2. Materials and Methods
Karnataka is a vast state in India constituting 30 districts.
The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83% of the total geographical area of India. A cross-sectionalepidemiologicalsurvey was conducted in the State of Karnataka, by obtaining prior permission from the Ministry of Higher Primary and Secondary Education Board of Karnataka. The survey was carried out in selected schools in all the district head quarters.
Trained midwives who were supervised by the national coordinators of the survey collected data from medical records. In each country, data were collected on a daily basis on every woman who gave birth in every selected facility. It included: maternal demographic characteris- tics, obstetric history, prenatal care, management of labour and delivery, complications, and the vital status of both mother and child until hospital discharge. Path- ologies during the current pregnancy and CS indications were reported using open questions and a pre-defined list of diagnoses or CS indications. The national coordi- nators of the study regularly verified that data collection was exhaustive (by comparing the number of eligible patients on the hospital’s birth register with the number of forms collected) and also checked data quality in a random sample of forms . Between October 2007 and October 2008, 99% of the eligible women were included in the trial. The concordance rate – defined as the proportion of patient forms whose information was concordant with the hospital registers and medical records – was of 88% during the study period. Missing data for all variables accounted for <1% of cases, except for oxytocin use, which was missing for 5% of cases.
Methods: A cross-sectionalsurvey nested in a cluster randomized trial (QUARITE trial) was carried out in 46 referral hospitals during the pre-intervention period from October 2007 to September 2008 in Senegal and Mali. Individual and hospital characteristics data were collected through standardized questionnaires. A multivariable logistic mixed model was used to identify the factors that were significantly associated with PPH maternal death.
The design of this survey was described previously .
Participants were selected randomly from the local cen- sus. All subjects provided written informed consent for participation in the study, which was approved by the ethics committee of the Hospital Universitario Insular of Las Palmas.
(Vicugna pacos) in Australia
Anson V. Koehler 1 , Mohammed H. Rashid 1 , Yan Zhang 1 , Jane L. Vaughan 2 , Robin B. Gasser 1* and Abdul Jabbar 1*
Background: Eukaryotic pathogens, including Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon, have been implicated in neonatal diarrhoea, leading to marked morbidity and mortality in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and llama (Lama glama) around the world. Australia has the largest population of alpacas outside of South America, but very little is known about these pathogens in alpaca populations in this country. Here, we undertook the first molecular epidemiologicalsurvey of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in V. pacos in Australia.
2 Service of Dermatology, Hospital Institut Hygiene and Social, Dakar, Sénégal
To cite this article:
Souleye Lelo, Fatimata Ly, Issac Akhenaton Manga, Cheikh Binetou Fall, Khadime Sylla, Magatte Ndiaye, Doudou Sow, Nick Chenise, Massamba Syll, Roger Clement Tine, Jean Louis Abdourahime Ndiaye, Babacar Faye. Epidemiological Profile of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Children Living in Koranic Schools: A CrossSectionalSurvey. International Journal of Infectious Diseases and Therapy.
The need for mental health care services is high. More than 13% of the global burden of disease is due to neuro- psychiatric disorders, and almost three- quarters of this burden lies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) . Neuropsychiatric disorders include mental disorders (such as unipolar and bipolar affective disorders, substance use and alcohol use disorders, schizophrenia, and dementia) and neurological disorders (such as epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson disease) . We include both these types of disorders in our broad definition of global mental health. The burden of these disorders is projected to grow dramatically in the next decade, in part because of the demographic and epidemiological transitions in LMICs . However, between 76% and 84% of people with serious mental disorders (as defined by the World Health Organization [WHO] Composite International Diag- nostic Instrument) in six LMICs in the World Mental Health Survey had not received treatment in the previous year , representing a considerable treatment gap. Where treatments are accessed, they often lack a clear evidence base and involve considerable out-of-pocket pay- ments, which can lead to catastrophic health expenditures . Budgets and human resources provided by ministries of health (MoH) for mental health care remain woefully inadequate to address the treatment gap, particularly in LMICs .
To determine the highest range of blood pressure in alcoholic population
Methods and Methodology: The study was conducted in rural villages of Karnataka. Our study comprises 300 populations, out of which 250 were alcoholic and 50 were non- alcoholic. Among 250 alcoholic populations, 223 were males and 27 were females. The blood pressure of 250 alcoholic population were measured by sphygmomanometer and a special epidemiological questionnaire was completed by each participant. Result: The prevalence of hypertension was high in people drinking every day. For every day drinkers the blood pressure was independent of the amount they consume. Blood pressure was high in chronic drinkers. Conclusion: Our study concluded that there is a positive association between alcohol consumption and hypertension. The highest range of blood pressure among alcoholic population was found to be >180/>110mmHg.
over the past two decades with current rates ranging from 6 – 20 % in Sub-Saharan Africa [4, 5].
Zambia, a landlocked country in southern Africa with a population of 13 million is currently experiencing an epidemiological transition, from communicable to non- communicable diseases (NCD) . The World Health Organisation ’ s (WHO) World Health Survey estimated annual rates of physician-diagnosed asthma in Zambia to be 3 %, clinical asthma to be 3 % and wheezing symp- toms to be 6 % . These figures may underestimate the true prevalence of asthma. In our experience treating patients in Zambia for nearly two decades, we have found that asthma tends to either be underdiagnosed or mislabelled as ‘ bronchitis ’ , especially in children.
6. Häuser W, Schmutzer G, Glaesmer H, Brähler E: Prevalence and predictors of pain in several body regions. Results of a representative German population survey. Schmerz 2009, 23(5):461 – 70. German.
7. Wolfe F, Clauw DJ, Fitzcharles MA, Goldenberg DL, Häuser W, Katz RS, Mease P, Russell AS, Russell IJ, Winfield JB: Fibromyalgia criteria and severity scales for clinical and epidemiological studies: a modification of the ACR Preliminary Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 2011, 38(6):1113 – 22.
9 years were classified as group III in this study. Acetabular dysplasia was observed more frequently in Japanese children than in other countries (Table 5).
Upon physical examination of 2,975 adult citizens (mean age: 70.2 [23–94] years) living in selected cities in Japan (15) , the rate of coxalgia was found to be 0.58% (6/1,043) in men and 2.56% (49/1,932) in women, while the rate of Kellgren–Law- rence (16) grade 2 or above OA was 0.29% (3/1,043) in men and 0.99% (19/1,932) in women; therefore, the prevalence of OA in women was much higher. In a survey of 485 Japanese (52 men, 433 women) who visited an outpatient clinic for coxalgia and were diagnosed with OA (1) , 72% (349/485) were women with hip dysplasia, but most had no history of DDH in child- hood. By contrast, among the 28% (136/485) diagnosed with DDH in childhood, only 4% (19/485) underwent surgery in childhood (1) . In fact, based on this epidemiological data, it can be concluded that nearly one-fourth of the women with post- DDH OA in the current study might have had been spared
Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiologicalsurvey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases. We enrolled and assayed plasma of 1787 participants for anti-Vi IgG; 1,531 of these were resident in mainland areas that had not been previously vaccinated against S. Typhi (seropositivity 32.3% (95%CI 28.2 to 36.3%)), 256 were resident on Taveuni island, which had been previously vaccinated (seropositivity 71.5% (95%CI 62.1 to 80.9%)). The seroprevalence on the Fijian mainland is one to two orders of magnitude higher than expected from confirmed case surveillance incidence, suggesting substantial subclinical or otherwise unreported typhoid.
"Juventas", which provides youth services in the city. Sur- vey staff members in both cities included outreach work- ers and former injectors whom had extensive experience working with vulnerable populations in Serbia and Mon- tenegro. Potential participants were screened using a list of questions about injecting drug preparation, type and cost and by looking at injection stigmata. Pre-survey train- ing in both cities included RDS methodology, processing potential participants through screening for inclusion cri- teria, gathering RDS specific data for analysis, providing assistance to participants using ACASI, and managing incentive payments. Recruitment began with a set of ini- tial recruits ("seeds") who met the inclusion criteria and who were diverse in terms of key characteristics of the drug injecting community (eg. age, gender, area of resi- dence, duration of injecting).
As Cameroon pursues its ambitious goal to reduce malaria-associated morbidity and mortality and eventu- ally eliminate malaria from the country, there is an ur- gent need of empirical studies to establish an evidence- based distribution of malaria and its clinical features in the population living in the different epidemiological strata that supposedly characterize malaria transmission pattern in the country. Although a few studies aimed at describing the clinical and epidemiological profile of paediatric malaria have been performed in Cameroon, none of these studies has actually taken into consider- ation populations living in the different epidemiological strata. In view of this, we carried out this survey to describe the epidemiology of malaria and its clinical features in children residing in five epidemiological strata, so as to inform control policies in the country.
As early as 1915, Lian 1 reported an association between alcohol drinking and high BP in French soldiers. Since then, large epidemiological studies performed in North America, 2– 6 Europe, 7,8 Australia, 9 and Japan 10 have concluded that a clear relationship between alcohol drinking and both high BP and the prevalence of hypertension is likely to exist. This rela- tionship has been shown in both sexes, at various ages, in several racial groups, and for drinkers of liquor, wine, or beer.
Why do patients with stroke have such a high risk of developing dementia? Traditional concepts of vascular dementia postulate that cognitive decline in patients with cerebrovascular disease can result from the stroke alone when a large volume of brain is affected by infarcts and hemorrhages overcoming the brain’s reserve or compen- satory mechanisms, and that strategic lesions can lead to intellectual decline when specific cortical or subcortical areas important for cognition and their connections are damaged. However, recent epidemiological and neuro- pathological studies have suggested that many patients with stroke develop dementia through the interaction of neurodegenerative and vascular insults to the brain that by themselves may not produce dementia yet in association hasten the decline of the intellect, blurring the sharp dichotomy between Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia.
Material and methods
The present study was undertaken at tertiary care hos- pital, government medical college and hospital Nagpur located in central India, where yearly near about 3000 medicolegal autopsies were carried out. We have car- ried out study on epidemiological profile of the drown- ing deaths in 176 cases excluding bodies in advanced state of decomposition. The study was carried out over the period of December 2013 to October 2015, with the aim of studying various epidemiological parame- ters. The study includes, only the dead bodies which were retrieved from water sources and having history of drowning, brought for post mortem examination.
2 University of Extremadura, Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Toxicology, Cáceres, Spain.
3 University of Murcia, Faculty of Veterinary, Department of Animal Science, Murcia, Spain.
The lack of nationwide public databases on poisoning in cattle makes it difficult to investigate this issue. Hence, we conducted an epidemiological study using the data on cattle poisoning provided by an insurance company (2000-2005), to determine the mor- tality rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain and to assess the influence of the following variables: type of farming, age, sex, time of year, year and region. We observed a mortality rate of 23.25 per 100,000 animals in Spain with a higher rate in beef than dairy cattle (32.14 vs. 4.51 per 100,000 animals). There were also differences in the mortality rate between breeding cattle and future breeders, affecting dairy and beef cattle in a different way. In dairy cattle, we found differences between the years analysed. In beef cattle, the time of year with highest risk of poisoning was the last quarter (19.45 per 100,000 animals), while the lowest mortality rate was observed in the first quarter (1.33 per 100,000). There were pronounced differences between regions in beef cattle, differ- ences being non-significant in dairy cattle. Lastly, in beef cattle, no differences were found between sexes. In summary, the mortal- ity rate due to poisoning in cattle in Spain is low, and the risk of poisoning is determined by the farming system, animals’ stage of development, time of year and region.
The use of odds ratios in cross-sectional studies, a com- mon practice among epidemiologists, has been criticized because prevalence odds ratios are good estimates of prev- alence ratios only under specific circumstances [12-14]. More recent studies examining the differences between OR and PR, according to variations in the prevalence of exposure and disease, have shown that differences between odds ratios and proportions ratios, relative risks or prevalence ratios increase with increasing disease fre- quency . There are several statistical models that can provide adjusted estimates for PR, including the logistic model, Poisson regression and log-binomial regression [3,10,16-18]. However, there is no consensus about the best approach to obtain the adjusted PR and these meth- ods may lead to different conclusions. The main appeal of estimating PR as a measure of association is that PR is more easily interpreted than the OR in cross-sectional studies with common outcomes. For instance, a PR of 2 means that the proportion of cases among exposed is 2 times higher than among unexposed subjects, while an OR of 2 does not necessarily have the same meaning. Pre- vious reports have estimated the PR in the context of sim- ple random samples, where the responses of distinct individuals can be considered independent to each other , but in many situations this assumption may not be satisfied. Clustered cross-sectional studies have become increasingly popular in epidemiology, especially when the use of simple random sample designs is not feasible. In such case, the analysis must take into account the degree of similarity between subjects within clusters . In the present paper we have evaluated methods for esti- mating adjusted PR in clustered cross-sectional studies using random-effects models.
The health care professionals on the PR team include several physical therapists,
administrators, a respirologist, a nurse, a pharmacist, and a social worker. There is a mix of full- time and part-time staff. The total reported full-time equivalent of dedicated PR personnel is 1.9.
Of the 27 sites contacted in the South East LHIN, 13 responded to our survey (response rate of 48%). Of these, 12 do not have a PR program. However, 8 did report having some structured services for patients with COPD. While no services are offered universally, smoking cessation counselling and nutritional support were the most commonly reported services. Strength and breathing training is offered by 1 site, and no sites offer exercise training/educational services.