantages with regard to cost reduction and improvement in service quality. Data analysis based on over 400 construction projects commissioned by the Construction Department in Texas also reveals that the partnering approach allows to control the costs and the time of implementation of a construction project (Gransberg, Dillon, Reynolds and Boyd 1999). Drexler and Larson (2000) examined the stability of relations between the participants of 276 construction enterprises in the USA, mainly between the investor and the contractor. A practical study of strategic partnering was made by Kaluarachchi and Jones (2007) on the basis of the monitoring of a large project consisting of the construction of twelve housing estates by Amphion Consortium in Great Britain. Strategic partnering is also the subject of study of the choice of long- term subcontractors in South Korea (Eom, Yun and Paek 2008).
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Most of the work cannot be performed. Therefore, capacities utilization is at a lower level. Another developments indicate stabilization in the environment. Even more recently positive signs of improvement. Capacity utilization in the Slovak construction enterprises still does not reach value of what it was before the crisis. The results of the current survey indicate that the average capacity utilization of construction companies compared with the last survey increased slightly and currently is around 78% (September 75% in June, 69%). Although year on year there was a slight increase in capacity utilization (72% in November 2012). Overall, however, still a low capacity, which is unsustainable in the long run. It is very clear that the economic crisis has negatively affected the capacity utilization in Slovak construction enterprises.
Abstract. An evaluation method is presented to evaluate the effect of construction enterprises culture development. This paper gives a brief introduction to the connotation and path of construction enterprises culture, also the project-oriented characteristics of it. On this basis, the evaluation index system is given by the literature. Then the disadvantages of AHP are enumerated, and a more effective method of fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) is presented, which is proved to be effective by a case.
Materials, inventory and logistics affect operations for the construction enterprises. At present stage, the influ- ence results mainly from transmission and intelligence analysis of information related to materials, inventory and logistics. Information management will eventually affect the management efficiency and economic benefit. For change of construction schedule and materials and labors, changes of material in locations, consumptions of materials, energy and the logistics costs (including inter- nal logistics handling, labor cost and enterprise overall cost accounting, etc.), it is unable to obtain accurate in- formation and its changes in real time by the traditional mode. Use and development of information resources, which play the role in project management, can accu- rately and in time reflect change of the variables in the process and provide managers with the basis for scien- tific decision-making. Basic-level construction enterpri- ses should pay attention to information management at base levels, including logistics, inventory, purchase, the progress of the projects, resource utilization etc., so as to enhance the efficiency of management to work flow.
In the 1920s, Walter Shewhart at Bell Telephone Laboratories applied 3σ as a measurement standard for processes which required improvement (Ferng and Price 2005). In the early 1980s many industries such as manufacturing, pharmaceutical, and chemical started to require substantially better degrees of product reliability (Antony, Bañuelas and Kumar 2006). The old defects measurement in terms of 3σ became unacceptable. Engineers at Motorola realized that the defect-free products were not only superior and imminently more reliable but they actually cost the company less (Persse 2006). The lesson was clear: improving the quality reduces costs - it reduces costs by reducing activities and materials. According to Pande and Holpp (2002), Motorola started to measure defects per million as represented by 6σ. As a result, over a period of 20 years (from around 1985 to 2005), Motorola reported $16 billion in savings from its 6σ efforts (Persse 2006). In 1995, Jack Welch, Chief Executive Officer of General Electric, made 6σ part of General Electric’s culture. Persse (2006) indicates that application of the 6σ concept in General Electric led to savings of hundreds of millions of dollars over a period of 10 years. Other organizations such as Sony, Allied Signal, American Express, Texas Instruments and Bechtel Corporation have reported similar results. In the last few years, the construction industry has reported successful implementation of the 6σ approach. In 2002 Bechtel Corporation, one of the world’s largest construction and project management companies, reported savings of $200 million with an investment of $30 million in its 6σ programme (Kwak and Anbari 2006). The Housing and Development Board under Ministry of National Development in Singapore applied 6σ approach to improve the quality of internal finishes for public housing projects - in this case improvement measures taken by a contractor helped to raise the sigma level from 2.66σ (77.39%) to 3.95σ (99%) (Pheng and Hui 2004). 6σ has also been implemented on the St Pancras Station (London) project as part of the extension of Channel Tunnel Rail Link – the 6σ programme was initiated to improve the construction of raised platform beams with the explicit aim of identifying particular activities that were causing defects and delays (Stewart and Spencer 2006). From these examples, it can be argued that 6σ can be successfully implemented in large organisations. However, there is still much debate about whether the 6σ approach can be effectively implemented and utilized in SMEs. Research problem
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Indimension 4we found that the processes of selection and management of employees are underdeveloped, and the career, rewards and retention plans of employees are minimally developed.Also with respect to employees,they have high level of versatility and their skills are continuously assessed, however, the amount of training and the levels of hierarchy are classified as medium.The management team, however, claims it knows about construction techniques and management methods. With respect to work processes, training and professional education, is evident a high concern of organizations as for the qualification and development of its employees.Although the overall average (3.90) indicates the existence of processes that are almost developed, we have a glimpse of the need for organizations to make their selection processes more rigorous and to reassess their wage policies (rewards, incentives, promotions, among others).These practices may bring, among other benefits, a decrease in costs of rehiring, increased motivation, involvement and commitment of employees, as well as help in retaining people and, consequently, the knowledge that they hold – one of the barriers (job insecurity) to the creation of knowledge signaled by Fantinatti (2008 .
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Collaborative technologies, defined as, a combination of technologies that together create a single shared interface between two or more interested individuals, can have great potential to promote the required collaborative working in AEC. This enables them to participate in a creative process in which they share their collective skills, expertise, understanding and knowledge in an atmosphere of openness, honesty, trust and mutual respect. Thereby jointly deliver the best solution that meets their common goal (Rezgui, 2011). This is encouraged by the Government Construction Strategy (2011), stating that ‘government is that the AEC sector has not fully taken advantage of the full potential offered by digital technology’ (Cabinet-Office, 2011). This detailed programme aims to reduce the cost in the sector's activities up to 20% at the end of the UK parliament in 2016. One of the notable objectives within this document is the requirement of using full collaborative Building Information Modelling (BIM) as a minimum for projects by 2016 (Whyte et al., 2011).
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According to the PMI 2013 projects, programs and portfolios are the best way in which organizations can reach their objectives. Projects are the civil construction Enterprise’s business. Enterprises with this purpose should be structured to attend the daily necessities of the project management daily routine, because it is known that project management is a rather dynamic environment in which changes can occur every moment, so problems with an urge to be quickly solved emerge often. The responses to these problems should be given in a well-structured manner so that they will not happen again and do not damage the Enterprise’s image in relation to its clients.
DDL’s development and development conference has experienced a long time span. During this period, the company’s internal and external environment is expected to undergo major changes, and the effectiveness of focusing on the dif- ferentiation strategy will inevitably be affected. Therefore, the company should promptly adapt to environmental changes, seize market opportunities, and flexi- bly adjust strategies. In addition to the research content of this paper, I believe that at least the following two issues have the value of further research: a) How to use BOT (construction-operation-one handover contract) and EPC (design) in the current domestic legal environment A new business model such as pro- curement and construction general contracting, PMC (project management general contracting) and PPP (public sector and enterprise cooperation mode) to achieve a win-win situation between the owner and the contracting enterprise is the current and future period of domestic construction enterprises. The topics should be actively explored within. b) How to help traditional enterprises to use Internet thinking, not to stick to tradition, to achieve their own structural ad- justment and transformation is a major direction of future strategic research. Calling for more research in the future can focus on the strategic transformation of traditional enterprises and provide more ideas for the development of tradi- tional enterprises.
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Considering its share in, and impact on national economies, the construction industry receives additional attention in terms of its performance and productivity, especially among small and medium contractors. However, with the extensive workforce it employs, health and safety (H&S) issues have become important, since the industry still has the reputation of being one of those with the highest fatality and accident rates. It has been well established from literature and previous studies (Fernandez-Muniz, Montes-Peon & Vazquez- Ordas, 2007: 636; Rajendran & Gambatese, 2009: 1072) that managing H&S helps to ensure that construction organisations are achieving their H&S objectives. As such, H&S management practices constitute a vehicle to improve H&S performance. Given the dominance of small and medium contractors in the construction sector, the challenge is to determine what needs to be measured and practised by these Small and Medium Construction Enterprises (SMCEs) at project level. The objective of this article is to validate the H&S practices that small and medium construction enterprises practise in order to improve H&S performance at project level.
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Business goals are the most important factor affecting production and business activities. The change of production and business behavior will start form the change of business goals. The growth mode aiming at expanding the number of products without attention to economic benefits has been abandoned by more and more enterprises. In today with haze weather growing, people's environmental protection consciousness is increasing and the market also raise requirements for corporate environmental behavior, so as it is the most rational choice to take the improving of economic benefit as the goal for enterprise to seek development in the fierce market competition. Those enterprises who comply with environmental trends can establish a good corporate image in the market. Good environmental management has become a key factor to gain competitive advantage. Business goals should no longer simply is the pursuit of economic benefits, but should be the pursuit of both economic benefits and ecological benefits. Therefore, enterprises should change business ideas and business concepts and improve awareness of corporate social responsibility to the environment.
Referring to the summary of results in Table no.4.1.12 above, it can be deduced that the most important factors from the study are: Budget constraints for ICT investments (Mean= 4.775), Lack of commitment by firm’s management towards ICT (Mean=4.525), Lack of training and technical support for professionals in ICT ( Mean= 4.325), limited benefits/Low return on investment in ICT (Mean=4.025) and High cost of employing ICT professionals ( Mean= 3.725), Cost of implementing ICT in firms (Mean= 3.425),Inadequate ICT content of construction education ( Mean=3.25), Inadequate knowledge about return on ICT investment (Mean= 3.1765), Lack of staff with appropriate skill and knowledge in ICT (Mean=2.9).
Abstract: Lean Construction (LC) is under the spotlight to improve the overall performance of civil construction projects in England. A strategic target of public clients is to effectively extend the current LC efforts, which have been mainly led by large companies to date, across small-medium sized enterprises (SMEs). This paper presents a summary of the initial findings of a research effort aimed at understanding the current condition of and future directions for LC at the SMEs in England’s highways supply chain.
Method to Manage the Consultation Enterprises of Construction cost defines the preparation and verification of construction project recommendation and investment estimation for the feasibility research as within the scope, but actually, the consultation enterprises of construction cost in no way undertake the preparation and verification of investment estimation for the construction project recommendation, investment estimation for the feasibility research and application report of construction project. As the order No. 29 issued by State Development and Reform Commission in 2005, namely Method to Qualify the Engineering Consultation Units, specifies the engineering consultation unit refers to the enterprise or public institution with independent legal personality that is established and carries out engineering consultation business in the territory of China. It shall have registered consulting engineers (investment) in a specified number, legally obtain the Qualification Certification of Project Consultation issued by State Development and Reform Commission and carry out the corresponding business of engineering consultation based on the Qualification Certificate of Engineering Consultation  . The preparation and verification of investment estimation for the construction project recommendation, investment estimation for the feasibility research, application report of construction project and their corresponding investment estimation belong to the service scope of engineering consultation units.
on knowledge. Information is key to monitoring the level of innovative activities, and refers to a set of indicators related to innovation introduced or implemented in enterprises based on the four types of innovation: product innovation, process innovation, organizational innovation, innovation of marketing. Our research presented in this paper carries out a comparison of the main innovative indicator of companies in Europe, for selected top innovators countries and for several Central and Eastern European states, to better understand the gap of the Romanian place regarding a reasonable performance in innovation.
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DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2018.83016 232 Open Journal of Political Science a Confucius Institute was created as a part of Marien Ngouabi’s university. To- day, it is a collaborative knowledge exchange network between the two coun- tries. In 2017, thanks to simple administrative procedures, China has become the most popular destination of young Congolese. The growth rate is estimated at 10% per year over a hundred of self-support students registered in Chinese uni- versities. Besides, we have the library inaugurated by the Chinese President Xi Jinping at Brazzaville. It attracts a lot of people interested in Chinese language and culture in order to get hired by Chinese companies. Thirdly, on the medical field, more than 600 hundred Chinese doctors have been sent to Congo for helping the local medical teams. For his visit, the Chinese President also inaugu- rated the Sino-Congolese Friendship Hospital at Mfilou in the seventh district. Talking about constructions, we can cite the Base Hospital of Makélékélé in the first district and Talangai Hospital in the sixth district of Brazzaville. Recently, some Chinese enterprises were renovating the specialized Mother-Child’s hos- pital of Blanche-Gomez in the center of the town.
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Competitiveness of the State and social welfare are closely related to the effective use of production factors. Organisations that have achieved higher level of labour productivity are more competitive and beneficial for the State and society. Modern management methods have positive impact on labour productivity, therefore their application is supported. One of the promotion measures is “Procesas LT”, under which business organisations are granted non-refundable subsidies for the implementation of modern management methods to increase labour productivity. Administrative institutions make decisions about granting funds of this promotion measure for the projects of business organizations, not taking into account macroeconomic factors that influence labour productivity as well. It has been determined that the counterfactual impact evaluation of this measure can be carried out in the enterprises that have been granted the support. The counterfactual impact evaluation of measure “Procesas LT” has been conducted as an empirical research in the enterprises of construction sector that have implemented the Occupational Health and Safety Management System in accordance with the requirements of standard OHSAS 18001.
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DOI: 10.4236/me.2019.104086 1262 Modern Economy The first column of Table 4 shows the regression results of the pooled OLS model, and the second column is the regression results of the individual fixed effect model, controlling all the control variables, the industry effect, the nature of the enterprise and the individual effect. And the third column controls the time effect on the basis of the second column. In order to avoid the influence of self-correlation on enterprise standard error, all regression standard errors in the table are the clustering standard errors at the enterprise level. From the table we can see that the regression coefficient between financing constraints and enter- prise growth is significantly negative, which shows that the looser the financing constraints received by enterprises, the better the growth of enterprises. This also validates the first research hypothesis in this paper that corporate financing con- straints will limit the growth of enterprises. According to the test before the model selection, it may be more reasonable to explain the relationship using the two-way fixed effect model. Therefore, this paper mainly explains the relation- ship between the two based on two-way fixed effect model to. Judging from the regression results of control variables, the estimation coefficients of enterprise leverage (Lev), Enterprise Size (Size) and enterprise Profitability (ROS) are
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The cloud computing technology is the basic frame that delivers the computing resources according to the requirement and paid subscriptions according to the use. The cloud computing technology combines the virtual technology, services manage automation technology and standardization technology, it can serve the basic frames such as server, network, storage space and so on. It can also support the application platform and software on computer of remote “cloud”. The current “cloud” technology concludes public cloud, private cloud and mixed cloud. The public cloud can serve the big company, and also serve the construction of big local public information service platform; it can visit the computing resources with proper price quickly. Because the provider of public cloud can mange the hardware, software and the supporting basic frame, therefore the pharmaceutical enterprises need not buy them. The private cloud mainly serve the single company, it can also serve the construction of medium and small local public information service platform. The pharmaceutical enterprises can control every business line, customize of authorization group, and apply relative service resources. The mixed cloud is put forward based on private cloud; the pharmaceutical enterprises applying the private cloud can develop as the workload, private cloud and public cloud of managing across multiple data centers, then the mixed cloud is put forward.
Food safety problems caused by food quality problems often cause high concern from government departments and the public. As the core of the food supply chain, food processing enterprises should make emergency plans for sudden food problems in advance, and clearly define the principles and principles for handling problems. Once the quality problems of products occur, enterprises can timely respond to the consequences of risks according to the prepared plans such as actively taking remedial measures and conduct investigations on the causes of problems, holding press conferences, reporting the events and the latest findings of the incidents in real time, and having information sharing with consumers or the media. If it is indeed a business issue, the company must be brave enough to take responsibility and deal with the problem in a responsible attitude towards consumers. This will not only help the company deal with the problem before the crisis expands, but also regain the trust of