Cultural Dimensions

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Connections Between Ethics and Cultural Dimensions

Connections Between Ethics and Cultural Dimensions

Ethical issues typically arise because of conflicts between individuals’ personal moral philosophies and values and the values and attitudes of the organizations in which they work and the society in which they live. The research question is: Are there connections between national culture and ethics? This paper adopts a deontological approach by testing the absoluteness of “right” and “wrong” and the importance of the No-harm Principle (cf. Pojman, 2002). Three countries were selected to conduct the investigation – Brazil, China, and Estonia. These three countries are from three different cultural clusters. A scale was developed to measure Ethical Relativism and No-harm Principle. The national cultural connection was stronger with Ethical Relativism, where six cultural practices and two cultural values seem to be related to how people think about what is right and wrong. Concerning the No-Harm Principle one should not psychologically or physically harm another person, nor perform an action which might threaten the dignity and welfare of another individual, only In-Group Collectivism as a value was (negatively) connected with the No-Harm Principle. As a managerial suggestion, organizations ought to pay attention to the following cultural dimensions when doing business in different cultures could be useful: In-Group Collectivism, Institutional Collectivism, Humane Orientation, Performance Orientation, Future Orientation and Gender Egalitarianism.
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Social Media Usage and Cultural Dimensions: an Empirical Investigation

Social Media Usage and Cultural Dimensions: an Empirical Investigation

Social media create a variety of new opportunities for organizations which are not managed well to improve [21]. Organizations can use social media to stay competitive and improve the efficiency of marketing and communications [1,2,3,10,17,18,25,29]. Employees use different types of social media platforms in their professional and personal lives, and their use of social media can have an impact on various organizational goals and strategies [20]. In this study we investigate how the cultural dimensions of employees impact their social media usage. Specifically, we investigate the impact of power distance (PD), uncertainty avoidance (UA), and individualism-collectivism (IC) [36]. Such a study has not been undertaken before to the best of our knowledge, and this would be the first study to link social media usage and individual cultural dimensions.
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‘Waste culture’ assessment using Hofstede’s and Schwartz’s cultural dimensions – an EU case study

‘Waste culture’ assessment using Hofstede’s and Schwartz’s cultural dimensions – an EU case study

Culture maintains a balance between humans, society and the physical environment and provides the context within which human activities take place (Roberts and Okereke, 2017). It is essential to integrate culture within the sustainability programmes as culture can greatly impact most societal functions, including waste management (Schneider, 1972). Many studies suggest that cultural values mainly influence the formation of green purchase intentions (Chekima et al., 2016). Therefore, the above mentioned cultural dimensions can serve as a valuable tool to analyse and evaluate the public’s approach towards certain societal issues and in this case towards waste arisings in order to get the complete picture of the waste culture across these 22 EU Member States. Waste could be considered as the final product of a specific production chain: wealth, consumption, waste (De Feo and De Gisi, 2010). ‘Waste culture’ can be examined through various perspectives such as moral, philosophical, societal etc., but what is important to note is that waste is everywhere and it is essential to understand our mentality towards it (Lee, 2017). What is generally noticed is that in today’s fast moving consumer – especially western – societies an unsustainable convenience culture has been formed (Hall, 2017).
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Examination of influences of cultural dimensions on three
components of career commitment in Dutch and Chinese cultures

Examination of influences of cultural dimensions on three components of career commitment in Dutch and Chinese cultures

Secondly, this research performs a cross-culture study by administrating surveys to Dutch and Chinese samples. According to Lee et al. (2001), to properly perform researches regarding cross-cultural comparisons, the translation- and expression-based errors need to be avoided. This research selects Dutch and Chinese former MBA students as the target samples, and the original English questionnaire is used, because it is believed that with the master education, the respondents could be more capable to accurately answer the original English items and to farthest avoid the translation- and expression-based errors. However, this selection of samples might generate the problem that it is not representative for individuals with other levels of education in both cultures. To get a more complete and accurate picture of the examinations and comparisons of the influences of cultural dimensions on career commitment between Dutch and Chinese culture, future researches would be required to further test the influences of cultural dimensions on career commitment based on different target samples with other education levels, such as blue-collar workers or college students.
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Exploring work-related cultural dimensions in Malawian projects.

Exploring work-related cultural dimensions in Malawian projects.

However as Jacobs (2005)states that the oft- neglected feature in cross cultural management is that “cultural diversity can exist internationally or within a single country – the most significant studies in national cultures treat countries as homogenous entities. Jacobs’s statement is part of a call for more research to further functionalize the operation of national values in the field of management. It also marks the deficiency inherent in impact cultural dimensions can have on management. It is entirely possible for dimension to have little predictability in a particular country and therefore the importance to the project managers is minimal at best (Skeenkamp, 2001). Some studies test the difference between national cultures without assessing the impact of those differences and whether they will have any functional value on the project manager (Berigiel, et al., 2012). In the landscape of cultural dimensions and project management in particular, exists an argument within an argument. Firstly, is the aspect of culture dimensions and whether multiple culture dimensions can exist within a country and if so does a foreign project manager gain any relevance from a generic labeling. Secondly, is the relevance/importance that cultural dimension have of the success of the project. These factors ultimately inform a project manager where limited time, resources available in restrict the number of priorities a project manager can handle. Jacobs (2005) highlights the very important aspect of getting the opinions and perceptions of project managers
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Cultural Dimensions Influencing The Capital Structure: A Study On The G7

Cultural Dimensions Influencing The Capital Structure: A Study On The G7

Starting with the first regression, we can see that all the coefficients are significant at the 0.001 level. The intercept indicates the starting point of the leverage ratio. Due to the coefficients being standardized, an increase of one standard deviation of PDI, for example, would result in a drop in LEV of -0.028 standard deviation. The results were given as standardized, due to differences in measurement between the variables. Model 1 shows that PDI and MAS have a negative impact on LEV, whereas IDV, UAI and LTO have a positive impact on LEV. We find that PDI has the largest negative result (-0.028), whereas IDV has the largest positive result (0.025). Due to the significance level, it can be concluded already that all five cultural dimensions do have a significant impact on the leverage ratios of companies. This is already good news for the study, as this implies that cultural dimensions do seem to account for a part of the capital structure. In Model 1 however, this impact seems to be relatively small. Another notion should be made on Model 1, as the cultural dimensions showed relatively high VIF values amongst each other. This was already hinted at in the correlation table, but now the regression output has confirmed that multicollinearity is present between the cultural dimensions. Because of this, Model 4 was created, which was divided into three separate regression outcomes, to see the regression output of each of the five cultural dimensions without them having high VIF values.
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Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

Are cultural dimensions relevant for explaining cross national differences in antibiotic use in Europe?

Data on cultural dimensions were obtained from Hofst- ede [23]. For an initial set of 40 countries, Hofstede derived these indexes from carefully matched samples of employees in different national subsidiaries of the same multinational corporation IBM, between 1967 and 1973 [20]. Later additions used a simplified questionnaire, the Values Survey Module (VSM) 1994 [31]. It consisted of 14 content questions, scored on a five-point scale. The mean score for each country has been calculated, giving the index-value per country. The most recently published lists contain index values on the first four dimensions for 74 countries and regions [23]. Indexes refer to relative differ- ences between countries. In the original study they varied between 0–100, but later, countries were added with higher scores. These findings have been replicated in a number of successive studies by different researchers using a variety of other matched samples of respondents [32]. For an overview see Hofstede, 2001 [20].
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Cultural dimensions and corporate social responsibility: A cross country analysis

Cultural dimensions and corporate social responsibility: A cross country analysis

The diffusion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has witnessed a surge in recent years but the rate of adoption among national business sectors diverges considerably. In this paper we attempt to frame the influence of national culture on CSR by assessing national CSR penetration under well*established cultural dimensions. We offer new evidence on the influence of cultural specificity * proxied by Hofstede’s model * on the adoption and endorsement of CSR among national business sectors. Findings suggest that three of the six cultural dimensions affect CSR penetration after controlling for aspects of socioeconomic development. Specifically, elements of long*term versus short*term orientation and indulgence versus restraint affect positively the composite CSR index while uncertainty avoidance has a negative effect. In contrast, the effect of, individualism, power distance and masculinity is found to be insignificant. These findings provide fertile ground to theorists and researchers for a deeper investigation of the impact of parameters that define the cultural specificity of CSR and act as moderators of organizational self*regulation.
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Culture and Identity: Linking Iranian Identity Components and Cultural Dimensions

Culture and Identity: Linking Iranian Identity Components and Cultural Dimensions

Iranian identity cannot be conceived of as a uniform monolithic concept. But, thanks to certain upheavals in the history of the country, it has turned into the triple concept of national/Islamic/modern. Hofstede’s (2001) cultural framework represents a well-validated operationalization of culture based on six cultural dimensions (power distance, individualism/collectivism, masculinity/femininity, uncertainty avoidance, short-term/long-term orientation, and indulgence/restraint) and this study explores the association between these dimensions and the three components of Iranian identity. To this end, the Cultural Dimensions Scale (CDS) along with the Cultural Attachment Scale (CAS) were administered to a sample of Iranian university students. Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis were employed for data analysis. The results revealed a significant relationship between cultural dimensions and the identity components. It was also found that indulgence is the sole predictor of National Identity, whereas Religious Identity has four predictors, namely, power distance, collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, and short-term orientation. And, Western Identity is predicted by power distance and individualism. Finally, the results were discussed and implications for soothing Iranian identity crisis through cultural interventions were provided.
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Effect Of Cultural Dimensions On Stock Exchange Investment Decisions In Iran

Effect Of Cultural Dimensions On Stock Exchange Investment Decisions In Iran

‘Power Distance’ (PDI) takes into account the extent of inequality among members of a country’s society. It reveals the degree of inequality in power, wealth and prestige and the tolerance of the inequality gap in the country. While this dimension is harder to measure than Individualism, the dimension also reveals the social influence of the ‘powerful and wealthy’ in the country. In high PDI countries, it is common to assume that there are gender and class differences amongst the people because they are not born to be equal; hence they are not identical and each one compared to others differently utilizing one's physical and mental abilities. Thus, a high Power Distance will indicate that there is inequality in the society due to power attained by wealth or prestige or status and this is an acceptable norm based on long term orientation. Power and inequality, of course, are extremely fundamental facts of any society and most scholars are aware that 'all societies are unequal, and some are more unequal than others’. This phenomenon is typical in cultures governed by a hierarchical or bureaucratic system. Different from the dimension of Individualism and with respect to Iran, PDI is ranked second (with a rank at about 53 on a maximum scale of 100) to the highest of the four of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, with the highest being ‘Uncertainty Avoidance’ index; see Figure 1.
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Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Business Communication: Evidence from Sri Lanka

Cross-Cultural Dimensions of Business Communication: Evidence from Sri Lanka

Cross-cultural dimensions have become as an essential factor for understanding miscellaneous type of social, economic and business environments. It can be define as a learned system of knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, belief and norms which are shared among a group of people in different nations or cultures. This study examines the effect of the ethical corporate cultural dimensions on the business participation and activities in Sri Lanka. The survey directed over the 181 employees who belong to four ethnic groups provided the data for empirical investigation. In order to test the hypothesis, correlation and regression techniques were basically applied. The study result clearly shows that, workplace collectivism has a strong and significant effect on the business activities and participation rather other underlined variables.
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Why anthropocentric organization models don't succeed in Portugal? A cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions

Why anthropocentric organization models don't succeed in Portugal? A cultural perspective using Hofstede's cultural dimensions

The use of culture to study how national characteristics can help explain the success of different organization models needs an approach that presents some particular characteristics, namely: (1) it should be able to allow comparisons between countries, (2) a typology well tested and suited to organizations’ context, and finally (3) it should present characteristics allowing comparison with the organization models. Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions [10] fulfil these requisites in so far that his model offers solid standards which had been used to understand cultures of many countries. Furthermore it was born from the study of organizational context.
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The Effects of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions on Pro-Environmental Behaviour: How Culture Influences Environmentally Conscious Behaviour

The Effects of Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions on Pro-Environmental Behaviour: How Culture Influences Environmentally Conscious Behaviour

To explore the impact of culture on pro-environmental behaviour, we investigated the relationships between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions (HCD) and environmentally conscious behaviour. In an attempt to measure pro-environmental behaviour, we used a revised version of the General Ecological Behaviour scale. The original measuring tool involves thirty-eight items in two sections representing different types of ecological and pro- social behaviour (Kaiser et al. 1999). Since we did not intend to investigate pro-social behaviour and some of the pro-environmental items proved to be irrelevant or outdated (Nagy, 2012), we deliberately left out eight variables concerning prosocial behaviour and three variables regarding ecological behaviour from the revised version of the GEB scale. However, we added ten ecological behaviour items, therefore the resulting pro- environmental behaviour scale (PEB scale) consists of thirty-seven items (Appendix 1).
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Exploring Education Culture by Employing Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Current ERP Training Approach in Thailand

Exploring Education Culture by Employing Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions to Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Current ERP Training Approach in Thailand

ERP training is a critical success factor in ERP implementation. The current ERP training was largely ineffective and caused user resistance and ERP implementation failure. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the current ERP training approach can accommodate the cultural learning behaviors of end-users. Hofstede‟s cultural dimensions are employed to explain end-user dissatisfaction toward the current ERP training approach. The research is founded on the idea that different people learn in different ways, and cultural diversity may also influence how they learn and are taught. The current ERP training approach was design based on a Western learning culture and applied without concern for different learning cultures, which may be problematic. To achieve the objective, a qualitative method was adopted in this research. In-depth interviews were conducted with seventy-two end-users from twenty-two companies that had adopted an ERP system and had experienced ERP training in a Thai context during the implementation phase. The findings support the assumption by showing that the current ERP training approach did not accommodate Thai cultural learning behaviors in many areas. The content in this paper is a part of a comprehensive research to propose an ERP training framework to support the variety of end-user learning styles and different cultural learning behaviors.
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View of Influences of Cultural Dimensions on Obstetric Health in Northern Bangladesh
							| Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies

View of Influences of Cultural Dimensions on Obstetric Health in Northern Bangladesh | Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies

Despite these attempts many cultural factors have influenced women's health, especially obstetric health in various ways. Among the cultural factors patriarchy, conservative attitude towards female gender, food taboos, heavy workload, the culture of shyness, and cultural perception of being burden have been taken into consideration in this study. A number of studies on factors influencing obstetric health care have been reviewed and the various cultural factors that were found to impact such health included gender, religion-based cultural practices, literacy and language barriers, shared cultural similarities across different religious faiths, gender role expectations in a patriarchal society, traditional medicines and spiritual healers (Pir),malnutrition and risky birth practices (Adamu & Salihu, 2002; Dennis, Fung, & Grigoriadis, 2007; Emily, 2013; Khanum & Taufikuzzaman, 2012; Lowe, Chen, & Huang, 2016; Shole, 2017; Walton & Schbley, 2013). Some authors Bryman (2016); Tuckman (1999) have pointed out that generally three kinds of research gaps are observed through literature reviews: data or contextual gap (lack of up-to-date data or studies in particular social context), methodological gap (lack of proper methods or sample used in previous studies) and theoretical gap (lack of theoretical footings as to the explanation of the phenomenon). The present study was conducted in the backdrop of data or contextual gaps. Therefore, the purpose was to assess the cultural dimensions of obstetric health in northern Bangladesh. The findings are expected to be helpful in policy making to acquire the goal-3 of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
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The Role and Impact of Cultural Dimensions on Information Systems Security in Saudi Arabia National Health Service

The Role and Impact of Cultural Dimensions on Information Systems Security in Saudi Arabia National Health Service

One of the most well-established and recognised study of cultural dimensions in the literature is Hofstede‟s dimensions of culture. The dimensions are based on comprehensive research carried out on 72 countries between 1967-1973. The research was based on a designed questionnaire that aimed to identify the dimensions of organisation culture. The research collected a total of 166,000 questionnaires from the surveyed countries [4]. The questionnaire responses were analysed based on theoretical reasoning and statistical analysis to explain the differences between the surveyed countries‟ cultures. The author identified, based on the survey, four main cultural dimensions: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism and collectivism, as well as on masculinity and femininity [5]. A fifth dimension added to the four dimensions is based on a survey of Chinese national culture, Long-term vs. Short term Orientation Dimension [5].
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Socio cultural dimensions of marine spatial planning

Socio cultural dimensions of marine spatial planning

MSP is still a relatively new mechanism within broader marine and coastal management. The emerging and evolutionary nature of this process suggests there to be scope for the MSP process to evolve, and to establish mechanisms for the inclusion of these sociocultural aspects of societal relationships with the global seas. In summary, it is clear that, despite international goals and an ever-growing emphasis on the importance of considering the ‘human’ ele- ment of interactions within environmental governance, a lack of understand- ing about the flows and pathways to impact between these socio-cultural dimensions and MSP remains. The reason for the exclusion of these forms of evidence may range from resource constraints, to the complexities of knowl- edge generation, to whether the overall framing of the marine planning initia- tive is sympathetic to this kind of knowledge. Yet it is the socio-cultural dimension and the key concepts explored in this chapter that often provide the basis for engaging the public within the planning process and demonstrat- ing the societal relevance of MSP. We, therefore, contend that there is much benefit to the future development of this knowledge base to support MSP. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the project “Economy of maritime space” funded by the Polish National Science Centre for contributing the Open Access fee for this chapter and facilitating our discussions and preparation of the book.
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The Effect Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions Have On Student-Teacher Relationships In The Korean Context

The Effect Hofstedes Cultural Dimensions Have On Student-Teacher Relationships In The Korean Context

Historically, Korea has been a society dominated by traditional Confucius ideals. As a result, it is a highly collectivist culture with many characteristics of a large power distance society. It is even evident in the language, with informal, formal, and honorific forms of the language that must be observed in appropriate social settings. The author found the cultural differences between Canada and Korea quite apparent, especially in the amount of respect and power given to teachers by people of various social standings in Korean society. It is very much taboo to contradict someone of higher social status, especially a teacher. In fact, the author still finds it somewhat uncomfortable when some of her university students bow respectfully to her outside of class or when parents of younger students use an honorific form of the Korean word for teacher to address her. However, with globalization and a growing interest in English, Korea is slowly embracing Western cultures and individualist ideals, especially among the younger generation. It is this move toward globalization that has helped revolutionize the education system in Korea since the early 1990s; which will be discussed in the next section.
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process fuels conflicts in the region and in the world, making the situation more complex, clothing it with religious and cultural dimensions.

process fuels conflicts in the region and in the world, making the situation more complex, clothing it with religious and cultural dimensions.

societies to reject violence and adopt dialogue and rational ways of thinking illuminated by faith. It is not beneficial for radical Islamists to try to eradicate in our region all the aspects of cultural and religious diversity, which are an essential part of our noble Semitic heritage, under the pretext of being determined to obliterate evil and make right prevail. They must sit with us in forums to discuss seriously the social, economic, intellectual, and religious problems of Arab existence. Out of this joint discussion would come the hoped for Arab covenant for coexistence.

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A preliminary study: The impact of trust and website elements on online purchase intention, moderated by cultural dimensions

A preliminary study: The impact of trust and website elements on online purchase intention, moderated by cultural dimensions

When summarizing the literature review a research can be created. The research model, as presented in figure 7, contains the elements that are taken into consideration in this report. The purpose of the report is to provide a preliminary model that provides direction towards testing the influence of culture on purchase intention. Uncertainty avoidance and individualism have been chosen due to their connection to e-commerce. Both dimensions explain a large part of the variance in predicting Internet shopping rates (Lim et al., 2004). On top of the demographic factors, such as national income level and educational level, individualism-collectivism and uncertainty avoidance accounted for an additional 14% of the explained variance. Besides uncertainty avoidance and individualism are considered to be highly relevant to trust building and business relationships (Sohaib & Kang, 2015). Further, literature has shown that individualism/collectivism significantly affects buying behaviour (Tan & Urquhart, 2006). Uncertainty avoidance has been chosen due to its relationship with risk perception, which is related to the uncertainties of buying online. For these reasons, culture is hypothesized to be a moderator on the relationship between website elements and purchase intention. Online trust is also depicted as web characteristics; though, literature has suggested that online trust might act in mediating way.
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