In addition to the pre/post testing framework common in economic educationresearch, physics education researchers often look closely at the actual process of learning in individual students, employing “think aloud” protocols where researchers observe and record (orally and visually) students engaged in solving a physics problem on a particular concept. 7 Historically, this effort began with dissatisfaction about student learning in introductory physics courses and the recognition that there were serious gaps between what instructors were teaching and what students were learning. Understanding the gap between what is taught and what is learned is a key focus of physics educationresearch. The knowledge gained from this micro-level research often leads to innovative new pedagogies, teaching resources, and assessment processes that systematically improve student learning. If successful, these new practices are then re-tested at different
While the study briefly reported on in this paper is admittedly very small and much more investigation is needed, the policy-makers’ responses reveal potential for generative and transformative strategies for the teacher educationresearch community to consider and then utilise to strengthen the research– policy connection. Positioning ourselves as ‘defenders’ to date does not appear to work. Zeichner et al. (2015) offer an alternative position and agenda, a third group, known as ‘transformers’ – a mix of stakeholders working in and across a variety of settings. The study itself is an attempt to contribute to a ‘transformational’ teacher education agenda by using research (currently unhelpfully positioned from an ‘either/ or’ perspective) in a more inclusive ‘both and also’ approach consistent with a ‘transformative reframing’ (Ellis & McNicholl 2015, p. ix).
relevant content analysis studies (cavas et al., 2012; de Jong, 2007; tsai & Wen, 2005; White, 1997) have revealed that within the most recent decades, science educationresearch has been under the auspices of the qualitative paradigm. undeniably, the justifications for this originate with methodological pragmatism. topics of interest in science education have changed dramatically since the early 1960’s and 1970’s, foreshadowing the need to understand phenomena in its immediacy, rather than risk generalization of an outcome to a population without similar, if not identical characteristics. during the early years, researchers were more interested in theory verification or testing to provide evidence as dictated by various reforms or outside entities. many were studying the effects of different types of science curricula or methods of instruction on student achievement. as such, perspectives regarding student learning, conceptual understanding and other variables have influenced this change. many interests evolved into the study of classroom experiences and related science education programs. each experience is often set in its own particular context, thus requiring a research method to reflect a deeper understanding of the situation. Jenkins (2000) argues that the qualitative paradigm has augmented the stronghold of the quantitative tradition because of its ability to define otherwise undetectable subtleties within educational teaching and learning. this could have considerable implications for those interested in explaining any number of factors related to student achievement or other high-stake areas. Given the multitude of highly contextualized settings that exist in science education today, understanding multiple paradigmatic viewpoints within research can offer to further explain such areas without threatening the integrity of empiricism.
A deeper understanding of student habitus and the effect on them of institutional systems and environments can assist with the quest to support, accommodate and facilitate the engagement and learning of diverse cohorts. This paper presents only a preliminary introduction to Bourdieu’s complex work and is intended as an initial investigation into the possibilities it presents for engineering educationresearch. Bourdieu’s challenge to English readers regarding the adoption of his theories (contained in his 1998 work Homo Academicus, as cited by Robbins, 2004) can be extended to engineering educators as a call to adopt or adapt this theoretical framework for underpinning new research methodologies and analyses of engineering education phenomena.
Strengthening the scientifi c workforce has been and continues to be of importance for every state in America, including the state of Illinois. Preparing an educated workforce to enter Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) occupations is important for economic development and competitiveness, as “without a robust STEM workforce, we [the United States] will become less competitive in a global economy” (Carenvale, Smith, and Melton, 2011, p. 6). The STEM workforce contributes to the nation’s capacity in research and design, scientifi c innovations, and technological advancements. Expanding STEM participation at all education levels, in addition to successful postsecondary STEM outcomes, is also important for reasons of equity given that certain groups are underrepresented in the STEM fi elds, including women, students of color, fi rst-generation students, and low-income students.
discourse In searching for some sort of understanding as to what separates postgraduate and research study from preceding stages, the arguments presented so far are formulated through hierarchies reflecting the assumption that higher education represents the highest learning and the esteemed pinnacle. Such a view invites the idea that we humdrum beings should leave the complications of society to those best equipped via qualifications to lead and solve on our behalf, a short step to fascism or even eugenics. Hierarchies then appear an inadequate approach and unable to capture the essence of the experience. Better perhaps to begin from the concept that it is the uniqueness of the unravelling of an issue that creates the distinction, the usual ‘contribution to knowledge’ definition for doctoral study, rather than an arbitrary construction of a learning order? It is interesting to note that almost half of doctoral candidates fail to claim that their theses have contributed to knowledge (Gibney, 2013). The uncovering of the research process has an inevitable aspect of insularity and an expectation from supervisors of increased independence (Gardener, 2008). Grover (2007) sees this as a developmental process of stages of exploration, engagement, consolidation and the final exit of entry (unfortunate term. He means entry as transition to career outcomes). This is a revealing model in that the emphasis is less on subjective interpretations of engagement to one of enhanced self-awareness within an uncovering process informed by insight however determined. Green and Macauley (2007:317) refine this to ‘acknowledging when information is needed, acquiring and assessing information, and converting information to knowledge all distinguish essential performances expected of postgraduate students’. Again, the emphasis is upon process informed by self-
Pre-candidates have many risk factors impeding their progress, including racial minority, older age, lower incomes, and part-time enrollment status. Pre-candidates face financial challenges and difficulty completing prerequisites, including the Illinois Basic Skills Test. Many have other responsibilities (e.g., work and childcare) that do not allow them to attend full-time. Policies directed at reducing the ﬁ nancial burden (e.g., scholarships, loan forgiveness for community service, subsidies for books, need-based grants, and subsidies for internet access) and decreasing work/class time conﬂ ict (e.g., free childcare services, ﬂ exible schedules, online or condensed courses, and trading intern hours at institution’s childcare for childcare services) would likely increase the number of full-time students, thus accelerating the production of Early Childhood Education graduates eligible for certiﬁ cation. At the graduate level, the pipeline of ECE teachers is slow due to the number of students attending part-time for ﬁ nancial reasons. Most graduate students fund themselves without receiving ﬁ nancial aid or support. Anticipated increased requirements for Early Childhood teachers to obtain an English as a Second Language (ESL) credential by 2014 will put additional strain on the pipeline of qualiﬁ ed ECE teachers. Providing funding opportunities, particularly for Hispanic students, would increase the number of students attending full-time and speed up the ﬂ ow of students graduating with advanced degrees in Early Childhood Education.
Emilia-Romagna Region has chosen to promote this contract, that allows young people to access the labour market. Therefore the Region invests in training and offers incentives to enterprises that hire apprentices. This makes it easier for companies hiring young apprentices and investing in training as a key feature to enhance the employment relationship. There are three apprenticeship types: apprenticeship for the achievement of a diploma or a vocational qualifi cation, professionalizing apprenticeship and higher education and research apprenticeship.
Discussing research conducted using qualitative methods is somewhat more diﬃ cult than research em- ploying quantitative approaches, as the later is based on a positivistic philosophy and oﬀ ers clear points of evaluation. Qualitative methods are more current and less utilized; they were developed in the social sciences as a philosophical reaction to positivism. Even though it is necessary to take into consideration several diﬀ er- ences in interpretive approaches, the call for increased use of qualitative and mixed methods is rather unequivo- cal (e.g. Bocarro & Richards, 1998; Neil, 2003; Martin & Leberman, 2005). This reﬂ ects the real up to date need for the generation of a theory inherent to the ﬁ eld of experiential education.
ensuring those who opted out of round one were still approached for round two. It is unclear how this impacted the final findings. Participants will be encouraged to give reasoned feedback on their choices of MRI proficiencies. The answers provided will be sifted by the research team with filtered reason feedback supplied alongside the round two questionnaire as statements.
managed if not completely eliminated? Can the teacher be better equipped to transact the curriculum, motivating students to be active participants? Can integrating educational apps be the answer to overcome these challenges? India isn‘t among the early adopters of technology in the education sector but the scenario has changed with access to high speed broadband internet, low cost computers, tablets and mobile devices. Chaplot, Vivek (2016) opined that the effectiveness of e-Learning has increased considerably over the last few years as he reviewed the development of e-Learning products and e-Learning opportunities among students. He recommends it to be one of the most promising areas of education and training. However, he observed that rural students fall back due to lack of mobile devices and the ones to benefit the most are on-campus students. Having found favour with its users, e-Learning can now pave the path for app-based learning whether native, web-based or hybrid or whether offline, online or both In a study taken in China, where Zhang, Jinlong & Liao, Boqin (2015) deliberated on the opportunities (mobile terminal and wireless network, the use habit of the user, mobile learning and online education market) and the challenges (imbalance of development, poor quality and unclear business model) of educational apps, they proposed ‗educational apps fit the demand for portability and contribute to the learning style on the fingertip‘. Further, Francois, Uwizeyimana‘s (2016) ‗anywhere, anytime learning‘ actuated the authors‘ search for opportunities that will mobilise the educational app revolution in India. Is it easy to integrate educational apps in our teaching-learning environment? Is this a myth or can this be for real? If this is real, what then are the opportunities that aid integrating apps in the classroom to reach the goals of education? An opportunity is a time or a set of circumstances that makes it possible to do something. The authors believe that the current scenario has many circumstances which are opportunities to integrate educational apps in our classrooms. These are categorised into three major areas, represented as ‗TIP‘ for Integrating Apps in the Classroom and explained in Figure 1.
At the Web site of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry you can learn about many aspects of a career as a child psychiatrist. Click on the bar labeled training and you can read about the education and training required to become a child psychiatrist and the job opportunities that are available.
As previously established, process and praxis approaches to curriculum are inherently inclusive, but they only form a model of curriculum and should be supported by learning theory to further inform practice. Therefore, my focus is to foster a classroom environment that fuses constructivism and connectivism, that is to plan lesson activities that promote active participation, collaboration and student-led construction of knowledge with the aid of appropriately selected technology that meet the needs and expectations of my learners and do not treat learners as ‘empty vessels’ to be filled by a transfer of knowledge (Freire, 1970). In turn, this approach supports a hybrid process-praxis curriculum focussed on the means of education and critical action upon reflection. The proposed approach could be considered a ‘transformational curriculum’, one in which technology influences what we know and how and when we know it, meaning that the planning of teaching and learning and the curriculum need to change also, to reflect the influence of technology (Attwell & Hughes, 2010). Therefore, at this point I will evidence the importance of technology to this inclusive pedagogical approach, from which it should be readily apparent how the embedding of technology syncs with a process-praxis
complete all ERC research activities involving access to the data warehouse. Th ese renewal contracts, however, were rendered moot by the passage of House Bill 2103 (Eighty- third Legislature, Regular Session) which amended the provisions of Section 1.005. Th e primary change made by this legislation was the removal of TEA as a joint partner with THECB in the administration of the ERCs. Th e former Joint Advisory Board, co-chaired by TEA and THECB, was turned into an advisory board chaired by the Commissioner of THECB (and with another formal THECB representative). TEA and TWC, in contrast, were granted a single representative on the advisory board. Th e advisory board also contains a representative from K–12 education—selected by the THECB Commissioner—as well as any other members the THECB Commissioner elects to appoint. In addition, each ERC has a member on the advisory board.
2013, Spring Research Assistant for Prof. Thad Hall. Compiled a profile of Senator Charles Grassley, focusing on his position as Chair of the Senate Finance Committee and the investigation of six megachurches. University of Utah, Political Science.
adequate training or resources. Regarding teacher training many teachers in mainstream schools think that the education of students with AS lies outside their responsibility as they feel teaching lessons concerning social and life skills is the work of special education teachers. In order to avoid barriers to these students’ learning and participation, there is a need to shed light on teachers’ perceptions and beliefs. As far as resources are concerned technology enhanced education has been a major trend in recent years so there is a significant body of research in the area of digital technologies and Asperger syndrome. There is limited research, however, into the use of Interactive Whiteboards (Interactive equipment used in conjunction with a laptop and a projector to incorporate software, Internet links and data projection) in relation to pedagogical practices in foreign language classrooms and especially children with AS. At the same time with the inevitable proliferation of new technologies in the classroom the role of the teacher is changing. Teachers who are enthusiasts have immediately integrated IWBs, others have been cautious and a few have ignored them. As Wheeler (2001) states some teaching resources become obsolete, computer based testing will make older forms of assessment redundant, teaching strategies and resources can be shared through the internet. Therefore, teachers, including those of children with AS must begin to reappraise the methods by which they meet children’s learning needs.
challenges of providing optimum health services. It is essential that patient-focused clinical care needs are reflected in the development of educational models that ensure versatile “fit-for- purpose” health professionals. Similarly, the need to develop specialised training and career pathways for clinical translational researchers is critical for delivering on national health research policy. This current ETR Committee, by bringing together representatives of the education, research and health service sectors represents a significant initial step in reaching this goal. The OECD Review of the Irish Public Services identified the importance of long-term workforce planning. A joint HSE/DoHC Strategy for Workforce Planning has recently been published. This forms the basis for meaningful workforce planning for the health service in the future. In addition, the Expert Group on Future Skills Needs has recently published a workforce analysis tool which will facilitate the health service in assessing supply and demand in a range of healthcare professions. The coordination of workforce planning with financial and service planning is fundamental in designing future health services. It is also crucial that supply and demand figures for the range of healthcare professional groupings are taken into account in devising and planning education and training courses for healthcare professionals, from undergraduate level, through postgraduate level to continuing professional development. This will ensure appropriate skills maintenance and development at appropriate levels and in relevant clinical settings. The evolving roles of healthcare professionals and the constant development of new techniques and technologies highlight the need for constant up-skilling, skills extension and the consequent need for formal educational credentialing to ensure versatility and flexibility in the workforce. These factors also highlight the importance of synchronising education for health care on a partnership basis to ensure that education, training and research are responsive, in a timely manner, to the needs of patients.
Introduction: Educational research has its prime aim to improve the process of education. Research is an essential and powerful tool in leading man towards progress. Research is a systematic, controlled and empirical procedure to seek hidden facts emphasizing prior planning which envisages the quick and systematic pattern. Research is the soul of higher education and of progress in modern society. Research must be a culture in institutes of higher learning to make India globally competitive. Research reminds us immediately of an analytical and dedicated mind, a global outlook, scientific discipline and intellectual curiosity. Most of the researches have primarily been of academic nature and rarely attempts have been made to conduct studies having policy implications.
Generally, it was noted that ZAMREN as NREN in Zambia it is providing affordable rates of internet services to both private and public learning institutions as well as research organisations.For instance, affiliates, researchers and students are using non-HPC applications to download and upload text documents via ZAMREN network quickly and affordably. ZAMRENalso provides capacity building to its affiliates in forms such as seminars and workshops. Additionally, it is a key participant in ICTs initiatives, innovations, programmes and projects both locally and regionally. For instance, ZAMREN is a stakeholder in last mile fibre project spearheaded ZICTA. It is a Government of Zambia project undertaking of laying a backbone fibre country wide in a bid to make internet connectivity easily available and affordable to the citizen in turn spur development through ICT. Therefore, it can be described as a vital ICT tool in Zambia which fosters, enhances and promotes education over the internet.