One style that has been difficult to ignore in recent years is the “East Asian aesthetic” trend that has spontaneously swept the world, including the eastern culturalelements that convey an aesthetic of mystery, depth, and fantasy. Of all eastern cultures, Chinese culture is one of the most prominent and representative. Contemporary designers using elements of China’s aesthetics draw not only from traditional clothing, but also from Chinese painting, calligraphy, and characters; furthermore, the rich history of Chinese culture and aesthetics that spans over thousands of years has ensured an expansive evo- lution of clothing. China’s rich historical inheritance, including intangible philosophi- cal thoughts, meanings and forms of Chinese characters, poetry, and ancient cultural artifacts, has become indispensable elements of contemporary design; by incorporat- ing these elements in product design, an emerging industry of aesthetic design based on the integration of culture and aesthetic economy is created (Chiu et al. 2013). Thus, this study examined the “China: Through the Looking Glass” fashion exhibition held at the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art to explore the incorporation of cultural ele- ments into fashion design. The purpose of this study was to develop an evaluation scale for the integration of culturalelements into fashion design, which can be used as a refer- ence for future design instruction, product evaluation, and relevant future studies.
This paper reconstructed the framework of distribution of income and expenditure for the purpose of discussion of forms about social expenditure cycle driven by human culturalelements from new view. Then analyzed the relations between spiritual expenditure guided by cultural factors and the realization of commodity value, thus put forward the operation model of unbalanced growth of enterprise value by assuming behavior—driven in the humanities and social reality system: based on the value growth limitation achieved by goods social use value. And revealed its characteristic through empirical analysis: the change tendency between spiritual expenditure and its trend in income distribution, so this paper makes the conclusion that the goal of unbalanced growth of enterprise value is to stimulate the payment of social use value of commodity. This article has reference value in the requirement analysis research in this area.
Stolze (2009) directs attentions to the fact that the translator must constantly be aware of his or her own ‘hermeneutic approach’. She (p.125) believes that understanding is “never a matter of fact but requires interpretation as the process of searching for meaningfulness.” Culture will be present in texts, even in technical ones. And “culturally based conventions of text construction may even constitute a major translation problem for scientific communication. Detecting culturalelements in texts therefore is decisive for translation.” Following Stolze (2009), Cultural traces in texts certainly have a specific linguistic form. Hence it is useful to present an overview of various linguistic manifestations of culture in texts. This ranges from the “word level and syntactic structures to the style on the text level, and its pragmatic social function”:
Content analysis from the qualitative analysis techniques was used in evaluation of the research data. “The main goal in content analysis is to reach the concepts and associations that can explain the collected data. The basic process in content analysis is to put together similar data within the framework of specific concepts and themes, and interpret them in a way that the reader can understand” (Yıldırım & Şimşek, 2008, p 227). The textbook was read in the research and then the coding was done in a general framework. Later, the categories, themes and codes were created based on the culturalelements generated by Tomalin & Stempleski (1993) and the cultural awareness devices specified by Qu (2010), Frank (2013), Peterson & Coltrane (2003). Images in the textbook have also been analyzed in terms of culture. Yıldırım & Şimşek (2008) and Merriam (2013) stated that visual materials are among the document types, so they can be used in qualitative researches.
This paper aimed to investigate the differences between English and Persian religious elements which may be problematic in translating from English into Persian. The study aimed also to investigate the way culturalelements in general and religious ones in particular were dealt with in the selected corpora and to check whether the procedures proposed by Newmark, were sufficient and adequate for translation of these elements from English into Persian. One book The Pilgrim’s Progress by J. Bunyan and its corresponding translated Persian version were analyzed. This paper was mostly narrowed down to religious culturalelements.
Our study has several limitations. A qualitative study of 16 interviewees warrants some caution in generalizing the findings to all CHRs. However, the thematic saturation al- lows us some confidence that these ideas are general to the community and not specific to the CHRs interviewed. Another limitation is our focus on Navajo Nation; how- ever, we find that the general themes have relevance for CHW programs in various cultural contexts. Furthermore, we recognize that our research focuses on the individual factors that impact the CHR-client relationship. As such, a further area of study could focus on the importance of general community perceptions of CHRs and the impact that such perceptions have on the relationships between the CHR and their clients.
Cultural traditions and representations like Wayo are a great example of this type of occurrence. New and old elements of religion are synthesized between China and Japan via Korea. War and migration from China resulted in new technologies, that, in effect, stimulated changes in Japan. The Japanese, having contact with China and Korea, incorporated diffused materials in hopes of a social betterment. China’s revolutionary leaps in technologies, such as temple architecture, provided Japan a chance to bypass certain stages of natural development. This occurred in the case of bronze and iron, as well. Both technologies reached the mainland concurrently. The stimulus and diffusion of religious and artistic traits, and knowledge served as a catalyst for innovative forms of architecture that surpassed Chinese technologies and most likely returned to China and Korea, thus affecting their progress. Extensive borrowing from groups that came into contact with one another, as we have seen, is not uncommon. Exchange is typically selective and voluntary, as in Japan. However, sometimes weaker cultures are “. . . obliged to acquire elements from the dominant group.” 123 Japan was initially not receptive to Buddhism, but after several years became more so. The result was temple construction that led to the creation of some of Japan’s most timeless and treasured structures.
Increasingly, cultural issues are being addressed within (science) education. The classroom teaching and learning is influenced by the cultural world views of the student (Fisher & Waldrip, 1999; Gay, 2002; Jacobs, 2003; Jegede & Okebukola, 1991; Squire, MaKinster, Barnett, Luehmann & Barab, 2003). Hofstede (1986), and Banks & Banks (1993) argued that teachers from different cultural backgrounds from their students must be made aware of possible conflicts that might arise from their expectations of students. To survive the school process, some of these students, besides resisting assimilation (Driver, 1989), tend to compartmentalize their learning (Waldrip & Taylor, 1999) into what is relevant to passing school and what is external to success at school. Changing students’ views is not easy, especially when these views continue to be used by their family and peers (Hodson, 1999). The challenge for the teacher is to stimulate learning while not resulting in the student becoming alienated from their society knowledge, beliefs and values.
uccessfully treating clients with ATOD addictions requires an expert mix of science, clinical training, pragmatic experience and continuing development of clinician skills. This guide is written as an aide for ATOD counselors to improve their skills in response to treatment challenges presented by clients from Latino cultures. The word “culture” is loaded with meaning and has many potential implications, so the ideas expressed in this brief overview are not exhaustive nor intended to provide a “freeze frame” cultural portrait of all Latinos that pretends they are all the same or unchanging. Such a portrait defies reality. Currently three- quarters of the approximately 40 million Latinos living in the United States are either immigrants or children of immigrants. As a result there are pervasive cultural changes that distinguish genera- tions of Latinos. The approach taken in this Guide is to highlight key similarities and differences in cultural beliefs, attitudes, and practices commonly seen among Latino ATOD clients that poten- tially influence their drug use behavior and responsiveness to treatment. “Americanization” has variable impacts across generations of Latinos. Indeed, the “sending” nations from which Latinos have historically emigrated, and continue to do so, are also experiencing rapid social changes that influence drug use and addiction in their own societies.
Managing cultural diversity is recognised as a horizontal task that involves a variety of players and contexts and includes both legal standards (human rights law) and policy measures. Indeed, the relevance of this dimension is that the culturalelements that shape collective identities determine the ownership and enjoyment of human rights. It is not possible to build a framework that respects human rights without considering the cultural identity of individuals and groups, especially if they are a minority in their respective policy fields 3 . In this regard, the nation-state has been a powerful factor in cultural and identity homogenisation. Any European state which has enjoyed a relatively long period of independence for many decades is now much more linguistically, religiously and nationally homogenous than a century ago, such that the map of collective identities in Europe is now much closer to the political boundaries of states than ever before (Magosci, 1995: 130-148). In any of the European democratic societies there are dominant cultural parameters, as they are widespread or traditional. This usually leads to the temptation to understand "integration” using these dominant parameters rather than making mainstream society itself aware of its diversity. The current trend to provide a cultural dimension to integration that is being explicitly or implicitly adopted by several countries around us falls within this line. As De Lucas points out, States are replacing enforceable legal and political conditions to access citizenship through the priority of the socio-cultural dimension (De Lucas, 2010: 12).
of the individuals to express themselves in these areas is pointed out (MONE, 2018, p. 5). Curriculum of Turkey is prepared within the framework of the General Objectives and Basic Principles of Turkish National Education. This curriculum aims to give students certain qualifications. One of the qualifications is that recognizing and adopting aesthetic and artistic values through the works of Turkish and world culture and art. (MONE, 2018, s. 8). Based on this provision, learning program targets about native language learning should be in cooperation with culturalelements. For that reason, this is an unavoidable situation that including culturalelements and taking benefit from the culture in the duration of the language skills acquisitions on Turkish textbook (MONE, 2018, p. 8). The concept of culture has wide limits. Having such wide limits, bring this question to minds. “Which one will consider in the culture limit and which one will not?” For this reason, the culturalelements of the 6th grade textbook which is the subject of study in the research was detected by considering the culturalelements in the Intangible Cultural Heritage List and the images of these elements were examined. Intangible cultural heritage means; applications, representations, expressions, knowledge and abilities- and related tools, materials and cultural spaces- which are a part of cultural heritage definition of societies, groups and in some cases individuals (Oğuz, 2013, p. 63). In the “Definition” article, the protection of intangible cultural heritage contract, the term “protection” was used. This term was accepted by means that indoor- outdoor education of intangible cultural heritage (Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2003). Accordingly, “The List of Intangible Cultural Heritage” -which referred to cultural standard in the study, has connecting boundaries for educational activities.
3. The proposed methodological tools for assessing the impact of culturalelements on the consumer behavior in the market for medical services in Asia-Pacific Region countries (conjugation matrix), which allowed to determine the cross-cultural gaps in consumer behavior in different countries, which need to be considered for the effective integration of the economies of the Asia-Pacific Region cooperation in the market of medical services. Analysis of the matrix elements of the assessment of the impact of culture on the consumer behavior in the market of medical services in Asia- Pacific Region showed that the first elements of culture influence is manifested in the selection characteristics of the medical service (its range, quality, reputation, qualification of doctors and others). The elements of material culture among the models influence the choice of the price of medical services, and cultural values - especially on consumers’ perception of promotion tools (brand clinics, the credibility of the communication channels, including Internet, the information content of advertising messages).
The texts chosen to teach culturalelements are of a high importance. It is especially important to choose suitable texts for student taking into consideration their age and language level. The main purpose of this work is teaching case suffixes. Consequently, it will have modestly been contributed in teaching grammar topics. Grammar topics have to be taught properly without being underestimated because in order to communicate correctly one needs to build a sentence correctly.
This broad ranging discussion examines the clinical encounter and deconstructs psychological and cul- tural context and implications, finally honoring the comprehensive awareness that the clinician requires for best practice in encountering mortality. Clinicians engage client disease and dying presentions, and ul- timate mortality. Communicating mortality openly or subliminally is not always conscious. Mortality aware- ness can produce stress and untoward behaviors. Psychological mortality avoidance, citing Kierke- gaard’s existential paradox, and the death (in both senses) of Joseph Campbell’s cultural hero illumine socio-culturalelements including the elusive “good death”, sequestration of death from society, and the concept of managing death in volume. Cultural diver- sity awareness and the concept of transcendence clar- ify outlier and hybrid cultural client presentations demanding maximal clinician flexibility. Mortality Salience Theory predicts contracted world view when confronted with mortality, demanding sensitivity to a variety of responses. A hospice approach may not be best for some, despite a lack of new alternative to that paradigm. Managing mortality awareness and dying stresses the clinician by the weight and loneliness of perhaps unpopular decisions, by responsibility to community in managing death, and by the take-home exposure of the clinician’s family to the concept of death and mortality. Aptitude for managing death depends on clinician self awareness and a good match with practice venue. Clinician integrity and conscious- ness of motives and responses allows engagement or deferral as necessary without threat to identity.
becoming more engaged in the teaching material, and they will increasingly respect the diversity and the culture of the other countries, as well as the host country. There are three participants in this study from China and Korea. All three of them were adult precollege students, and they needed to take the ESL placement test to enter a university. To collect data, the researchers conducted observations from the ESL class. There were two types of observations: before and after the culturally responsive strategies were implemented during sessions. The findings of the data showed that using culturally responsive strategies was beneficial for the adult ESL students. This study confirms that implementation of culturalelements to an ESL classroom will increase the engagement of the students, and will improve the ESL students’ communicative competence. Prominent in the article was the focus of the authors on the relationship between cultural factors and language proficiency, and how well these two factors can be improved together.
This study is based on various research and writings which stress on the important role of the learners’ first culture. Among them are Tomlinson and Masuhara (2004) on local criteria for materials evaluation; Alptekin (2002) on intercultural competence; McKay (2000) and Kramsch and Sullivan (1996) on cultural materials for English as an international language; Cortazzi and Jin (1999) on culture in English language materials; Stern, (1992) on cultural syllabus; Banks (1997) on effective approach to multicultural curriculum; Cortazzi and Jin (1999); Tomalin and Stempleski (1993). For instance, Tomalin and Stempleski (1993) outline three qualities language activities should develop: 1) awareness of one’s own culturally-induced behaviour, 2) awareness of the culturally- induced behaviour of others, and 3) ability to explain one’s own cultural standpo ints. This study, however, emphasizes on the cultural aspects of the learners’ own ethnicity by examining ways to exploit Indian ethnic culturalelements to be integrated into the English language teaching in the classroom as culturally authentic tasks. These ideas will be discussed further in the literature review of this study.
The culturalelements in “meaning” were displayed in vocabulary, lexis, idiom, proverb, saying, metaphor, and symbolization that demonstrated the unique concept, meaning and thoughts of the Chinese and the concepts may sometimes have no equivalent meaning in other languages or with diverse meaning (Chen, 1992; Liu, 2002; Xia, 2013). Learners may not understand the meaning of the vocabulary if they did not study the cultural meaning, and cause misunderstanding when communicate with the native speakers. There were many vocabularies in Mandarin which embodied the culturalelements in meaning, such as lóng龙 (dragon) ， gǒu 狗 (dog), zhú 竹 (bamboo), etc. (Liu, 2002). For example, lóng 龙 (dragon) brought specific meaning in Chinese due to the extended and metaphorical meaning. Lóng 龙 dragon is a symbol of power, strength, good luck, and growth in Chiense culture. “Wàng zĭ chéng lóng 望子成 龙” literally means “hoping the son to become a dragon”, the dragon refers to the successful, excellent and outstanding people (Shi, 2009). Hence, the learners need to identify the cultural meaning which hidden in the target language. Other culturally vocabularies included “xǐjiǔ 喜酒 ” (wedding dinner), “bàinián 拜年 ” (new year visit), “kèqì 客气 ” (courtesy), “zǒu le 走了 ” (passed away).
(Seidlhofer, Breiteneder, & Pitzl, 2006). Cultural information is contained in descriptive texts, dialogues, writing assignments, lexical items, realia, visuals, and audio recordings (Adaskou, 1990). Textbooks can also be categorized depending on their cultural contents: (a) source culture, which is the culture of the learners themselves; (b) the target culture, which is the culture of the country where the language is spoken as the native language; or (c) international culture. Thus, a textbook conveys a series of culturalelements from the language that is being studied, a phenomenon called the 'hidden curriculum' (Tomlinson, 2003). Many cultural studies in textbooks in several countries consider textbooks as the main source of language and culture integration(Abdullah, 2009; Adaskou, 1990; Hamiloğlu & Mendi, 2010). Furthermore, Hamiloğlu and Mendi (2010) regarding culture in the ELT course book in Turkey found four elements including culture. In Abdullah's study (2009) regarding textbooks in Malaysia, it was found that most cultures are presented in the form of sociological features and character images. Most teachers in Morocco agree that only a small amount of foreign culture should be included in the textbooks(Adaskou, 1990).
display colour, gestures, objects, and mathematical equations suggest something other than themselves. The graphic counterparts of brand names or logos represented in signs, he notes, are designed to signify the brand product by the means of a visual channel. The results of Danesi‟s (2004) research show that the apple logo that has been significantly utilised by Apple Corporation depicts hidden religious symbolism. Whilst the creator of the sign denies any intent to connect the logo to the story of Adam and Eve, and aims to put the bite there in order to ensure that the figure is not interpreted as any other kind of fruit, such as a tomato, Danesi‟s semiotic analysis of the logo investigates the religious symbolic associations by which the company‟s iconic bitten-apple logo is interpreted as the original sin of Adam and Eve mentioned in the Bible (Danesi, 2004: 264). This study is useful for exploring the meanings and connotations that brand names in the LL of Jordan can display in connection with cultural and religious aspects of society. Specifically, the illustration of national brand names cannot be presented without reference to the Islamic and cultural habits and practices of the Jordanian context. In the same vein, the brand names are shaped by the cultural backgrounds of the inhabitants. This has been identified by Hynes and Janson (2007), who investigate the differences in the perceptions of individuals from Finland, Sweden, the United States, and China with regards to advertisements from Nokia and Ericsson. Whilst the semiotic analysis of the advertisements focuses on the image of two hands in the Nokia logo and the „welcome home‟ as a starting stage in Ericsson, the reactions of the individuals demonstrate the fact that culture plays a determinate role in defining particular meanings towards the symbolic elements they see in the advertisements. In addition, the individuals‟ reactions are significantly built upon the international appeal of English, along with their cultural values, in terms of determining the efficiency and effectiveness of the symbols used in the advertisements.