Meaning has been one of the primordial issues of concern because of its enigmatic nature not only in the Oriental Philosophy but also in the Occidental tradition.Initially rationalism and empiricism an exception to these impacts. Later on, the structuralist perspectives. The paper undertaken hereby aims at conducting a contrastivestudy on the conception of the problem of meaning -structuralism. On one hand, it deals with the issues attempted by Saussure, Barthes, Bloomfield, Louis Hjelmslev and Jakobson, whereas on the other hand, those by Foucault and Derrida. Furthermore, it strives to delve deep into the points of contact, similarities and differences between them on the aforementioned issue. Whereas, for the structuralists, meaning arises from the functional differences between the elements (signs) within the structuralists view the signification of meaning as an infinite and perennial process and meaning is the result of a play of ‘différance’.
Genre analysis deals with the study of how language is used within a particular context, or the study of specialist areas of language. It has been in the focus of different researchers by a particular speech community which has coincided with many studies on academic genre texts such as research articles (RAs). Among these are numerous studies dealing with “hedging”, one element included in the interpersonal, interactional metadiscourse that has received great attention. ( Atai and Sadr, 2008; Davoodifard, 2006; Falahati, 2004; Hyland, 1999, 1998; Myers, 1989; Salager-Meyer, 1994; Skelton, 1988). As hedging is a crucial aspect of the linguistic behavior of academic genres, and it has been mostly studied in RAs, the present study tends to investigate this feature in journalistic language, a discourse type in which hedges are used commonly. The other reason for such a choice is that newspapers have more readers than any kind of written text, and editorials “cover a major portion of newspaper pages and represent the position and underline the reputation of a newspaper” (Tahririan 1995, p. 128). Therefore, as newspapers are good sources of language forms and contain different text-types and language styles, it is worth considering newspaper editorials as an evidence of hedging and dealing with them in a contrastivestudy.
The assumption shared by NSM researchers is that it is far better to use universal words of natural languages to explain complex concepts and meanings than using technical jargon or ethnocentric labels assuming that they represent the “human norm”. These points are fundamental for the purposes of a contrastivestudy like the present one, whose aim is to pinpoint the meaning of various address expressions and capture the cultural values underlying address practices in English and Italian providing definitions which are comparable, i.e. which permit to highlight the differences between the two linguacultures clearly. Comparability implies that the definition has to be first of all recognisable by native speakers of both languages as indigenous and by cultural outsiders as foreign, so that they can improve their cross-cultural awareness and learn how to use forms of address adequately when immersed in the foreign linguacultural world. In order to maximally enhance the clarity, intelligibility and comparability of the definitions, they have to be phrased in truly culturally-neutral terms. This is possible if the methodology of the Natural Semantic Metalanguage is adopted, which I will discuss in the next chapter.
A lot of research on body metaphor (Wang, 2002; Wang, 2002; Lu, 2004; Swan, 2009; Wongthai, 2015; Çakır, 2016) has been conducted before, but the systematic contrastivestudy of body metaphor in English and Chinese has seldom been done. This paper mainly summarizes the similarities and differences of body metaphors in English and Chinese in the hope of having a better understanding of body metaphor and helping Chinese learners learn body metaphor better.
The main purpose of language is to communicate with others. People communicate using many words. These words can affect people’s lives, so they have to choose their words carefully. Sometimes, some of them become more polite in their speech to avoid hurting others. Oxford Online Dictionary (2000) defines polite as "having or showing behavior that is respectful and considerate of other people." One type of politeness is using a euphemism. This research is a contrastivestudy between Arabic speakers (Saudi) and English speakers (American). The purpose of this study was to show the similarities and differences in both languages.
Exposure to the harsh chemical environment has long been suspected to be detrimental to PVDF. A number of works have reported the vulnerability of PVDF membrane towards alkaline environments, though their aim is to study the degradation mechanism [9-12]. It is essential to state that earlier studies were conducted either in the presence of a catalyst or by employing long-term exposure. So far, there is still a lack of the systematic study to demonstrate the impacts in real applications, which is caused by the mild conditions used during both chemical cleaning and membrane contactor purposes . Moreover, degradation of polymer membrane due to hypochlorite cleaning has been reported in several papers [7, 14-16] but particular studies on PVDF membrane are surprisingly scarce. This could be attributed to information of high tolerance with oxidants as provided by the membrane manufacturers. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to perform a contrastivestudy on the effects of different chemicals on the properties of PVDF membrane. Three types of chemicals (KOH, NaOH, and NaOCl) were used to treat hydrophobic PVDF membranes in various treatment conditions and all treated membranes were analysed and compared.
From 1991 to 2005, I was teaching English as a second language at universities in China. In 1990s, the teaching of English hadn’t been changed that much from my time as a student: English teaching was mainly based on Chomsky’s learning theory: stimulate and response. Teaching was still classroom centered; students were listeners, note takers and knowledge receivers. ‘Dead and dumb English’; ‘high score and low ability (especially in communication)’ were phrases suggesting major problems in English study in China. Few students could actually speak to any native speaker. We failed completely in teaching the students to speak and learn English. Printed dictionaries remained as the leading learning resources. English monolingual dictionaries, such as Longman Dictionary, and various Oxford Dictionaries flooded onto Chinese markets. Meanwhile, many Chinese scholars started to compile their own bilingual dictionaries based mainly on the English dictionaries.
ever, Table 5 also shows that some thanking words have a rela- tively higher frequency in one group than the other. For in- stance, gratitude and appreciation, both are nouns, occur much more frequently in TS than in NAS, while thank, grateful, and acknowledge, which are verbs or adjective, are used much more frequently by the NAS than by the TS. These findings once again corroborate the previous conclusion that TS tend to use more noun forms to express their thanks, whereas NAS employ more verb forms. Examination of the generic context of these thanking words or patterns that are often linked to these thank- ing words also yields some interesting findings. For example, for high-frequency nouns gratitude/appreciation/thanks, the use of a formulaic pattern, my (deepest/sincere/…) gratitude/ appreciation/thanks goes to has 27 occurrences in the TS data, but merely 3 occurrences in the NAS data. Another formulaic pattern is the use of a preface, as indicated in Hyland and Tse (2004). Hyland and Tse found that thesis acknowledgements in their corpus are likely to contain a preface such as I would like to…, used formulaically to add an element of formality. It was found that this fixed phrase is used 56 times in the TS ac- knowledgements, and 35 times in the NAS acknowledgements. These results seem to suggest that non-native English speaker master students (in this study, Taiwanese students) tend to con- struct their thanking expressions with more conventionalized set patterns than native English speaker master students (Ame- rican or Canadian students), and these patterns are probably intended for increasing the formality of acknowledgements.
In this study the researcher used the reading section of Iranian pre-university EFL textbook. For further studies this coverage can still be expanded to include more reading sections of English language textbooks taught in the institutes as well the books used for Iranian intermediate EFL learners. According, as this study was conducted on the grammatical and lexical cohesive across Iranian pre-university EFL textbook and headway as and EFL institute textbook. Further research can be carried out in other English textbooks such as Top-Notch series, new interchange series, new parade series, American English file series, connect series, project series, and Iranian high school textbooks, and so on.
At the 2008 Conference on Computational Linguis- tics (COLING), a workshop on Cross-Framework and Cross-Domain Parser Evaluation organized a shared task on comparing different target represen- tations for grammatical analysis (Bos et al., 2008). For a selection of ten sentences from the PTB, the organizers encouraged contrastive studies over a set of parallel, gold-standard annotations in eight differ- ent formats. This collection, dubbed PEST (Parser Evaluation Shared Task), remains a uniquely valu- able resource, despite its small size, for its careful selection of grammatical phenomena, broad cover- age across frameworks, and general availability. 2 In the following we briefly review our selection of de- pendency representations from the PEST data set that provide the vantage point for the current work— using the dimensions identified earlier: head status, relation types, and graph properties.
The sample advertisements for the current study were selected out of a hundred advertisements. The present study has primarily concentrated on seventeen advertisements randomly chosen out of a hundred and all of them have been analyzed based on the syntactic, semantic and pictorial factors contained on each. The present paper, predominantly, focuses on the analysis of seventeen fliers of language institutes. The advertisements, however, were randomly selected out of the ones come across throughout the city, on the billboards, brushers, in newspapers, magazines, on the walls, on the internet, etc. The focus of the present study is English language institute ads; the collected ads, consequently, just included the advertisements concerned with the English language institutes only .
Although there are many colors used in Persian language and culture, this study focuses on only six very commonly used colors consisting of black (siah or meshki) , white (sefid) , red (ghermez or sorkh ), green ( sabz ), yellow ( zard ) and blue (abi) , so that it would be more suitable for the purpose of comparing and contrasting with their English counterparts. Using the cognitive cultural categorization for each color term, three different color meanings were identified as original meaning, extended meaning and abstract meaning. ‘Original meaning’ refers to the etymological meaning of the color term; ‘extended meaning’ refers to the meaning extended from the original meaning through metaphor, metonymy, or other cognitive means; ‘abstract meaning’ refers to the meaning that has been further abstracted from the extended meaning. Then, attempts are made to present an explanation regarding the cultural points and mechanisms underlying each meaning of the color terms.
An important feature of the parallel corpus is the pos- sibility to consult uses and translation of words. The tools for querying the corpus are based on Perl regular expres- sions and allow to check co-occurrence of words or groups of words, specific morphological or lexical fea- tures of words. The result of query processing (Figure 1) is output as an HTML file, which is hyperlinked to sen- tence identifiers in the corpus, so that the wider context can be also explored. In addition to the source text, frag- ments aligned to the source can be also output. The key- words of both the source and the target texts are high- lighted in the output. Translations are highlighted on the basis of a simple heuristics: translations typically belong to the same group as source words, thus, if we study uses of size adjectives, the list of Russian size adjectives is a good approximation for possible translations of size adjec- tives from English, though not always, as the two exam- ples in Figure 1 suggest (of course, the list of candidates can be extended).
mentioned earlier (See section 1.3.). While counting the number of citations in each part, the relationship between the function of citation and articles' sections was examined thoroughly as well. The first step in the analysis of citation types in ELT scopus journals was to run a word count to determine the length of the corpus. After analysis, the number and percentage of citation were calculated. The identified data based on Thompson and Tribble  and Peric's  frameworks were classified according to the citation functions. The number and kinds of citation used in each part of the articles were counted as well. A table was used to show the number and percentages of citation for Iranian and international scopus journals. Another table along was used to display the comparison and contrast between the Iranian and the international scopus journals. Another table was also used to display the types of citations used and their relationships with different articles sections. The analysis also included textual elements outside the main text, such as epigraphs and explanatory footnotes. The frameworks that were used in the study were both functional, allowing us to look at the contextual nature of citations, and formal, divulging the syntactic position of citations within the clause. Thus, the present study provided analyses at both quantitative and qualitative levels. At the end, by scrutinizing the gathered data it was determined whether a relationship exists among Iranian and international ELT scopus journals and citation type and article section respectively. It should be stated that to ensure more objectivity in the analysis, preliminary analysis was made on ten research articles in ELT (five from each language). Two other researchers also analyzed the articles separately and agreement was then reached on rhetorical functions assigned to each citation. Analysis was then carried out on all the research articles in terms of rhetorical functions following the above-mentioned models.
This study discussed relative clauses in English and Arabic syntactically and semantically and highlighted the symmetries and asymmetries between these clauses in both languages. It clarified that relative clauses in English and Arabic follow the head noun, i.e., the syntactic pattern of word order of English and Arabic relative clauses is similar. Then English uses a relative pronoun that agrees with the noun it replaces, i.e., who for subject-case human, whom for object-case human, which for non-human, and whose for human and non- human possessive determiner. While standard Arabic (SA) uses relative nouns that need to agree with the head noun in case, gender ,and number. However, case agreement is applied only with the dual relative nouns. i.e., nominative, genitive, or accusative. This study also showed that English does not allow pronoun retention as an object pronoun or as object of a preposition. On contrary, Arabic retains the object noun in the relative clause in a pronominal form and allows for a pronominal reflex as object of a preposition.
purpose of communication in a digital world quite often described as a small village. The continuous growing need for translation calls for rigorous research to be carried out in different language aspects to facilitate the very process of translating, especially in contrastive studies. Translation as a discipline requires competent translators who are well informed in the discipline namely language. It goes without saying that language is a composite of morphemes and words that are combined to form sensible structures specifically sentences. Relative clauses are important parts of language structures without whose good knowledge it will be impracticable to form meaningful structures.
There is so far only limited research that applies a corpus-based approach to the study of the Arabic language. The primary purpose of this paper is therefore to explore the verb systems of Arabic and English using the Quranic Arabic Corpus, focussing on their similarities and differences in tense and aspect as expressed by verb structures and their morphology. Understanding the use of different verb structures, participles, and auxiliary verbs that are used to indicate time and actions may be one way to improve translation quality between
In terms of consistency, 16 translators show inconsistent strategies in translating the same mutashaabih concept of face in the four verses under analysis (see Table 5.3 below). This is, of course, a demerit since it detracts the reader’s understanding of the entire text. However, consistency is not an easy goal for translators, especially in such a large and sensitive text as the Quran. It first requires alertness to the muhkam- mutashaabih distinction and all its relevant issues as well as being aware of their respective verses or at least the most prototypical ones of mutashaabih as they are the most problematic. What makes it more difficult is that mutashaabih verses under study are scattered over the whole Quran, which includes 6236 verses. To return to our point, the other nine translators follow the same strategy consistently in translating the mutashaabih concept of ‘face’ in all the four verses under study. These translators can be divided further into three groups: (a) consistent ‘literal translation’ occurring four times, (b) consistent ‘figurative translation’ occurring four times, and (c) consistent ‘literal plus figurative comment’ occurring once. It is important to note here that consistency is not always a merit. In other words, as mentioned above, literal translation is not appropriate in translating these mutashaabih verses and sticking to it consistently means committing the same mistake consistently. The case is the same with the other extreme of ‘figurative’ translation when replacing the original expression with one of its ‘uncertain figurative senses’. Accordingly, sticking to these two strategies consistently means repeating the negative consequences of these strategies continuously. This gives a new relative and dynamic understanding of consistency and inconsistency (for more elaboration on this point, see sections 8.4. and 9.8.6.).
The data of the study manifest a good number of differences between the Classic Arabic and the Gulf Colloquial Arabic. These differences were found on the levels of phonology, morphology, lexicon and syntax. Phonological alterations included vowel and consonant alteration, vowel deletion, and syllable reduction. Lexical differences were mainly a lexical complementary distribution between CA and GCA. Morphological alterations included suffix deletion in GCA Arabic. Word order alterations were the most significant Syntactic difference.