Country and City

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"Country and City in the New Europe"

"Country and City in the New Europe"

What I wish to stress is that the recentering of control at a suprastate level in Brussels and the hierarchical reshuffling of legal powers is helping to create geo-political anomalies. Certainly it could be argued that the yet untried Committee of Regions fails to treat cities as autonomous political entities in their own right, and so ultimately compromise the principle of subsidiarity Schoonbrodt 1994:94; Maastricht Treaty Art. 198 A; see also Art. 130 S and the potential intervention of the European Council in town and country planning). Yet despite inadequate representation in Brussels, throughout Europe some cities are emerging as serious political players and new hubs of economic competition while older more industrial based cities decline (Gurr and King 1987:157). In other instances, regions rather than specific cities are developing as the entity apparently more representative of popular needs and desires, attracting attention and potential funding from the EC's regional program. Across these differences, what is significant is that capital cities are no longer automatically considered the central players in representing collective state interests, be these nationalist based or otherwise. Capital cities, alongside other less nationally symbolic centers, are being both forced and encouraged to assume a relative degree of autonomy, and to (re)assert a sense of place and identity (Gurr and King 1987:150- 84). The fact that in England this sense of identity is most commonly filtered through a nostalgic history and the conservation of old buildings, industries and skills associated with a golden past, has perhaps given support to some theorists suggesting emerging parallels with the Italian system of city- states. Indeed the Arts Council's terminology 'urban renaissance' conjures up connections to Max Weber's description of the medieval city in 16th century Europe (Weber 1958:157-91). As Anthony Sampson has noted, 'we are witnessing in Europe the emergence of a new generation of cities' (Sampson 1992:197).
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Forces in Struggle in the Country and the City Today in Brazil: Beyond a Dualistic  Understanding

Forces in Struggle in the Country and the City Today in Brazil: Beyond a Dualistic Understanding

Given the growing urbanization of life today and the intensification of the interaction of urban and rural space, this paper problematizes what is common and what distinguishes production of life in the country and the city. Distinctions that had a previous logic have become debatable, thus requiring new analyses. Our references are data from field work undertaken in Brazil (in the urban periphery 2 and in the settlements and encampments of the Landless Rural Workers Movement) and studies that focus on the connection between urban and rural space. The purpose of the article is to analyze a particular reality that expresses social relations on aninternational level. According to Santos (2006), each place is a concrete expression of universality, where people are socially con- structing their lives. Space in bourgeois society is the space of capital, of its constitution, affirmation and nega- tion. Therefore, the category entirety is the key to understanding the constant movement in which places are created and renovated in each movement of the society.
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‘No One Cares In The City’: How Young People’s Gendered Perceptions Of The Country And The City Shape Their Educational Decision Making

‘No One Cares In The City’: How Young People’s Gendered Perceptions Of The Country And The City Shape Their Educational Decision Making

Although a high level of ambiguity characterised all of the participants’ views on the country and the city, the perception of risk which accompanied these ambiguities was mediated by aspects of cultural knowledge and gender relations to influence the young people’s educational decisions. One young local man, Shaun, decided against continuing his education because “it is not safe anywhere else these days.” Another young man, Paul, made a similar choice because “I am born and bred here, never been out of the state.” Paul also thinks “it's actually really boring here” but would never want to leave because “all my family is here.” In the simultaneous construction of Hillsville as boring and the only place to be, Paul’s comments highlight the sense of ambiguity which characterised many participants’ choices to leave school early. Anita, in an interview with herself and her parents, elaborates on this and highlights the feelings and emotions experienced by many participants. Her question to her parents, “I don't think I will like leaving here to go to college. What will happen if I don't like it? What if I make the wrong choice? I just don't want to make a choice”, reflects Anita’s rural habitus and her fears about the city. It also reflects the expectation to young people to profit from the endless possibilities available to them (McLeod, 2009), even if they lack the mobility capital to engage with this project (Corbett, 2007). Rather than making the risky decision to move to the city and risk failure, Anita makes the choice to not continue in education to minimise risks to the self by staying in the local community.
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The possibilities of the city and the country tourism in the Czech Republic

The possibilities of the city and the country tourism in the Czech Republic

Za hlavní příčiny toho, že obyvatelé Brna nevyužívají přírodní okolí ke své rekreaci, stejně jako nejezdí na kole a nesportují, jsou nejčastěji uvá -. děny zdravotní problémy a nedosta[r]

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Subjective Well Being among Communities Left Behind by International Migrants

Subjective Well Being among Communities Left Behind by International Migrants

Questions 1 and 2 of BIARE are designed to establish life satisfaction in general. Question 3 lists 14 domains of satisfaction: social life, family life, affective life, standard of living, health, achievements, perspective of the future, time to do what the person likes, security, realized activity, housing, neighborhood, city, and country. Question 4 uses a battery of 11 phrases to establish the sense or meaning of the life of the interviewees (eudaimonia), 9 sentences with positive meaning and 2 sentences with negative meaning. Question 5 captures 10 emotional states that people may have experienced the day before the interview, beginning with five positive states: good humor, tranquility, vitality, concentration, and joy and satisfaction. Subsequently, five negative counterparts are examined: bad humor, concern and anxiety, fatigue, boredom, and sadness or gloom. All these questions use a scale of 0 to 10. The questionnaire also includes socio-demographic information and identifiers of household that can be merged with other information from the questionnaire in the MCS.
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The Attic Stelai, Part II

The Attic Stelai, Part II

hold equipment is listed, but there is no knowing whether this catalogue was supposed to apply to a poor or rich, country or city, house (frag.. a result of the low deman[r]

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The Cost Minimization Model in Warehouse Distribution System

The Cost Minimization Model in Warehouse Distribution System

An analysis of those data of demand performed to determine which of the county demand points had to be treated in the research in order to control and maintain a reasonable representation of the national distribution. As per this analysis result showed that, more than 3000 countries and counties are equivalents in the contiguous US only almost 1230 received freight shipments. However, in this analysis showed that, 90% of the total, was accounted by 225 countries, 95% by 350 and 99% is by 650. On the basis of primarily on that results it decided to consider the 225 countries which are accounted for 90% of the total shipments (secondary) as per the set of demand points for the research study. At one point, the total demand was considered to develop (the main city within the country), meanwhile mostly countries have one large and big metropolitan city, this approximation seemed reasonable. The further limitation placed in the list of potential warehouse site to treat. Based on the formerly and previously showed analysis of freight shipments, on cost and geographic considerations, the study team, which consisted of operations research personnel and distribution department, defined a set almost 40 warehouses’ points to be considered. These are all metropolitan cities and areas located throughout the country.
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Left outside or trapped in the visible and invisible gate. Insights into the continuities and discontinuities in the creation of good and just living in open and gated suburbs of Johannesburg.

Left outside or trapped in the visible and invisible gate. Insights into the continuities and discontinuities in the creation of good and just living in open and gated suburbs of Johannesburg.

This work argues that gated enclaves, internally organized and managed by specific institutions, such as that of the Homeowners Association, not only provide the space in which the good life is lead, but most importantly set the standard and the terms of this good life. Looking at them relationally, thus in constant dialogue with the open suburb, reveals that they provide a system of institutionalization and formalization of what is considered to be the just life by its residents. Further to providing the space in which the good life is performed and experienced, and to setting the standard to it, it provides the possibility of adopting strategies for the residents to justify and explain their choice of living in such a space. Thus, against the view on gated communities as entities of separation from the city and detachment from it, I argue that gated enclaves ought to be studied as systems of justification and neutralization of a form of distinction and difference. To the visible collective gate of the estate is linked an invisible feeling of attachment and belonging to the suburb, to the city and to the country. Gated estates are then not mere bubbles that aspire to be independent; in fact looking at city spaces relationally these gated bubbles become blurred and fully integrated in the city system. Starting from a relational approach to the understanding of the city, putting in dialogue residents and institutions of the golf estate with those of the suburb and operating a comparison within these two milieus, I offer a phenomenological understanding of the creation of a standard of good life in what is perceived to be a just city by a specific group of residents. This is borne out by the corporate way of living promoted and fostered by the administration of elitist gated communities (in this case a golf estate
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A study of the effects of explicit story structure instruction on narrative writing in the upper primary school : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MLitEd (Master of Literacy Education) at Massey University, Al

A study of the effects of explicit story structure instruction on narrative writing in the upper primary school : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of MLitEd (Master of Literacy Education) at Massey University, Albany, New Zealand

The results showed that the story structure intervention did have an effect on children’s writing of stories in the country school but the effect was smaller in the city school.. The dis[r]

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IMO 2020 sulfur cap: green investment in shipping industry

IMO 2020 sulfur cap: green investment in shipping industry

The promotion strategies are very important for BKP in two aspects. Firstly, BKP as a state-owned enterprise organization has responsibility of serving public interest. Moreover, BKP is located in the capital city, therefore BKP needs to work closely with communities and need support from them the good promotion strategies such as event marketing, public relation programs, or websites can create good understanding and good image of BKP to communities. Secondly, BKP as a barge terminal operator should create promotion strategies based on the needs of customer and the characteristic of shipping industry. Therefore, the effective promotion tool of port in business aspect should be the tools that easy to change and not expensive such as direct selling, direct mailing, newsletter, or website. In this regard, it is needed to highlight here that when considering all the factors of BKP’s promotion strategies, the first priority that BKP need to improve is the official website that contain both of the informative information about 20G coastal terminal services and the benefits of this service toward the country. Moreover, BKP needs to be curtain that this official website is design in term of user-friendly website for customers.
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The Carnivalesque and the Grotesque in Elizabeth Bishop's Poetry

The Carnivalesque and the Grotesque in Elizabeth Bishop's Poetry

This study’s close analysis of four works (“From the Country to the City,” “Cirque d’Hiver,” “Pink Dog,” and “The Man-Moth”) reveals characteristics of the carnivalesque and the grotes[r]

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The Relation between Air Pollution and Cardiorespiratory Admissions in Tehran

The Relation between Air Pollution and Cardiorespiratory Admissions in Tehran

Organization. Tehran is the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran with almost 11 million inhabitants (one sixth of the country’s population), and is the most densely populated city of the country. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of air pollution on cardiorespiratory system. We assessed the relationship between the levels of air pollutants and emergency visits for asthma and cardiovascular diseases in Tehran, Iran. Two research questions investigated in this study were as follows: a) Which criteria elements of hazardous toxic air pollution were associated most strongly with the level of hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory conditions? b) What proportion of the variation in hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory conditions was explained by variations in levels of air pollution? Materials and Methods: During a 12-month period (from April 2004 to March 2005), the concentrations of 5 air pollutants (CO , NO 2 , O 3 ,
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Second nature

Second nature

-schap= context essential that scenery seen by the eye the quality , condition or natural shows in land the qualities of that make of city, of character something what or country thing a[r]

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Eco Friendly E-BIKE

Eco Friendly E-BIKE

E-BIKE is modification of existing bike and driven by Battery and solar energy. It is suitable for both city and country roads, that are made of cement, asphalt, or mud. This bicycle is cheaper, simpler in construction & can be widely used for short distance travelling especially by school children, college students, office goers, villagers, postmen etc. It is very much suitable for young, aged, handicap people and caters the need of economically poor class of society. It can be operated throughout the year free of cost. The most important feature of this bicycle is that it does not consume valuable fossil fuels thereby saving crores of foreign currencies. .
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Birth of a city from the spirit of the autumn school

Birth of a city from the spirit of the autumn school

opening speaker on the first day of the conference, seems to have taken this as a recommendation for methodological guidelines. As a philoso- pher, in his presentation Matjus approached cities phenomenologically by letting the city be heard, while avoiding preconceived and narrow definitions, and thereby letting it appear in all its concreteness. To achie- ve this, Matjus, on the one hand, examined the individual (“nostalgic”) relationship with Tartu as a hometown and, on the other hand, the city as it is revealed in literature. Matjus believes that the deeply hidden na- ture of the city and its specific relationship with its residents is revealed in linguistic etymological connections to the words “fortress”, “citadel” and “stronghold”. Accordingly, the relationship between a city and its citizenry is similar to the one between a mother and child – by holding her child in her arms, the mother restricts as well as protects, controls and shelters the child. Just like a relationship between mother and child, the relationship between a city and its citizenry is one of mutual respect, esteem and love. According to Matjus, in Estonian literature on the other hand, a strong differentiation between the city and the country and vil- lage appears that grows into confrontation and even hostility against the city. Hopes related to the city may not be realized. The catchphrase, which says that the city makes one free may not be true, but just be an empty metaphor. Thus, in classical Estonian literature, the city is only captivating and alluring from afar. Later is becomes hostile to the new- comer. Matjus interpreted this as a loss of the initial nature of the city – the city changes into something else, although externally, the defini- tive traits stay the same.
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A flexible, scaleable approach to the international patent 'name game'. Bruegel Working Paper 2014/10i, September 2014

A flexible, scaleable approach to the international patent 'name game'. Bruegel Working Paper 2014/10i, September 2014

Machine learning resolves these issues to some extent, but as implemented depends on reasonably well-formatted data to function appropriately. The United States Patent and Trademark Office data used by Lai et al. are very well-curated. Names are reliably separated into first, middle, and last components; and address information is complete in most cases and is reliably separated into street, city, US state, and country. In contrast, the name data in PATSTAT are not reliably formatted, and address data are both sparse and inconsistent. Figure 5 shows that addresses are sparse for most countries in the European Union. Of those addresses, quality can vary from a complete street address with city and postcode, to only city. In other cases, the address is missing, but can be found in the inventor name field on closer inspection. This variability results, as figure 6 shows, in significant variation in machine-readable and parse-able addresses.
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The future of the city from Science to Science Fiction and back (and beyond)

The future of the city from Science to Science Fiction and back (and beyond)

(…) it would seem obvious to identify the “socialist space” of the kommunalka with the concept of non-place developed by Marc Augé: “devoid of relations, roots, history. Always repeated equally in any situation. Aseptic to the point of making impos- sible, for those frequenting it, any kind of identification or deep or personal relationship with it. But history and cultural testimonies have taken the reading of a non-place par excellence to pieces a little at a time, in favour of a very special, anomalous “place”, with a very high degree of identitary specificity, which the actual roots of the culture of that people and that country mould and transform, still following a Lotman model, from “ne dom” (anti-house) into Dom (House to all effects).
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Geo analysis of a touristic city in progress: A case study of Sousse

Geo analysis of a touristic city in progress: A case study of Sousse

Since 1956, the year of the country's independence, the city experienced an economic situation following the transition phase. Agriculture, fishing, trade, and crafts are the major functions that present the socio-economic fabric of that time. However, the Sahel population has had a hard time recovering from these activities in the face of rising living standards. Over time, the country has drawn up development plans to overcome this crisis and create an economic balance. Other activities have been introduced while tourism and education, including Sousse and the Sahel are among the major areas that have benefited. At the beginning of this transition, the country has to work hard to educate the people so that it is ready to support and develop the Tunisian economy through a high intellectual level. Behind the region of Tunis and Sfax, Sousse became the third university pole. The central university then named the University of Sousse hosts a number equal to 40 000 students per year in respect of 18 institutions of higher education of which the faculty of medicine, the school of the engineers, the Higher Institute of Agriculture Of Chott-Meriem are part of this cluster. Alongside the universities, the Sousse region contains 168 vocational training centers, 86% of which are private. These centers help train technicians for access to industries according to different specialties such as mechanics, electricity, electronics and industrial computing; other specialty are Source : Elaboré à partir des cartes du Commissariat Géneral du Dévelopement Régional
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Geographical genetic structure of Schistosoma japonicum revealed by analysis of mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers

Geographical genetic structure of Schistosoma japonicum revealed by analysis of mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers

Abbreviations: AHGC: Guichi Country, Anhui Province; AHTL: Tongling Country, Anhui Province; HBSH: Shashi City, Hubei Province; HNCD: Changde City, Hunan Province; HNYY: Yueyang City Hun[r]

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Formalist reading of Moor’s Last Sigh

Formalist reading of Moor’s Last Sigh

This paper aims at analyzing the novel, Moor’s Last Sigh, from the formalist perspective. It has been argued that meaning is expressed through the analysis of multi plot form of the novel. The duality of the plot can have multiple layers of meaning. The Formalist understanding would take the double layer character of Mr. Raman Fielding, usually called as Main duck, and his speeches which destroyed the secularity of a diverse country, India. His paradoxical speeches enflamed communal tension first in India’s most populace multi-cultural and multi-religious city Bombay and later spread like fire to the whole country.
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