constructing a solid basis for the policy representation of creativeeconomy in an international context (no small feat given the kinds of lobby groups that dominate international development). The project was initially sup- ported within the UNCTAD’s CreativeEconomy and Industries Programme, allied with the UN Office for South-South Co-operation, whose commitment remains; an online database for global creative industries is still available. Given the competitive nature of UN multi-agency cooperation, the report cites the recent push in the UN for a “One UN” front, at least on high profile policy publications. Whatever the compromises of this, like any multi-agency policy state- ment (noticeable is the influence of WIPO and so WTO), the intellectual leadership of Yudhishthir
This thesis explores brand as a dimension of the Caribbean’s creativeeconomy. It is therefore essential to first lay the groundwork and introduce this economy and the industries that form it. The creativeeconomy “is an emerging concept dealing with the interface between creativity, culture, economics and technology in a contemporary world dominated by images, sounds, texts and symbols” (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2013). A young field, compared with other academic disciplines, it evolved out of discourse around arts, creative industries and creative cities (Landry and Bianchini, 1995; DCMS, 1998) and gained wider popularity following the publication of John Howkins’ seminal text The CreativeEconomy: How people make money from ideas (2001). It has since continued to be at the centre of numerous debates regarding structure, governance, geography, economic systems, political economies, policy frameworks, labour and socio-cultural discourse (Caves, 2000; Flew and Cunningham, 2010; Florida, 2012; Hesmondhalgh, 2009; O’Connor, 2010; Pratt, 2012, Throsby, 2001). In fact, to date even the term ‘creativeeconomy’ still proves problematic for some academics, however given the limited aims of this thesis it will be used as it the term favoured by Caribbean industry stakeholders, policy makers and academics alike.
however, that we need to adjust for. First, the EU LFS contains no information on second jobs: in robustness checks using the UK APS, we therefore adjust the APS data to remove second job information and align the samples. Second, as highlighted above, the dataset uses NACE industry codes that are identical to UK SICs to the 4–digit level, but the data are only made available at the 3–digit level. Our parsing approach, outlined in the next section, creates best–fit 3–digit matches to the creative industries identified by BFH and DCMS (2014). We interpret our results accordingly. For these reasons and others, the APS estimates we report in this study are not identical to the DCMS’s published creativeeconomy estimates. Third, as household samples vary substantially across contributing countries, Eurostat places heavy restrictions on the availability of sub–national industry and occupational aggregate data in some countries. This means that sub–national estimates are not presented in this report.
The urban regeneration and the expansion of the quality of life promoted by public policies related to creativeeconomy can also act as agents of recovery and solution of socioeconomic problems. The positive effects of creativeeconomy transcend the generation of taxes, jobs and commerce and include the elevation of the local self-esteem, the strengthening of social cohesion, the consolidation of public-private partnerships and the affirmation oflocal image. At the international level, the improvement of the image of the country with the stimulus to creativeeconomy may increase its capacity for the attraction of investments and business and leisure tourists (Reis, 2006). The implementation of revitalization projects generally aims at the sustainable economic development and the attraction of investments. Architectural initiatives designed to cultural spaces – such as museums – are parts of the revitalization process. Such transformations may result from changes in the public management structure, the country’s greater engagement with international dynamics and the greater concern with its international identity and the attraction of foreign capital necessary for development (Mercher, 2013; Jesus, 2018). Regarding the expansionof access to culture, public policies related to creativeeconomy can also stimulate cultural democracy by offering all the people the right of access to multiple cultural manifestations and allowing them to know the possible cultural repertoire and broaden their options. New technologies – particularly digital media – can facilitate access to cultural production and markets. In addition, the reinforcement of cultural identity –which places in perspective the influences of other cultures – ensures that creative industries can express thematic, sectoral, territorial and authorial diversity, thus granting the true values and potentialities to culture (Reis, 2006). In terms of data collection, a bibliographic research was initially conducted in this article to gather information related to theoretical and conceptual aspects related to creativeeconomy. A document
This report sets out the case for building on the start Birmingham has made in developing its creativeeconomy. The city started to be seriously interested in the creative industries relatively recently, but it is making some progress. It has a wide range of creative and cultural organisations, from high-profile performing arts companies, including the Birmingham Royal Ballet and the CBSO to established media firms like Maverick to award-winning design agencies such as Clusta and Substrakt, accounting for a significant slice of the city’s employment and business numbers. Public-sector bodies involved in this sector have developed strong working relationships with each other, which bodes well for future co-operation. The creative businesses we spoke to in the course of this research were cautiously optimistic about their prospects over the next few years, and the image of Birmingham was perceived to be improving, suggesting the efforts of those who play a role in championing the city, such as Marketing Birmingham, are bearing fruit.
The creative industries are at the heart of the creativeeconomy, and an important means for the promotion of cultural diversity and the key for countries to claim their own history and to imagine their own future. The emergence of the creative class as a new social class is the dominant class in society that add economic value through their creativity. Creative class theory believes that people, not just the technology and capacity of the organisation as a key asset of economic growth. The main core of this new creative class includes scientists and engineers, university professors, poets and novelists, artists, entertainers, actors, designers and architects, as well as thought leadership of modern society. Creativity is also closely linked with cities and regions. The development of creative industries and withdrawal of members of the creative class has been the key for cities, regions and organisations for economic growth and to participate in the era of globalisation and information. According to Landry (2000), there are more than 60 cities around the world who refer to themselves as a creative city.
Since its fi rst development, two decades ago (Howkins, 2001), the creative econo- my has generated interest for an increasing number of specialists from various fi elds (economics, business and management, law, policy studies, organization studies, ge- ography, sociology and psychology etc.), as well as from world-known organizations, concerned with its potential in promoting growth, prosperity and well-being in re- gional and national economies (United Nations, 2018a, 2010, 2008; UNESCO, 2013; Dovey and Pra , 2016). At its core, the creativeeconomy comprises economic ac- tivities which capitalize creativity through intellectual property rights that form the creative industries. Although there is no generally accepted defi nition regarding the specifi c activities included in this sector, one of the most referred to approaches is provided by the UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), which states that creative industries are ‘those industries which have their origin in individual cre- ativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property’ (DCMS, 2001, p. 5). e im- portance a ached to creativity within the creative sector is advocated by scholars such as Richard Florida (‘human creativity is the ultimate economic resource’, Florida, 2002, p. xiii), while others have stressed that ‘the industries of the twenty-fi rst cen- tury will depend increasingly on the generation of knowledge through creativity and innovation’ (Landry and Bianchini, 1995, p. 4). From an economic perspective, the dis- course on the creativeeconomy has been continuously diversifi ed, aiming to capture the complex reality in which creativity intertwined with diﬀ erent aspects of growth and development. Consequently, related concepts have also emerged, which linked together the creativeeconomy to cluster theory (Boix et al., 2011; Lazzere i, Boix and Capone
The picture of the regional dimension given by Pratt in 1997, although dated, suggested a large disparity between London and the South East, seen as the creative hub of the country, and the rest of UK trying to catch up with it. Questions can be raised as whether this gap has been reduced or on the contrary has been expanded in the last 10 years. Oakley (2006, p.267) has documented the still undeniable weight of London and the South East in the national creativeeconomy: “these two regions account for 46 per cent of the creative workforce compared with 27 per cent of the total UK workforce”. Furthermore, the author suggests how this predominance is even more visible when looking at the percentage of turnover represented by London-based firms. Outside the south and east “ there are other isolated cities that have had positive rates of change, but the regional effects of these appear weaker”. (O AKLEY , 2006, p.268)
” that fuel the creativeeconomy, creating convergences that the project aims to fos- ter. The idea emerged from a multi-year university-community partnership that originated in the Graduate Programme in City and Regional Planning at the University of Memphis among a group of students that developed a plan designed to promote neighbourhood revitalization through targeted housing programmes for artists; place-based amenities; and community enrichment programmes. The Memphis Symphony Orchestra is engaged in a year-long residency with programming that includes a series of unique musical collaborations performed in vacant community spaces, mentoring programmes for youth and seniors and leadership training for area neighbourhood associations. To host the concerts and other activities, a vacant grocery store has been repurposed as a temporary performing venue. The kick-off event at the venue featured Soulsville native and soul legend Booker T. Jones alongside the symphony and young performers from the Stax Music Academy. Renovation is also underway at the former home of Memphis Slim, a legendary blues musician. The property is being converted into “Memphis Slim’s Collaboratory” – a music-centred community space for artistic collaboration, music training and storytelling. The space will include video-casting rooms to record oral histories, and will be anchored by a music studio run on a cooperative basis to support emerging artists, as well as apprentices learning the production business. Through these activities, music is acting as a magnet by connecting neighbours, bringing back former residents and attracting new visitors.
This is an important task. Analysts and policymakers have long complained of the dearth of internationally comparable statistics on the creative industries, which has made it impossible to benchmark the performance of different countries. In January 2014, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) adopted the Dynamic Mapping methodology (Bakhshi, Freeman and Higgs 2013) for classifying some industries as ‘creative’ and others not, for the purposes of producing its UK Creative Industries Economic Estimates (Department for Culture, Media and Sport 2014). This methodology is based on the principle that the creative industries are “those industries that specialise in the employment of creative talent for commercial purposes” (Bakhshi, Hargreaves and Mateos-Garcia 2013) – that is, have unusually high proportions of their workforce employed in creative occupations (‘creative intensity’). Through its use of Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and labour force survey data, the Dynamic Mapping methodology was originally designed to enable the production of internationally comparable statistics. Following on from this, in 2015 Nesta published a report (Nathan, Pratt and Rincon- Aznar 2015) that analysed creativeeconomy and industry employment in the member states of the European Union.
12 need for opportunities in role-play, (presenting a pitch to a potential producer, or how to network, or how to engage in conversation socially) and other issues to do with the internal dynamics of the job process. Students were interested in being provided opportunities where they could think through potential responses from a variety of situations, and their suggestions articulated what in effect needs to be challenged within the politicised employability agenda and its focus on skills and knowledge. The issue of attributes, central to a persons sense and activation of their own agency, is something that requires further investigation and integration into our conception of skills and knowledge. We require a broader notion of what kind of experiences, qualities and individual characteristics that young graduates could cultivate that would allow them to confidently face the uneven landscape of the creativeeconomy.
An emerging (Grounded Theory) line of enquiry conflated a number of enduring research questions around the notion of post-industrial economic cluster theories: why/where firms choose to locate and operate; how innovation and tacit knowledge is exchanged; and what are the conditions that best support firm growth in new economic clusters such as creative and digital sectors. The latter has a clear public policy and investment imperative, which has heightened since Richard Florida’s concept of the creative city (2005) raised the prospect of a range of amenity and other factors (‘3 Ts’ - Tolerance, Talent, Technology) which if well placed, can attract and retain the creative class, as eponymous drivers of the creativeeconomy (sic - Evans 2011).
Synthesis of the observations collected from all the 25 Canadian museums visited is listed. The observations for engagement and development of the museums‘ audience were given a special section due to its importance. Then, the characteristics of the resilient, creativeeconomy museums are specified based on both the synthesis of the literature and the collected observations, in reference OECD (2015). Then, a discussion is conducted focusing on the museum's role towards a more resilient economy and how this would influence Canada‘s museums future, Maguire (2016). The approaches of the 25 Canadian museums are analysed in relevance to their capacity to engage the public their activities, specifically during the visits. The last of point for the discussion focus on the socio-economic role observed in the visited Canadian museums.
The article discusses issues related to the spread of new trends in the labor market in post-industrial countries of the world, their connection with the creativeeconomy, which is considered not only as a new model of economic growth, but also as a basis for building "new employment". The powerful experience of countries where the link bet- ween vocational education, the creative industries and 'new employment' is particularly concise is explored and new employment and vocational education practices triggered. Two of the most important trends in today's labor market, which correlate with the greatest impact on business per- formance, are embodied in the "Inclusion and Diversity" strategy. It is proven that companies that adhere to the prin- ciples of this strategy in all aspects of their business show better performance. The inclusion of this strategy in the procedures: recruitment, performance management, lead- ership development, training is substantiated. These changes in the labor market, and in general, in the field of employment, should be considered as part of larger-scale social transformations, as tightly interlocked elements of a single basic transformation that covers all aspects of life, thereby segregating not only the labor market in a new way, but also society in as a whole/. This transformation is a shift to an economic and social system based on creativ- ity.
technical skills in formulating financial reports is necessary. This study acquired results of the literacy rate of sharia finance on creativeeconomy SMEs in which there are 20 SMEs (37%) which categorized as well literate, there are 23 SMEs (42.6%) which categorized as sufficient literate, and then, there are six people who categorized as less literate with 11.1% rate, and five people who categorized as illiterate with 9.3% rate. Substantiated by the survey results conducted by OJK in 2016, Yogyakarta Special Region has the third highest rate of financial literacy in Indonesia or amounted to 38.55%. The t- test analysis in Table 2 shows the variables of gender, age, education, and the length of business toward the literacy rate of sharia finance of creative industry owners in Yogyakarta Special Region. This condition can be seen from the sig t value in which each variable owns sig t value which smaller than 0.05. On the variable of gender, the significance t value is 0.040 which means that gender is having significant impact toward financial literacy. The variable of education has 0.016 of t-significance value which means that education has positive and significant impact toward dependent variable. The length of business which has 0.036 significance value also means that the length of business has significant impact
Universities also intervene in the economy by offering start-up and innovation support. However, the assumptions underpinning university business support programmes are often inimical to the conditions of the creativeeconomy. Such schemes are frequently run by university business development units, whose focus has traditionally be on tech-transfer and spin-out business models. These models assume a set of characteristics that are usually derived from, and dominated by, STEM subjects. Typically it is assumed that researchers in labs will create IP in the form of an algorithm, some bio-tech or a new materials application. Researchers or business managers then identify a market failure or a new market opportunity that this innovation might be able to answer. The innovation may then become subject to an incubator and spin- out process with links to investment from agencies like the TSB or university affiliated Venture Capital funds.
identify the ‘interpretative repertoires’ that were being drawn upon; how language is: “put together, constructed, for purposes and to achieve particular consequences” (Wetherell and Potter, 1988: 171). The repertoires limit the possible ways that the speaker can talk about a subject but allow for variance: “repertoires can be seen as the building blocks speakers use for constructing versions of actions, cognitive processes and other phenomena” (1988: 172). We thus look back at university documentation for MA Awards to reflect on the context and case we made for their approval and our articulation of the value the awards would have to the creativeeconomy. While such documentation offers a record of its instrumental function in pitching for course approval (in terms of market, recruitment, quality) it is also a means of understanding a particular moment in time where course design and rhetoric can be read for its response to particular demands across HE policies but also for its expression of abiding objectives of pedagogues and researchers.
Moving beyond the important work of enabling and promoting individual skills and careers are networks. The example of the Train the Trainers initiative provides a good link between individuals and networks, providing an example of the possibilities of not only networked training but the possibility of peer-to-peer learning. The notion of networking is a wide one, it includes linking individuals and communities, both in places and across places. Critically it is a process that is a pre-requisite of ‘scaling’ economic activities, that is growing and extending. This does not simply include identifying export markets but finding ways to enter them, and the means of developing demand for new, or unfamiliar products in those markets. It includes the way of doing business in the creativeeconomy. A common characteristic of creative enterprises is their small size and hence in order to grow they must also use shared network resources. At a certain size it is possible that these can be internalised, but for the most smaller organisations this ‘middle’ organisational field, that of intermediaries, is the most important aspect of creative industry development in both the Global North and Global South. For clarity the activities that networking support entails can be subdivided into three sub-types.
counter-thesis to Florida’s idea of the primacy of the ‘three Ts’ (talent, technology and tolerance) in the synergy between creative labour and urban growth. In The Creative Capital of Cities Stefan Krätke presents perhaps the most comprehensive deconstruction of Florida’s creative class thesis. Krätke’s critique includes discussion of the taxonomic issue concerning the so-called ‘creative class’ which in Florida’s formulation comprises a ‘simple admixture of different middle-class groups with varying levels of education’ (see also Siebel 2008) rather than a coherent socioeconomic model distinct from that of the ‘new middle class’ (Hamnett 1994; Ley 1996). Other problematic features of the Florida thesis concern apparent indifference to social polarization and dislocation outcomes, and a tendency to proclaim universalist policy nostrums without sufficient acknowledgement of local-regional contingency. Thus there is now a burgeoning critical literature on the creativeeconomy of the city (Peck 2005; Pratt 2008), as well as a whole journal - City, Culture and Society - concerned with this debate and its broader contexts, so it makes more sense to consider the creative city a field of policy rather than one particular policy as the ideas have been fragmented and recombined many times in different places (Pratt 2010). Analytically, and for evaluation purposes, it is important to clarify the aims and objectives of any policy; accordingly, in this section we review the range of arguments that have become associated with the field. Our main concern is to clarify our expectations of the nature of the emerging relationship between the creativeeconomy and cities; we have already preempted this argument to an extent above, pointing to the tendency for the creativeeconomy to hyper-clustering based upon a micro-organisational analysis. The dominant focus for accounts of the creative city are pitched at a macro-scale - the urban economy - and are normative.
Cirebon has tourist spaces that complete and a number of commodities to be developed into a creativeeconomy. Cirebon tourism industry can be developed also through the palace. The Palace (keraton) is the epicentrum of culture. Traditionality and religiosity that has been initiated by Sunan Gunung Jati has proven to be the dynamics of cultural and social institutions of the surrounding community, among others a native (Java, Indonesian), Arab, Chinese, and Indian. Keraton also can give the character a unique culture to an area where the palace is located. Every element in it becomes media, materials and at the same time stimulated the driving force of creativity, taste, and imagination and spawned cultural dynamics. From the interactions that arise forms of culture that became traces the journey of human life. The traces were later studied, abstracted into the values of which later developed into a system of community (www.pikiran- rakyat.com, August 28, 2014).