Assessing a DPM in its entirety requires sophisticated methods. It is a challenge to record all three variables (options, cues, and confidences) at the same time as val- idly and promptly as possible. Depending on the re- search questions and proceeding as true to life as possible, a researcher has to prioritize during the process, for example as we did in recording the confi- dence ratings in a final step. But there are several ways to assess a DPM in a reduced manner. In a confidence profile for example, one can assess and display all men- tioned options and their corresponding confidence rat- ings at a specific time point during the decision-makingprocess. This recording can be repeated at a second time point for all aforementioned options and newly emer- ging options. While totally ignoring underlying informa- tion (cues), with confidence profiles one can therefore assess and map the course of confidence for all men- tioned options in a more direct way. Furthermore, the use of electronic devices such as audio pens or video re- cordings of confidence ratings or suspected diagnoses that are verbally articulated and immediately written down might be very helpful in the future.
This additional paragraph is written on request of the supervisors of this research. The aim is to answer the question; what I would do differently when I had a second change to
investigate the link between effectuation and cognition? In the last few years a lot of students within the university of Twente wrote their bachelor or master-thesis regarding the theory of effectuation. Different topics came along, connecting the decisionmakingprocess to related subjects, different business-cases and often to other cultures. This research, together with three other recently written reports, stands out because of the large quantity of respondents used.
3.5 At any stage, the decision-makingprocess will be terminated if it is determined that no further action is required, or that the matter should be addressed through the normal or heightened supervisory process.
3.6 In addition, the decision-makingprocess may be temporarily suspended where the Executive takes a decision to do something that is not covered by this Guidance Note, such as enter into discussions with the Subject with a view to settlement (see paragraph 4 below); or refer the case to the Attorney General to review, investigate and potentially prosecute any criminal conduct; or refer a case to the Royal Court.
The decisionmaking model of Mintzberg (1976) is chosen out of several models about the decisionmakingprocess. This model consist out of three phases and starts with the identification phase that consists out of the recognition routine and the diagnosis routine. The second phase, the
development phase, consists out of the design routine and the search routine. The third and last phase is the selection phase, consisting of the screen routine, evaluation-choice routine and authorization routine. The model is used to clarify the whole process of the subsidy request and to identify the bottlenecks in this process. This theoretical model of Mintzberg (1976) is used to develop a theoretical model that can be applied in the subsidy market. All routines will are described and this will be the basis for the telephone questionnaire that is performed.
Figure 1. A generic framework of CKM.
III. M ULTI M ODAL DECISIONMAKING A. MDM specification
Our aim here is to focus on multimodal decisionmakingprocess. In this paper, specifically, we consider MDM process as a collaborative knowledge management process where knowledge represent experiences, Knowledge management represents creation, organization and dissemination of specific knowledge situated in a particular problem solving context, collaborative knowledge management represents process of problem resolution (based on four phases as it is proposed by  and revisited by : intelligence, design, choice and review. In the intelligence phase, the problem is identified. In the design phase, the proposed alternatives or solutions are generated. In the choice phase a solution is selected. Finally, in the revision phase the choice is revised and an intelligent feedback permits to correct errors), knowledge base represents cases base where we store experiences (each case represents a problem, different alternatives to solve the problem and the final decision), codification KM represents the computer human aspect where actors interact with their computer (via their private or public KB) to solve their problem, personalization KM represents the computer human-human aspect where actors interact together with their computers (synchronous or asynchronous, located or distributed) to solve their (collective) problem.
Cyert and March (1963) describe how decisions are actually made, rather than how they should be made. The authors indicate that if one considers the cognitive limits of human beings, to- gether with uncertainty and lack of agreement over goals, then the processes are quite different from those previously described by managers and researchers. These authors reinforce the idea that re- source allocation is not a simple choice, but an organizational process. In addition, the specific im- portant decision, made at a specific point in time, does not exist without a set of support decisions developed at a particular time and in a particular context. Rather, the decision-makingprocess is long, is spread over a considerable period of time, and involves many people in different levels of the hierarchy. Cyert and March's work prompts others to view resource allocation and slack allocation (the surplus of previous investments) as not a single choice, but as organizational processes as well. Thus, their conception of decision-making is a political process that balances various power vectors. Other authors who take a similar approach include Chandler (1962), Ansoff (1965), Ackoff (1970) and Andrews (1971). These four studies are among the first to formally propose the distinction be- tween the process of strategic decision and the content of strategic decision.
The impact of mood on decisionmakingprocess
In this paper we review related literature, and present the results of an industry case study, conducted in three Arabic commercial banks, with the aim of understanding the nature of the strategic decisionmakingprocess. This paper aims to assist in understanding the nature of the strategic decisionmakingprocess, through a case study of three Arabic commercial banks, supported by a review of the relevant literature. The case study provides empirical evidence for the influence of mood that arises from the type of decision task and its context on the decisionmakingprocess. This type of influence is known as the ‘integral affect’, to differentiate it from incidental influences of mood on decisionprocess, and from the regret associated with a decision, whether such regret is antecedent to a decision and/or is an anticipation of regret. (Lerner et al., 2015; George and Dane, 2016).
Share and Implement the Decision Organizational decisions should be publicly disclosed along with the ethical reasons behind them. In the case of MMC, if the organization elects to close the clinic, it is not acceptable to just tack a notice on the door of the clinic announcing that it will be closing. Instead, MMC leaders might consider holding a town hall meeting with the staff of the clinic, patients, and commu- nity members, to let them know what actions are planned over the coming months and why. This type of meeting brings the decision-makingprocess out from behind closed doors and promotes better relations with the stakeholders. The different parties will not always agree with the final decision, but they will know that the organization thought through the decision and considered Healthcare executives might be quick
The results of probability plots of residuals indicate that the data points fall more or less along the diagonal line with no substantial deviation from the line. This together with relevant Histogram confirms the normality of the error term. The Scatter plots of standardized residuals versus the predicted values show no random pattern to indicate heteroscedasticity. The results of multi-collinearity test indicate that the values of tolerance and variance inflation factor (VIF) fall within acceptable range (tolerance 0.57 to 0.89 and VIF 1.11 to 1.74) outliers were identified and removed using a case-wise diagnostics and partial regression plot approach. Based on regression analysis that is given in Table 3 the four contextual variables cumulatively were able to explain 35% of the observed variations in the extent of decentralization in the decision-makingprocess. This is very much lower than that achieved by Papadakis et al. (1998) who obtain a 54% explanatory power. The F-value of 4.21 is significantly large to reject the hypothesis of no linear relationship between extents of decentralization in the decision-makingprocess with the contextual variables. An examination of the significance of each of these contextual variables indicates that four variables have significant influence on extent of decentralization of the decisionprocess. In their order of impact, they are: organizational slack, environmental dynamism, decision familiarity and manager need for achievement.
Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu
Being part of the tourism industries involves many researches and analyses in different periods of time, regarding different segments of consumers. Therefore, it is important to be aware of all the factors and motivators that influence a tourist to purchase a particular tourism services. These complex variables are crucial for the final purchase decision of an offer with emotional value for customers. This paper presents the principals motivators which intervene in the decisionmakingprocess that should be acknowledged by marketers in order to provide the ideal tourism package.
Bibiaghdas Asghari 1 , Maryam Eskafi 1 Abstract
This study was done to investigate female heads of household’s decision-makingprocess for remarriage and its barriers. Since an important part of these women’s life was not researchable through questionnaires and details of their life would be omitted, it's felt the need to do qualitative work; therefore, it's a qualitative study by narrative analysis strategy in which we used both thematic analysis and structural analysis by using semi-structured interviews with 9 women in Gonabad. The results of this study showed these persons strongly felt the lack of husband due to the variety of needs, but barriers to remarriage have a deterrent role in the final decision to remarriage and this structural pressure is to the extent that put women in conflict for making final decision and this conflict will increase over time. In the final, 9 of them had feeling the need, tending to remarry, social perceptions, expectations originated from emotions, expectations originated from position, subjective norms and evaluating and expecting benefits.
Armenia Androniceanu a , Bianca Ristea b, *
a Academy of Economic Studies, Piata Romana nr. 6, Bucharest, Romania
Decisionmaking is an essential process of modern management representing, in every field, the core function for the manager After 1990’s, the secondary educational system has faced important changes beginning with decentralization and transforming schools in self-managing systems continuing with the development of different stakeholders initiative and improving the decisionmakingprocess. This article examines the decisionmakingprocess in the secondary decentralized educational system. The analysis is based on the findings of a research conducted at regional level on a representative sample of stakeholders, employees and secondary school managers. The questionnaire including 20 items asked the respondents to rate their perception regarding the characteristics of the decisionmakingprocess in the institution that they work or that they coordinate. The data obtained from this study is explained in percentages and the findings allow to describe the decisionmakingprocess and to analyze the legal and the budgetary constraints. The research results demonstrate the reasons of setbacks in decisionmakingprocess, but our current recommendations may be completed with the findings from our future researches, that we consider necessary to better understand the decisionprocess, in the decentralized secondary educational system.
Many organizations either ignore or lack adequate decision-making processes 26 , which may also be true of the decision-makingprocess within teams. Our study found that the RDM process was followed in the SPM and DSM, although the teams may not have been consciously aware that they were following a specific decision-makingprocess. During both meetings, the Problem Identification phase took place as agile teams recognized that decisions were required and often must be made quickly. They then moved to the second phase, and if ready-made solutions existed they move to the third phase to evaluate these options, selecting one to implement. Their experience helped drive the process for repeat decisions, e.g. selecting tasks and making estimates in the SPM or deciding how to resolve issues in the DSM. If ready-made solutions did not exist, teams attempted to develop a workable solution in the time allotted to the particular meeting. If a solution was not determined quickly, workshops were scheduled outside of the meeting where selected team members would complete a series of design and search cycles of potential solutions. However, they did not necessarily do this in a sequential format as RDM suggests 19 , though they often developed only one solution, as Mintzberg predicts 20 , rather than a number of solutions from which to choose. Agile teams did not cycle back to a prior solution in a sequential format if they realized a potential solution would not work. Instead, they seemed to modify the solution and develop it in an iterative way by going back and forth within the Solution Development phase but not necessarily determining all the potential solutions at the outset or evaluating a number of options as RDM suggests 18 .
The research question was formulated and addressed in this research was: Can the concrete frame procurement process be improved by optimising the structural frame decisionmakingprocess?
Recent years have seen almost every sector of the construction industry working to meet the aims of the Latham report. In the UK, both the influential Latham (1994) and Egan (1998) reports identified that improvements designed to reduce budget and timescale and to increase quality would only be achieved if main contractors were involved sufficiently early in the design process and fully understood the needs of the client. In addition, for concrete frame construction Gray (1995) emphasized the need to restructure the roles and scope of the design team to maximise the input from the contractors. Hence, the rise in popularity of procurement routes and forms of contract that permit early contractor involvement (ECI) such as Design- Build within which contractors are involved early to improve supply chain integration. Although Design-Build has been used in the UK construction industry for decades, it gained increased market share from the late 1990s onwards (Ernzen and Schexnayder, 2000; Arditi and Lee, 2003). Indeed, a recent survey of UK project managers, cost consultants and clients (Paper 1, Appendix A) found that Design-Build is the preferred option amongst developers of building projects, ranging from complex, high quality projects to simple buildings. This illustrates a significant change in the UK construction industry, moving away from its conventional, ‗traditional‘ procurement systems. So, as a result, one might sensibly presume that most contractors must be getting involved earlier in the design process and thus could be influencing major decisions, such as the selection of a structural frame, although there are still questions about how this affects the risk relationship between client and contractor.
Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Brno, Czech Republic
Abstract: Decision-makingprocess of households on food consumption is discussed in the post-Keynesian theory of hou- sehold choice. Since the core assumption of uncertainty is employed, the set of consumption alternatives is restricted to the subset of the known ones. When searching for these alternatives, the consumer faces the search costs expressed by time of search. The sample of Czech households was investigated to ascertain the volume of the search and 57% of households do not seek for any information that are relevant for decision-making on foodstuﬀ purchase. To overcome this activity, the households more likely rely on prices and the range of goods of the closest sellers to them. Searching for information on product is replaced by reliance on habits and recommendations of the others. On the contrary, the uncertainty of real purchase power is of lower signiﬁcance in food consumption, because the foodstuﬀs meet the basic physiological needs and dispose of constrained stability in storage. Thus, households cannot always postpone (or bring forward) their consumption.
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cannot be solved easily by existing procedures and may have not previously been encountered in the same form. The strategic issues that are the subject of the decisions are similarly combative and can be summarized as affecting the he organization and involving considerable change such as strategy development and execution, mergers and acquisitions, large investments and et al., 2003). Data based strategic decisionmaking promotes accountability are part of a rational, linear approach to strategic decisionmaking, in which organizations set clear goals, collect all the information needed to objectively analyze all the possible alternative strategies to reach those goals, choose the strategy that izes their chances of success, and then gather more data during implementation to measure their progress and refine the strategy (Chaffee, 1985). Otherwise, Miller, Hickson and Wilson (2002) indicate that decision-making is important to the comprehension of how and why organizations come to be what they are and to control what they do. Organizations need decisions to be made in order that The major purpose of this study making strategic decisions in firms. It also seeks to identify the strategic decisionmakingprocess. The theories underlying strategic decisionmaking
Arnott (2007) comments “trust – a belief in the reliability of a third party, particularly where there is an element of personal risk – lies at the heart of the marketing concept” (p.981). Trust relates to the concept that one party has confidence that a second party will honour their relationship responsibilities and not act in a way that damages the relationship (Doz, 1996; Kanter, 1994; Kumar, 1996; Ring & Van de Ven, 1992). The presence of trust can be viewed as an important facilitator of an enduring sponsorship arrangement. In most agreements, a level of trust between the two parties is required, as it is impossible to draft a contract that covers all contingencies that can arise when two organisations enter into a sponsorship arrangement (Das & Teng, 1998). For those relationships where a sponsor has a high degree of trust in a rightsholder 1 , the sponsor can view the trust as underwriting a rightsholder’s pledge to provide a quality service to the sponsor. In light of this underwritten facet, the sponsor can be expected to feel a diminished need to expend resources in the maintenance of a highly formalised sponsorship decision-makingprocess. The presence of high trust in a relationship will provide the sponsor with greater confidence that the rightsholder will act in a manner as agreed and expected by the sponsor. Following this rationale, if most of an organisation’s sponsoring activities are conducted in the context of high trust relationships, the sponsoring entity will attach diminished importance to sustaining formalised sponsorship decision-making processes. It is expected that where a sponsor experiences a high degree of trust in a rightsholder, the resulting confidence will provide the sponsor with latitude to exercise a relatively high degree of intuition in sponsorship decision-making. Consistent with this rationale, the following hypothesis has been developed.
(Swarbrooke and Horner, 2007). These complex variables are very important into the final purchase decision of an offer with such an emotional value for consumers.
The success of any marketing activity is strictly related to understanding consumers’ decisionmakingprocess to purchase tourism products or services. Being aware of their behavior patterns, habits and the factors that influence their acquisition, tourism companies should comprehend when they could interfere in the process in order to obtain the results they desire. Thus, in this way, enterprises will know how to influence their customers to purchase different products or services that meet their needs and surpass their expectations.
This paper therefore adopts a decision-making approach to explore the complexity of franchisees’ partner-selection purchase process. As a high involvement purchase, the decision-makingprocess comprises several stages and the input of each decision stage contributes to the outcome of the partnership post-purchase (Hing, 1995). Within international franchising, the cultural distance between home and host countries can complicate the decision-makingprocess (Brookes, 2014; Eroglu, 1992). Understanding the role of culture in this process is arguably important to ensure the sustainability of franchise partnerships and the realization of the benefits of franchising. This study therefore evaluates the influence of national culture on franchisees’ decision-makingprocess and the criteria used when purchasing a hospitality franchise. Given the predicted growth of franchising within emerging markets (Xiao et al., 2008), the study was conducted in Macau. Macau is considered an appropriate research context as it is categorized as an emerging tourism destination by three characteristics; namely the level of economic development, economic growth and market governance (Czinkota & Ronkainen, 1997). Macau’s economy has grown rapidly with GDP increasing by 27% and 20.7% for the years 2010 and 2011 respectively, and GDP per-capita amounted to US$ 66,311 in 2011 (MGTO, 2013). Its economy also reflects a significant increase in visitor arrivals and food service sales, due to its autonomous customs and low taxation system (WTO, 2013). The Macau government has attempted to speed up business development by organizing an annual franchise and chain exposition in order to develop a trading platform for international brand investment since 2009. As a result, there has been substantial growth in the number of hospitality franchise brands, particularly in the food and beverage sector as around 20% of visitors come to Macau mainly for the cuisine (ITRC, 2013).
etc. and successful ones. In all cases, the accountants have collected, analyzed interpreted, presented and communicated the information for the use of interested parties. It remains the adoption, application and implementation of that information for the benefit of the organization. If these were being done as and when due, then the failures in the business sector and even domestic government would not have been. So the problem is, if interested users are actually aware of this various accounting information and if they apply it in their production or investment decisionmakingprocess; can decision based on accounting information actually raise efficiency level via cost minimization and wealth maximization?