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Uses of wild edible plants in Quara district, northwest Ethiopia: implication for forest management

Uses of wild edible plants in Quara district, northwest Ethiopia: implication for forest management

WEPs in the study area were utilized for supplement- ing staple foods and filling food gaps (drought and fam- ine). In agreement with the present study, other findings elsewhere indicate supplemental role of WEPs [7, 15, 22] and filling food need during food gap and famine [6, 11, 15]. Some species such as A. digitata, Z. spina-christi, X. americana, T. indica and B. aegyptiaca were highly cited by respondents which indicate their popularity and relative importance to the local community. Higher fre- quency of informants was reported for Z. spina-christi, X. americana and T. indica in other areas of Ethiopia, while it was lower for B. aegyptiaca and A. digitata, [11]. Other species which had lower informant citation in the current study on the other hand recorded with higher frequency of informant citation in other areas such F. sycomorus [11, 43]; S. guineense [14, 40], C. Africana [11]. The variation in frequency of species citation could be due to cultural and knowledge differences among communities. How- ever, most of the WEPs with high informant citation in the current study are local (X. americana, A. digitata, B. Fig. 9 Scattered edible plants in farms (B. aegyptiaca) (left) and around the homestead (right) in Mehadid Kebele, Quara district
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Traditionally used wild edible plants of district Udhampur, J&K, India

Traditionally used wild edible plants of district Udhampur, J&K, India

A total of 90 plant species (89 angiosperms and 1 pterido- phyte, viz, Diplazium esculentum) belonging to 45 families and 78 genera serve as wild phytofoods in Udhampur (Table 1). Out of the 89 species of flowering plants, 95.5% (85 species) belong to dicots and 4.5% (4 species, viz, Commelina benghalensis, Tulipa clusiana, Colocasia escu- lenta, and Phoenix sylvestris) belong to monocots. Singh et al. [52] have reported 111 wild edible plants from Kash- mir Himalayas whereas Thakur et al. [8] have recorded 50 phytofoods from tribal areas of Western Himalaya. Some other studies from different parts of the world have re- ported 49 to 173 wild edible plants [53–55]. The high usage of wild plants as vegetables and fruits, in the present study, is an indicator of rich diversity of plants, easy avail- ability, deep knowledge of wild edible plants, day-to-day requirements, well-maintained forests, far-off residential places from the local markets, and/or poor economic sta- tus of the local populace.
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Knowledge and use of wild edible plants in rural communities along Paraguay River, Pantanal, Brazil

Knowledge and use of wild edible plants in rural communities along Paraguay River, Pantanal, Brazil

those who have more diversity of vegetation types avail- able [3, 7]. However, there is no pattern related to all of these variables in different communities, especially regard- ing gender difference in rural regions of the tropics. Sop et al. [11], for instance, observed no significant variation of knowledge of edible plants between genders in Burkina Faso. The same was observed in recent studies conducted in Brazil [12, 15]. However, results in rural regions of the tropics have shown the relationship between gender and knowledge and use of wild edible plants. Sometimes the men know more (10; 13, 17) and sometimes go down (18). Concerning to age, studies have shown increased know- ledge among the elderly [13, 14]. Phillips and Gentry [13] compared how knowledge on food use varies compared to other categories of uses, such as medicinal, e.g., in the community of Tambopata in the Peruvian Amazon. They observed that the knowledge of food use slowly increases with age and, apparently, most young adults and even children already know much of what is edible.
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Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants in Derashe and Kucha Districts, South Ethiopia

Five study sites from Derashe district and six from Kucha were conveniently selected based on vegetation cover and altitudes. Seventy-two informants of different age groups (35 from Gamo, 19 from Derashe and 18 from Kusume) were interviewed. The informants were selected with assistance of agricultural experts and Development Agents (DA) in study areas. The study was conducted using semi- structured interview, field observation, group discussion, market survey and pair wise ranking. To understand local peoples' perception on activities threatening wild edible plants, pair wise ranking [13] was conducted and the number of possible pairs was calculated using the relation N (N-1)/2, where N is the number of factors (activities). Accordingly, five factors threatening wild edible plants were identified with the community. The total number of pairs was determined using the formula, and the ten pairs arranged and presented to informants to choose one from the two threats at a time. Then, the scores from each respondent summed-up, the ranks determined and the factor that received the highest total score ranked first. Specimens of wild edible plants were collected, identified, and deposited at the National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University. Information gathered through semi-structured interview was presented using percentages and ranking. Chi-square (X 2 ) statistical test of homogeneity was calcu-
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Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts

Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts

Numerous publications focused on wild edible plants have demonstrated that wild plants are essential compo- nents in local diet during both drought and years of ad- equate rainfall [21, 22]. For example, a study conducted in Zimbabwe revealed that some poor households rely on wild fruits for a quarter of all dry season meals [21, 23]. In Kenya, utilization of indigenous fruits for consumption and sale was found to be higher among low-income earners and contributed to total household food insecurity coping strategies [24]. In KwaZulu-Natal, a study found that Traditional Leafy Vegetables (TLV) have the potential to contribute to household food security by providing dir- ect access to readily accessible nutrients [25]. Ethiopians possess sound knowledge, traditions, and opportun- ities for using wild plants (including fruits, leafy vege- tables, and starchy roots) as supplements to address the problem of often lacking an adequate and con- stant food supply [26].
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Diversity and Socio-Economic Value of Wild Edible Plants in the Mounts Mandara Region, Cameroon

Diversity and Socio-Economic Value of Wild Edible Plants in the Mounts Mandara Region, Cameroon

To carry out this study, 40 villages were selected along the Mandara Mountains chains, according to the criteria of accessibility, attendance of edible plant exploitation activities, demographic and the presence of some ethnic groups. These villages were gathered in 5 zones as follows: Mokolo; Roua-Plateau Zoulgo; Bourha-Plateau Kapsiki; Hina-Guider; Méri. The investigations were also conducted in 35 rural markets and 8 urban markets in which exploited products were sale. A sample of 1020 people, whose age was between 15 and 60 years, was divided in 486 men and 534 women were interviewed. This interview targeted on: women, the main actors in the use of plant products and recovery; children, actors collecting and picking fruits and, old men who were the holders of information relating to evolution and history of lands. The data were collected during semi- structured talks and of the talks focused on the topics related to the exploitable natural resources. The semi- direct interviews (individual and group) were carried out using an interviews guide and targeted people who had practiced at least once an activity of exploitation and / or marketing of edible plants in the Mandara Mountains. The interview guide included the following topics: knowledge of edible plant species and their uses, consumed parts, their availability, the qualities and quantities of the products collected the mode of exploitation, collection periods, their socio-economic importance, commercialized edible species, marketed parts, prices and places of sale of the product and, the income generated.
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INHIBITION OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) ACTIVITY BY SOME INDONESIA EDIBLE PLANTS

INHIBITION OF ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME (ACE) ACTIVITY BY SOME INDONESIA EDIBLE PLANTS

ABSTRACT: Antihypertensive properties of plant can be evaluated by in vitro method on inhibition of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) activity. In this research, we investigate the inhibitory effect of several common edible plants on blocking ACE activity. ACE activity was evaluated by using N-hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) as substrate and the inhibitory effect of extracts were determined based on the level of hippuric acid by measuring its absorbance using spectrophotometer. Gelatin-salt block test for detection of tannins was carried out prior to the enzymatic assay. Among the extracts tested, Peperomia pellucida L. showed strong inhibitory activity with IC 50 value of 7.17μg/mL, followed by Nasturtium officinale and
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Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study

Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study

A number of wild edible plants are used in traditional rec- ipes. For example, the leaves of Rumex acetosa are used as filling for a traditional pie called 'sambosek'. The leaves of Cyclamen persicum and Salvia hierosolymitana are also used to make 'Za'matoot', and 'Lessaineh', respectively, in which the boiled leaves are filled with rice, minced meat, and condiments and made into rolls before cooked and eaten with yogurt. The inflorescence and leaves of Gunde- lia tournefortii are used to make 'Akoob' in which the inflo- rescence, young stems and leaves are cut, fried in olive oil, then boiled with meat chops until well done, and then a boiled yogurt suspension is added and the mixture is left to boil for a few minutes before the meal is ready for serv- ing. Majorana syriaca is used for preparing a traditional recipe that is very popular in all Palestinian communities called 'za'tar' [37]. The leaves are dried, grinded, mixed with olive oil, sesame seeds, and several other condiments and spices. The mix is then eaten with olive oil and bread.
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Nutritional evaluation of some wild edible plants of Meghalaya State in Inda and their ethnobotanical importance

Nutritional evaluation of some wild edible plants of Meghalaya State in Inda and their ethnobotanical importance

The study shows that the wild edible plants collected from Meghalaya State in India are rich in protein, available carbohydrate, crude fibre and minerals and the results suggest that consumption of such plants in sufficient amount could be used for nutritional purpose of human being and provides adequate protection against diseases caused by malnutrition.

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Underutilized Edible Plants of Nagaland: A Survey and Documentation from Kohima, Phek and Tuensang District of Nagaland, India

Underutilized Edible Plants of Nagaland: A Survey and Documentation from Kohima, Phek and Tuensang District of Nagaland, India

Jaenicke Höschle-Zeledon [34] defined Underutilized crops as “those species which are under exploited for contributing to food security (nutrition- al/medicinal), income generation and environmental services”. They are also re- ferred as “Neglected and Underutilized species”/“Orphan crops”/“Minor crops” [35] [36]. These plants as locally abundant but globally rare, lack of scientific knowledge, has a limited current use relative to their economic potential. They are often presented as “New crops” for the fact that commercial compa- nies/researchers are only recently working on them [37]. Replacing traditional foods by “modern feeding habits” has resulted in the loss of genetic diversity in traditional food species and a decline in cultural diversity [38]. The vast store of information on indigenous knowledge, practices and technologies is being eroded as a result of rapid urbanization, over-exploitation of resources, unscien- tific land use, change of lifestyles and behavior [39]. As reported by Blanco [40], regarding issues of traditional culture the process of oral transmission has bro- ken down and most traditional knowledge can only be found in the memory of the elderly and is gradually fading as these repositories of ancestral knowledge received from parents and grandparents succumb to age. The loss of indigenous knowledge has also been recognized as one of the general factors affecting bio- logical diversity [41]. There is an urgent need for exploration on traditional knowledge of underutilized plant uses, development of database, strategy for conservation through sustainable use and management of the resources and search for new potential plant sources as drugs and food [31] and to support biodiversity conservation programs [27]. Present study has been undertaken to survey and document the Underutilized Edible Plants (UEP’s) from three dis- tricts (Kohima, Phek and Tuensang), Nagaland, India.
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Wild Edible Plants Consumed By Pregnant Women In Buikwe District, Uganda

Wild Edible Plants Consumed By Pregnant Women In Buikwe District, Uganda

ABSTRACT : Pregnant women need adequate nourishing food for the foetus to develop well else, they experience low birth weights and diet related non-communicable diseases. Hence, they will transfer the disadvantages of malnutrition in their own lives to the next generation. Majority of the pregnant women in Buikwe are illiterate, have low incomes and lead miserable lives. Improving diets of these marginalized women requires looking into their natural resource biodiversity to find affordable and sustainable solutions. This study investigated the wild edible plants (WEPs) consumed by the pregnant women in Najjembe sub-county, Buikwe district. It also considered the preparation methods, forms of consumption, knowledge sources, collection sites and constraints to domestication and commercialization of WEPs. An ethnobotanical approach was used and through convenience sampling the respondents were recruited and data collected. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics facilitated by SP SS version 16. Sixty two WEPs were reportedly consumed by the respondents most frequently consumed being; Amaranthus dubius Mart. Ex Thell., Psidium guajava L., Solanum anguivii, Cleome gynandra L. and Mangifera indica L. Traditional methods of cooking were used in the preparation of WEPs. Majority of the reported WEPs comprised fruits and vegetables. Indigenous knowledge on WEPs was mainly obtained from parents and relatives. Radios were reported to play a big role in publicizing the values of WEPs. The wild was the major collection site for WEPs and some species were s easonal. Lack of germ plasm, slow germination rates, low yields, ignorance, lack of land and marginal markets are the major constraints hindering commerci alization and domestication of WEPs. There are no serious regulations governing collection of WEPs from the wild. A diversity of WE Ps exists in this area and if properly utilized by the pregnant women, they can tremendously improve their dietary quality and quantity.
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Ethnobotanical Survey to Perceive the Knowledge of Wild Edible Plants Related to Ecology and Society in Parapram, Kerala

Ethnobotanical Survey to Perceive the Knowledge of Wild Edible Plants Related to Ecology and Society in Parapram, Kerala

The present study is only a preliminary one and helped in documentation of primary data based on the floristic diversity and their utility. The information on the utility of plants in terms of food has been documented by interviewing elderly people. Studies of this kind will help in generating authentic data pertaining to the diversity and utility of plants before it is lost. This survey indicate the importance of wild edible plants in human life and it also shows the need of conservation of plant diversity.

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Chemical Composition, Phenolics, Anthocyanins Concentration and Antioxidant Activity of Ten Wild Edible Plants

Chemical Composition, Phenolics, Anthocyanins Concentration and Antioxidant Activity of Ten Wild Edible Plants

Data on levels of dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, ash and carbohydrates constituents of the wild edible plants are shown in Table 2. Due to limited information that have been found on the chemical composition of the investi- gated plants, in most cases our results were compared to the data reported in the literature, referred to other plants. Dry matter varied significantly among the ten plants ranging from 93.8% (Malva parviflora) to 97.3% (Centaurea iberica). Similarly the protein concentrations (Table 2) varied significantly among the plants rang- ing from 8.6 (Coriandrum sativum L.) to 22.9% (Malva parviflora). The protein concentration of Gundelia tournefortii (14.6%) was comparable with the value reported for the plant before flowering [19]. Other re- searchers reported lower value for this plant, when harvested at the beginning of flowering [20]. The differences could be due to the degree of maturity and environmental factors. The less in Gundelia tournefortii L. samples prior to maturity occurs because of the decrease in protein contents in the leaves and stems that are making up a larger portion of the plant in more mature stages [21]. Levels of fat contents varied significantly among plants as shown in Table 2. Ruta chalepensis (4.2%) had the highest value, while Centaurea iberica, Gundelia tournefor- tii and Rumex acetosella had values among the lowest (1.6%, 1.6% and 1.5%, respectively). Fat contents of Al- falfa (Medicago sativa) (2.6%) and Wheat straw (Triticum estivum) (2.3%) (Karabulut et al., 2006) were lower than those of Arum palaestinum (3.1%) and Ruta chalepensis (4.2%), but comparable to those of Coriandrum sativum (2.8%) and Malva parviflora (2.5%). Gundelia tournefortii (1.6%) contained lower fat level when
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An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia

The vegetation of the area is severely affected by in- creased overexploitation for charcoal production and clearing forests for settlement and agriculture [3]. Some of the woody and grass species are declining such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del., Acacia senegal (L.) Willd., Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Schweinf., Balanites aegyptiaca (van Tieghem) Blatter, Cordia gharaf (Forsk.), Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf. Cenchrus species and Cynodon species are the most affected and young seed- lings are not usually seen growing [1, 10 – 14]. The recent incidents in the Afar region is the invasive encroaching plants; Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. (Woyane), Parthe- nium hysterophorus L. (white top weed), and Cryptoste- gia grandiflora Roxb. ex R. Br. (rubber vine) are taking out multipurpose trees, grassland, and bushes and trans- forming the region to the mono-species thick forest. Prosopis juliflora has an effect on the total biodiversity of the area by reducing their abundance, distribution, and ecological function and replacing grassland and nat- ural forests. It is a cause for the fast disappearing of plants used by the people as medicine and food supple- ments in normal time and during a food shortage. Also, P. hysterophorus and C. grandiflora are a threat to grass- land and livelihood of the people in the region. The vast destruction of the natural habitats leads to a gradual dis- appearance of the associated traditional knowledge of medicinal and edible plants [1, 6, 14–20].
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Comparative analysis of diversity and utilization of edible plants in arid and semi-arid areas in Benin

Comparative analysis of diversity and utilization of edible plants in arid and semi-arid areas in Benin

Many findings highlighted the importance of socio- cultural attributes in the utilization and values that a com- munity gives to plant resources [14-16,18-22]. This is illus- trated in Figures 10 and 12, where socio-cultural attributes are indicated to play an important role in plant use. For instance, in Cluster A1 Modogui, a Nagot sociolinguistic group village stands alone; Aoro-Lokpa and Adjiro, two Lokpa villages, are grouped into the same sub-cluster while Camp pionier, a Ditamari sociolinguistic group stands alone. Cluster A2 is composed of Ditamari and M’Bermé, two ethnic groups that have high linguistic and cultural affinities. These two ethnic groups formed with other minor ethnic groups the Otamari linguistic group. Ditamari (in general term Otamari group) and Lokpa from the Sudanian region are two ethnic groups that are the principal actors of migratory dynamics in Benin [23,36]. Members of these groups are motivated to leave their homes in Atacora because of soil degradation, in search of the virgin and fertile lands [23,36,37]. A more clear trend is observed when considering solely wild species, where Nagot ethnic group stands alone in one cluster, immigrant ethnic groups stand alone in Sudano-Guinean zone and Otamari linguistic group stand alone too. However, socio- cultural attributes are not sufficient to explain trends revealed by the dendrograms. Villages were mainly clus- tered according to phytogeographical regions. Camp pionier, a Ditamari village in Sudano-Guinean, does not group with others Ditamari villages in Sudanian region. Bio-geographical factors also play a role in the choice of edible plants by community as also demonstrated for trad- itional vegetables [24] and for yams’ varietal diversity [23] in Benin. We conclude that there is a complementarity be- tween socio-cultural attributes of community and bio- geographical factors that may explain the choice of edible food plants, especially for wild species. This conclusion is consistent with previous results that had shown that the knowledge and consumption of wild edible plants follows a pattern according to ecological conditions of the gather- ing environments, as well as the cultural heritage of the communities [24,88]. Our results also indicated that when a community moved to a more favourable area (e.g. pre- cipitation, soil, plant diversity), members adapted their choice to the plant resources available. Other variables such as distance to markets and urbanization may also affect the choice of edible plants. But, here we are in a context of smallholders farming, and agricultural activities are mainly oriented towards households’ subsistence. Dis- tance to markets and urbanization were not tested in our study areas which are rural settings.
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TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ON WILD EDIBLE PLANTS AS LIVELIHOOD FOOD IN HILLY REGION OF NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ON WILD EDIBLE PLANTS AS LIVELIHOOD FOOD IN HILLY REGION OF NAINITAL, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

Forest is a common habitat for collection of these plants. Wild food plants species are abundant and diverse in this region. They provide food and nutrients to local people and could also be a source of cash income. The preferred plant species, if documented properly, might be developed as a vital source of income generation as well as nutritional requirements. This type of study could contribute to educate and bring awareness to the young generations as well as urban communities to practice in their daily life about the importance of wild edible plants. These plants can be incorporated in commercial crop plants in future and will tend to minimize food scarcity as well as economy in tribal areas for their livelihood and help in regeneration of barren lands. However, both WEPs and their associated indigenous knowledge are facing various threats. Thus, conservation and sustainable utilization of these plants in this area are of the utmost importance. Documentation of these species may provide basic information for conservation, possibly further.
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Wild edible plants of Jharkhand and their utilitarian perspectives

Wild edible plants of Jharkhand and their utilitarian perspectives

The wild edible plants (WEPs) form an important constituent of traditional diets of the tribal community of Jharkhand. Most of the rural populations residing in different parts of Jharkhand depend on plants and their parts to fulfil their daily needs and have developed unique knowledge about their utilization. The present study has been conducted to document the indigenous knowledge related to the diversity and uses of wild edible weeds in day to day life of tribal in Jharkhand. A total of 77 different herbs, shrubs, and small trees have been recorded belonging to 38 families of which 73 are edible either as a vegetable or as medicine or in both forms directly or after proper processing. The common wild edible herbs frequently distributed in the study area are Hemidesmus indicus R. Br. (51 quadrats out of 134) and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (47 quadrats out of 134). Similarly, the most frequent edible shrubs are Clerodendrum viscosum Vent., nom. superfl. (40), Lantana camara L. (35), Croton oblongifolius Roxb. (34) and Flemingia stobilifera (L.) R.Br. (20). The diversity of WEPs in Jharkhand has found to be depleted due to their over exploitation and unsustainable harvesting for foods, medicines as well as because of various other biotic interferences including grazing, herbivory and anthropogenic fire. Therefore, there is an urgent need to conserve these valuable Wild edible plants (WEPs) and use it in a sustainable manner to ensure future demand. Besides, further research is also warrant to explore the therapeutic potentials as well the nutritive values of WEPs, so that, it can give a scientific basis for the further development of herbal drugs and traditional foods.
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Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug resistant Gram negative bacteria

Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug resistant Gram negative bacteria

Consequently, we focused one of the objective of our research group at investigating the antibacterial poten- tials of such plants against MDR phenotypes. In previous studies we demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of many Cameroonian dietary plants against MDR bacte- ria [6-9]. In our continuous search of the antibacte- rial activities of Cameroonian edible plants, we designed the present work to determine the activity of seven se- lected Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratis- simum and Tamarindus indica) against MDR Gram- negative bacteria.
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Utilization of wild edible plants by paliyar’s tribe of sadhuragiri hills, tamil nadu, india

Utilization of wild edible plants by paliyar’s tribe of sadhuragiri hills, tamil nadu, india

The scientific research conducted inside the forests reported, forest as a natural habitat of the wild edible plants such as cereals, fruits, tubers and vegetables. Wild edible plants play a very important role in the livelihoods of rural communities as being an integral part of the subsistence strategy of people in many developing countries. Locally available wild genetic resources can be used for new crop species development. In many parts of the world, wild plants are obtained from forests or wild areas are designated for extractive resources and managed by local communities. Food plants serves as alternatives to staple food during periods of food deficit and are the valuable supplements for a nutritional balanced diet one of the primary alternative source of income for many resource poor communities, and the source of species for domestication [7].
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Wild edible plants in Yeşilli (Mardin-Turkey), a multicultural area

Wild edible plants in Yeşilli (Mardin-Turkey), a multicultural area

Use categories and cultural importance of wild edible plants We classified the wild edible plants into eight categories. The category with the most plants was vegetables (46 taxa), followed by medicinal plants (17 taxa) and fruits (14 taxa) (Fig. 4). The CI index value of vegetables was 42.71% of the total CI, followed by medicinal WEPs 20.28%, fruits 15.12% and beverages 7.10%. The maximum number of use reports was recorded for vegetables (1011) (Table 3). The life forms of wild edible plant taxa include mainly herbs (74.32%, 55 taxa), followed by shrubs (17.56%, 13 taxa) and trees (8.1%, 6 taxa) (Fig. 5). According to the CI index, the most important vegetable taxa were Lepidium draba (CI 0.96), Anchusa strigosa (CI: 0.88), Sinapis alba (CI: 0.83), Gundelia tournefortii (CI: 0.80), Notobasis syriaca (CI: 0.80), Onopordum carduchorum (CI: 0.80), Malva neglecta (CI: 0.77), Urtica dioica (CI: 0.72), Rosa foetida (CI: 0.65), Crocus cancellatus subsp. damascenus (CI: 0.61), Nasturtium officinale (CI: 0.50) and Amaranthus retroflexus (CI: 0.40). The most common fruit consumed by the locals were Ficus carica subsp. carica (CI: 0.96), Crataegus azarolus var. azarolus
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