Days After Planting

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Effect of Weed Management Methods on the Growth and yield of Ginger in Metu, Illubabor Ethiopia

Effect of Weed Management Methods on the Growth and yield of Ginger in Metu, Illubabor Ethiopia

Where WDC= weed dry mass from the control plot (untreated), WDT= weed dry matter from treated plot Growth parameters such as rhizome width, number of fingers per rhizome and rhizome Weight were recorded by selecting 5 rhizomes per treatment. In order to see the advantage of mulching at planting on early germination of ginger number of germinated ginger plants were counted at 30 days after planting by considering the whole plots.

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Effects of ameliorant and fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize grown in peatlands soil of West Kalimantan Indonesia

Effects of ameliorant and fertilizer on the growth and yield of maize grown in peatlands soil of West Kalimantan Indonesia

Crop growth can be measured by the increase in crop total dry weight produced. Crop total dry weight describes the net result of photosynthesis indicated as dry weight. Based on variance analysis result, it can be seen that treatments of ameliorant types and N, P, and K inorganic fertilizers doses had significant influence at crop age of 40-82 days after planting (Table 5). Data presented in Table 5 indicate that at 40, 68, and 82 days after planting, agricultural lime and rice husk charcoal treatments produced the same total dry weight that was significantly higher than without ameliorant treatment. However, at 54 days after planting, the three treatments showed a significant difference with rice husk charcoal application that produced
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Rooting development of Sansevieria trifasciata (Mother-In-Law Tongue) as influenced by different propagation substrates

Rooting development of Sansevieria trifasciata (Mother-In-Law Tongue) as influenced by different propagation substrates

The result presented in Table 2 showed the effect of different substrates on days to shoot emergence of Sansevieria trifasciata (Dwarf). Significant differences (p<0.05) were recorded on days to shoot emergence of Sansevieria trifasciata.The Sansevieria cuttings planted in the Sand substrates and substrate combination of Topsoil + Sawdust + Rice hull + Sand emerged 49 days after planting, followed by Sansevieria cuttings planted in the Topsoil growing media (50 days after planting DAP). The Sansevieria cuttings planted in the sawdust substrates emerged last at 53 DAP. Results from Table 3 showed the effect of different substrates on the plant height for Sansevieriatrifasciata. A significant difference (P<0.05) was recorded in the plant height of Sansevieriatrifasciata across the weeks throughout the durationof the experiment (9-14 WAP). However, the treatment that had all the substrate combination (Topsoil + Sawdust + Rice hull + Sand) had the tallest plant followed by Sand and Topsoil. Rice hull substrates had the shortest mean value for most of the parameters considered during the experiment (plant height, number of leaves, Root length, Shoot length, and Shoot weight).
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3.	Muhammad Akhsan Akib, Kahar Mustari, Tutik Kuswinanti, Syatrianti Andi Syaiful, Muhammad Siri Dangnga and Andi Nuddin

3. Muhammad Akhsan Akib, Kahar Mustari, Tutik Kuswinanti, Syatrianti Andi Syaiful, Muhammad Siri Dangnga and Andi Nuddin

stress, particularly at the beginning of plant growth or at 21 days after planting (Fig. 2) due to the defense of indigenous Acaulospora sp that has been adapted and associated with plant roots so that high concentrations of nickel can be inhibited by reducing the rate of metal transported to the canopy top of the plant. According to Delvian (2006); Muryati et al. (2016) indigenous mycorrhiza has a high potential for extensive infection as it has a higher tolerance to the high stress-environmental conditions. However, Rainiyati et al. (2009) and Berruti et al. (2016) stated that the effectiveness of mycorrhiza is highly dependent on the suitability between the factors of mycorrhizal species, host plants, soils, and the interactions of those three factors.
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IMPACT OF GROWING DEGREE DAYS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BOTTLE GOURD (LEGENARIA SICERARIA (MOL.) STANDL) IN DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES

IMPACT OF GROWING DEGREE DAYS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BOTTLE GOURD (LEGENARIA SICERARIA (MOL.) STANDL) IN DIFFERENT PLANTING DATES

The relationship between vegetative growth parameters and the days after planting in different planting dates was calculated by using regression formula Y = a + bX, where Y is independent variable (vegetative growth parameters), X is dependent variable (days after planting), a is constant and b is regression coefficient. The correlation (R 2 ) was also calculated according to Joreskog and Sorbom (1996)

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Bromatology, food chemistry and antioxidant activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

Bromatology, food chemistry and antioxidant activity of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott

Taioba fresh leaves and petioles ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott) were randomly collected in the morning, between 60-75 days after planting in 2017, from the individual cultiv[r]

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Potato Information Kit. Agrilink, your growing guide to better farming guide

Potato Information Kit. Agrilink, your growing guide to better farming guide

Due to severe drought conditions, Producer A had limited water available, and was unable to irrigate as often as desired, particularly during the latter part of the tuber bulking period. This is confirmed by readings for the deep tensiometers, which gradually rose between 60 and 110 days after planting, indicating water uptake from deeper in the soil profile. This suggests the potatoes were not obtaining enough water from the main section of the root zone (where the shallow tensiometers were located). Insufficient water was applied at each irrigation to refill the potato root zone, until a major irrigation about 112 days after planting (note the dip in both the shallow and deep tensiometer values at that time). The irrigation strategy adopted by Producer A was reasonable, given restricted water availability during the drought. Yields from this crop were still relatively good, indicating no severe or prolonged periods of water stress.
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Development of Pre Broken Sugar Cane Submitted to Treatments with Fertilizer and Vegetable Regulators

Development of Pre Broken Sugar Cane Submitted to Treatments with Fertilizer and Vegetable Regulators

It can be observed in Table 3 that the dry mass of the aerial part, root dry mass and total dry mass (aerial + root) of the MPBs at 56 DAPG did not show a significant difference, demonstrating the importance of the leaf area in the cap- ture of light and efficiency photosynthetic by plants. Similar results were found in literature, when studying the effects of irrigation on MPB of sugarcane, it was observed that the mass of dry matter of roots ranged from 0.27 to 1.33 g at 76 days after planting and that the dry matter mass of the shoot varied between 1.40 and 2.80 g at 51 days after planting [20]. Values very close to those obtained in this experiment (Table 3).
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CHANGES IN POTATO TUBER SKIN HISTOLOGY, BEHAVIOUR WITH THE APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS IN STORAGE AND ITS PERFORMANCE UNDER FIELD

CHANGES IN POTATO TUBER SKIN HISTOLOGY, BEHAVIOUR WITH THE APPLICATION OF GROWTH REGULATORS IN STORAGE AND ITS PERFORMANCE UNDER FIELD

Storage behaviour: Field application of growth regulators effectively reduced the weight loss during maximum being in CCC and followed by MH. Further, soaking the tubers with growth regulators reduced the weight loss in storage by 8.6% over that of non soaking treatment. Among soaking treatments, CCC recorded a very low weight loss of 11.51 per cent and it was closely followed by MH (13.04) .Tuber weight loss was very high with salicylic acid treatment spray in the field and it was followed by zeatin. Among different soaking treatments, the weight loss in CCC was reduced more markedly than the others. No significant effect was observed on weight loss due to dates of haulm killing and also due to interactions. Hence, CCC field application as well as soaking before storage was effective in controlling the storage weight loss of tubers. No rottage of tubers was observed due to growth regulator treatments. No effect on weight loss of rotted tubers was observed due to growth regulator spray treatments. No other factor affected the tuber rottage in the store. Application of CCC in the field @100 ppm in two sprays at 60 and 75 days after planting improved the storage life of tubers by reducing weight loss through reduction in number of sprouts, sprout weight and length of the longest sprout (Fig 1). Respiration, the oxidative breakdown of complex substrates to simple molecules with the concurrent production of energy required to maintain the life process in potato tubers contribute to
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The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril)

The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril)

measured 2.4 m x 1.8 m, the distance between the plot was 50 cm, and the distance between replication was 85 cm. Soil tillage according to the treatment was no tillage, minimum tillage, and conventional tillage. Soil tillage was done one week before planting. In the no tillage plots, the land was sprayed using Isopropylamine glyphosate 486 g / L herbicide with a dose of 6 L / ha to kill weeds that grew, then the dead weeds were left and used to cover the soil surface. In the minimum tillage plots, the soil tillage was done once by digging the soil approximately 2-3 cm deep, which aims to remove the growing weeds. In the plot with conventional tillage, the soil tillage was done two times by digging the soil approximately 2-3 cm deep which aimed to remove the growing weeds and to loosen the soil. After soil tillage, Grobogan variety soybeans were planted over a distance of 30 cm x 20 cm and 5 cm deep, by planting two seeds per hole and covering the hole with soil. Fertilization utilized urea at 50 kg/ ha, SP36 at 75 kg/ha, and KCl at 100 kg / ha. All doses of SP36 and KCl were given at the beginning of planting, whereas for urea fertilizer 1/3 of the dose was given at the beginning of planting and 2/3 of the dose was given at 21 days after planting. Fertilization was done by distributing evenly around the plants on each plot. Maintenance of soybean crops was done in accordance with the recommendations. Treatment of weed control was done mechanically by weeding using a hoe in experimental plots adjusted with treatments of no weeding, weeding one time at 15 days after planting (DAP), weeding two times at 15 and 30 DAP, and weeding three times at 15, 30, and 45 DAP. Observations of soybean crops including leaf area and dry weight of plants were carried out at 55 and 65 DAP and plant yield was observed at harvest time. The total dry weight of weeds was observed at 55 and 65 DAP. Weed vegetation analysis was done to determine Summed Dominance Ratio/SDR (Wirjahardja and Pancho, 1975; Tjitrosoedirjo et al., 1984). Parameters for SDR were calculated by the following formulas:
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Rice field drainage affects nitrogen dynamics and management

Rice field drainage affects nitrogen dynamics and management

The treatments were (1) no nitro- gen, (2) all preplant nitrogen fertilizer applied as aqua-ammonia to a depth of 3 to 4 inches (all subsurface) and (3) the conventional practice, where a portion of the preplant nitrogen was applied as aqua-ammonia and the remainder to the surface (subsurface plus surface) (table 2). At the Sheridan site, the grower also applied 42 pounds nitrogen per acre to the subsurface and subsurface plus surface treatments just after reflooding. The no-nitrogen treatment soil was covered with a tarp and did not receive nitrogen fertilizer. Treatments were replicated three times. The subsurface nitrogen was applied by the grower as aqua-ammonia to a depth of 3 to 4 inches using commercial equipment. All surface nitrogen was ap- plied as urea by hand. The drain period in each field began 23 and 5 days after planting, and fields were reflooded 15 and 11 days later at Sheridan and Biggs, respectively. At harvest the plots were sampled for total aboveground biomass and yield. Grain and straw samples were analyzed for nitrogen to deter- mine uptake in each treatment.
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Reduced Rates of Metribuzin and Time of Hilling Controlled Weeds in Potato

Reduced Rates of Metribuzin and Time of Hilling Controlled Weeds in Potato

The current emphasis on reducing herbicide applications has led to an in- crease in alternative weed control measures. Field experiment was conducted in the spring of 2014 to examine the effect of hilling-time and reduced-rates of metribuzin and their combinations on weed infestation in potato, and to de- termine their impact on potato yield. Metribuzin at 0.35, 0.56, or 0.75 kg ai/ha with or without hilling 6, 7, and 8 weeks after planting (WAP) were used. Weed count, weed control visual rating, weed dry weight, potato plant height, number of shoots and leaves, root dry weight, and potato yield were collected. Results showed that metribuzin, at all tested rates, with or without hilling sig- nificantly reduced weed infestation after 50, 70, and 110 days after planting (DAP) compared to the check. Best results were obtained by a combination of metribuzin at all tested rates with hilling 6, 7, and 8 WAP. The results suggest that long season weed control and high marketable yield could be achieved by metribuzin at 0.35 kg ai/ha (53% reduction in metribuzin) supplemented with hilling (6 WAP). None of the treatments was toxic to potato plants compared to the hand-weeded plots.
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Investigation on the Efficacy af Bio-Product - A Biocontrol Agent on Patchouli (Pogostemon Cablin Benth.)

Investigation on the Efficacy af Bio-Product - A Biocontrol Agent on Patchouli (Pogostemon Cablin Benth.)

Twenty days after planting, a significant increase in height of cuttings was observed in the treatment T14 ( T.viride + T. harzianum + Pseudomonus flouroscences – cuttings + soil application ) followed by treatment T12 ( T. harzianum + Pseudomonus flouroscences – cuttings + soil application ) & T10 ( T.viride + Pseudomonus flouroscences – cuttings + soil application ) respectively and against significantly low height of cuttings in treatment T15 ( control-I). The root length was observed to be maximum in treatment T14, while it was minimum in treatment T15 ( control-I). The number of developed axillary buds and roots per plant was observed to be more in treatment T14, while low number was seen in treatment T15 ( Table : 1 & fig: 1).
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Cotton Production in Rotation with Summer Legumes

Cotton Production in Rotation with Summer Legumes

Cotton following sunn hemp, cowpeas, and summer fallow had similar responses to fertil- izer N rates for uppermost fully expanded leaf N concentration at all sampling dates in both years. Therefore, means in Table 3 are averaged over all N rates. Cotton grown following both summer legumes had higher leaf N concentration through early bloom (59 days after planting) in 2005. During mid-bloom (66 and 73 days after planting), cotton grown following the legumes did not differ in leaf N from cotton grown following summer fallow. After mid-bloom, leaf N was higher from the cotton
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Role Of Potassium Nutrition In Improving Growth, Yield And Quality Of Sugarcane- A Review

Role Of Potassium Nutrition In Improving Growth, Yield And Quality Of Sugarcane- A Review

cane @ 100, 200 or 300 kg/ha. The lowest rate of application was found optimum. Sinha and Singh (1977) reported that potassium deficiency resulted in a reduced rate of dry matter accumulation and a decrease in the final weight of the plant. The critical period of percentage N absorption was shifted from 90 to 180 days due to K deficiency while the peak for other elements (Ca, Mg and P) remained unaffected. Hence, it was suggested that for successful cane growth the supply of mineral elements should be made available from the beginning until 135 days of growth. Sudama et al. (1998) conducted a pot experiment with sugarcane and concluded that application of potassium at the time of planting significantly increased the stomatal diffusive resistance and thereby decreased the transpiration rate and increased the leaf water potential, leaf area of first open leaf and cane length. Karthikeyan et al. (2003) reported that potassium was applied as potassium chloride in three equal splits at 30, 60 and 90 days after planting followed by irrigation in field trials at farmers' field and observed that the benefits of K fertilizer application on nutrition and growth, yield and juice attributes of sugarcane were similar on sandy loam and sandy clay loam soil but their magnitude was higher in the latter than the former. Sanjay et al. (2005) conducted an experiment at Pantnagar and reported that the number of shoots, dry matter accumulation and cane yield increased with the increase in the potassium rates in plant crop. Shukla et al. (2009) concluded that application of 66 kg K/ha with irrigation water in standing plant cane before harvest improved bud sprouting, dry matter accumulation and nutrient uptake in ratoon crop. Thus, potassium nutrition holds great promise for improving growth of ratoon cane and sugar yields. Indirajith and Natarajan (2011) opined that split application of recommended dose of potassium on 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after planting along with the recommended dose of nitrogen and phosphorus significantly recorded the maximum mean shoot population, cane length, individual cane weight and seed cane yield.
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Cotton Development and Yield Response to Irrigation, Planting Date, and Cultivar in North Carolina

Cotton Development and Yield Response to Irrigation, Planting Date, and Cultivar in North Carolina

In 2012, only 2.7% of North Carolina’s cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was irrigated compared to the national average of 39%. The small size and nonuniform shape of most North Carolina fields are not conducive for a center pivot system. However, benefits to yield due to irrigation in North Carolina have been reported, specifically in years receiving below average or sporadic rainfall. The objective of this research was to investigate the impact of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) on growth and yield of early- and late-maturing cot- ton cultivars at varying planting dates in eastern North Carolina. In 2014, the site received more than 750 mm of rainfall and no differences were observed for any parameters between irrigated and non-irrigated plots. Total rainfall in 2015 and 2016 was lower with several extended periods with- out rain events. There was a greater plant height increase and dry weight accumulation throughout the growing season in response to SDI. Cotton yields were increased by SDI in 2015 and 2016. Cultivar only influenced lint yield in 2016 with the earlier-maturing ‘PHY 333 WRF’ having greater lint yield than ‘PHY 499 WRF’. Planting date did not influence yield under irrigated conditions, and the timing of rainfall played a role similar to previ- ous reports in North Carolina. Irrigation applied via SDI will increase cotton plant stature, fruit retention, and yield in response to deficit moisture conditions, independent of planting date or cultivar.
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Vol 47, No 1 (2017)

Vol 47, No 1 (2017)

Potato is a very important crop in Romania, after corn and wheat and this is why this crop must be attractive for farmers through financial advantages and high yields that should feed the people. The using of herbicides is a compulsory measure for efficacy of this crop. In order to test some herbicides used for potato crop we have tested some herbicides at the Botanic Garden of University of Craiova, in 2017. There were used the following substances and rates: V1 – Stomp 5 l/ha; V2 – Stomp 6 l/ha; V3- Stomp 5 l/ha + 1 l/ha Roundup (tank mix); V4 – Stomp 5 l/ha + 1 l/ha Roundup (tank mix) and 3 l/ha Roundup, selective treatment on spots; V5- Roundup 1 l/ha, (two treatments) without any preemergent herbicide;V6 – Goal 4F 0,5 l/ha; V7 – Goal 4F 0,7 l/ha; V8- untreated control. The best results have been given by V1, 2 and 6 treatments, where there are not perennial dicots. Where Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvense are present there must be applied a 3.5 liters per hectare Roundup before potato emergence.
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Screening for Resistance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes on Alectra vogelii

Screening for Resistance Mechanisms in Cowpea Genotypes on Alectra vogelii

20 Petri dishes were lined with two layers of Whatman No. 1 filter paper mois- tened with 5.0 ml of distilled water. Roots from the four cowpea varieties were cut into small pieces and crashed using a knife. 1.0 g of root pieces from each cowpea variety was weighed and placed into the central aluminum foil ring where the precondition, A. vogelii seeds were placed. Then after, 2 to 3 drops of sterile distilled water were added on the roots media in order to facilitate diffu- sion of the root exudates across the filter paper. Thereafter, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic wrappers and coated with aluminum foil followed by, incuba- tion at 30˚C for five days.
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Comparison of different forest regeneration methods after windthrow

Comparison of different forest regeneration methods after windthrow

Study area. The investigations were conducted on the “Tipeček” experimental plot (EP) situated in the territory of the “Masarykův les” Training Forest Enterprise of Mendel University in Křtiny. “Tipeček” EP (49°19'N, 16°44'E) is located in the Drahanská vrchovina Uplands at an altitude of about 500–520 m a.s.l. and with annual precipita- tion of about 620 mm. The wind-thrown area came to existence in June 2010 after the Antonín gale di- saster (Dobrovolný et al. 2010). The original for- est was a stand of about 100 years of age with the fully closed canopy, consisting mainly of spruce. The new wind-thrown area of about 1.5 ha links up immediately with young forest stands and forms a complex of non-established stands stretching over the area of 6 hectares. The predominating potential natural vegetation is acidophilous beech and silver fir woodland (Neuhäuslová et al. 1998) on the
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