In this paper, we study long-run electricitytransmission cost functions based upon a definition of transmission output in terms of point-to-point transactions or financial transmission right (FTR) obligations. We build on the HRV (2007) model which combines merchant and regulatory approaches in an environment of price-taking generators and loads. 3 The HRV model also shows that FTR-based cost functions exhibit very normal economic properties in a variety of circumstances. This particularly holds if the topology of all nodes and links is given and only the capacity of lines can be changed, implying that abnormally behaving cost functions require changes to network topology. 4 We study in more detail these conclusions, and test the behavior of FTR- based cost functions for distinct network topologies. We focus on two basic cases. In the first we adjust line capacities, but nodes, lines, impedances and thus the power transmission distribution
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the role of the Swiss electricity transmis- sion system and the planned network extensions in the context of the Central European electricity market development and thereby the Swiss and European energy transitions. While there are several studies that predict market develop- ments under varying conditions only few have a detailed network representation. By utilizing a Swiss market model capturing transmission constraints as well as detailed hydro interdependencies we evaluate the impact of network investments in Switzerland and its neighboring countries on the electricity markets. We base the analysis on the Energy Strategy 2050 scenarios (Prognos AG, 2012), the EU Energy Roadmap to 2050 (European Commission, 2013), and the planned Swiss and European network extensions of the TYNDP and conduct a sensitiv- ity analysis of delayed grid investments. Albeit focusing on numerical simula- tions the analysis will also provide insights into the socio-economic discussion on social acceptance of investments related to the energy system. By deriving a quantification of potential costs and system stability impacts due to delayed net- work investments, we can identify whether the currently observed lag in many energy investments poses a threat to achieving the envisioned energy transitions.
Full ownership unbundling for transmission system operators solves above mentioned problems and has the following advantages: (i) it solves inherent conflict of interest, promotes transparency and inspires trust in third parties; (ii) transmission system operators focus on efficient operation and network expansion; (iii) security of supply is enhanced because investment disincentive is removed; (iv) producers focus on efficient production and on new customers e.g. outside home markets; (v) better focus increases equity value; (vi) better investment climate for new entrants is created; (vii) easier (cross-border) transmission system operator cooperation and mergers; (viii) dominant non European Union suppliers cannot purchase networks (The Commission staff working document, 2007).
The transition from vertically integrated utilities to the liberalized electricity market happened only a while ago. The performance of the regulated monopolies was often questioned. In developing countries the sector was characterized by low labour productivity, poor service quality, high system losses, and inadequate investment in power supply facilities. High operating costs, construction cost overruns on new facilities, and high retail prices required to cover these costs were the main drivers for changes that would reduce these costs. In order to use the resources more efficiently competition in generation and supply has been introduced. Privatization of transmission companies, combined with budget constraints imposed on regulated network companies, provided cost-reducing incentives and improved service quality.
One of the major drawbacks in current power distribution system is the losses during the transmission of electrical energy. As the demands of power are increasing conveniently, power generation also increases and this leads to increase power loss during transmission. Our present transmission system is only 70-74% efficient this means about 1/3 of our generated power is waste in distribution . Now-a-days global scenario has been changed a lot and there is tremendous development in every field. So we have to keep pace for development of new power technology. The transmission of power without wires may be one noble alternative for electricitytransmission.
For several years the electric power transmission section in the Nigerian power sector has been saddled in the government established organization. Time to time the government would restructure the organization to perform the task for power delivery. Several reforms have been made to better the service delivery but to no avail in terms of adequate power generation, transmission and distributions to the end users. Currently, the different sections in the power sector are managed by companies as the names imply, Genco for Generation section, Transco for transmission section and Discos for distribution section. The reform paves way for the Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN) to take over from Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN). It was incorporated in November 2005 and was licensed to transmit power in July 2006. The license involves activities such as electric power transmission, the operation of the power system and trading of electricity . Presently, the transmission capacity of the Nigerian ElectricityTransmission System is composed of about 5,523.8 km of 330 KV lines and 6, 801.9 Km of 132 KV lines. The grid power network in the power transmission sector is made up of generators, transformers, transmission lines, capacitor banks, switchgear, steel towers, protection system, etc., .
Wireless power transmission (WPT) depicts the transmission of electricity without using any physical medium such as wire. WPT is an old idea, as old as use of electricity. The experiments performed by Nikola Tesla in 1899 captured the imagination of young engineers even nowadays when we witness the proliferation of transmission methods previously deemed unfeasible, now being made commercially viable by advances in electronic devices manufacturing. This paper is about the well-known transmission methods as well as latest method yet to be implemented as technology. The most common wireless electricitytransmission is based on strong coupling between electromagnetic resonant objects to transfer energy wirelessly between them. This is different from other methods like simple induction, microwave propagation, or air ionization. The system in it consists of transmitters and receivers that contain magnetic loop antennas critically tuned to the same frequency. Due to the operation in electromagnetic field, the receiving devices must not be more than about a quarter wavelengths from the transmitter .Unlike the far field wireless power transmission systems based on traveling of electromagnetic waves, Wireless Electricity employs near field inductive coupling through magnetic fields similar to those found in transformers except
A Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is an electrical device for provide quick acting reactive power recompense on high voltage electricitytransmission networks. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is a versatile flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) device which can be used to control active and reactive power flows in a transmission line. It utilizes a pair of three-phase controllable bridges to create current that is inserted into a transmission line using a series transformer. The UPFC utilises solid state devices, which provide functional flexibility, generally not achievable by conventional thyristor controlled systems. The UPFC is a blend of a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) coupled through a common DC voltage link. The UPFC concept was defined in 1995 by L. Gyugyi of Westinghouse .
for investment in expanding the grid derive from the rebalancing of the fixed and variable portions of the tariff. Vogelsang postulates transmission cost and demand functions with fairly general properties and then adapts regulatory adjustment processes to the electricitytransmission problem. For example, under well-behaved cost and demand functions, appropriate weights (such as Laspeyres weights) grant convergence to equilibrium conditions. 4 A particular criticism of this approach has been that the properties of transmission cost and demand functions are little known but are suspected to differ from conventional functional forms. Hence Vogelsang’s assumed cost and demand properties may actually not hold in a real network context with loop-flows. Furthermore, a conventional linear definition of the transmission output is in fact difficult since the physical flow through a meshed transmission network is complex and highly interdependent among transactions (Bushnell and Stoft, 1997, and Hogan, 2002a, 2002b).
In our present electricity generation system we waste more than half of its resources. Especially the transmission and distribution losses are the main concern of the present power technology. Much of this power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the consumer. The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated. This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is only 70-74% efficient. We have to think of alternate state - of - art technology to transmit and distribute the electricity. Now- a- days global scenario has been changed a lot and there are tremendous development in every field. If we don’t keep pace with the development of new power technology we have to face a decreasing trend in the development of power sector. The transmission of power without wires may be one noble alternative for electricitytransmission.
The objective of this project is to propose a steel lattice tower for electricitytransmission system and analyze it under various loads thereby designing and checking the proposed members for failures. The tower is to be located in the city of Kasouli , Himachal Pradesh. Safe and economic design of steel transmission tower using the software tool STAAD.pro 2008. The height of the tower is 25 m. The number of cables supported by this tower is 7.
3. An indication of possible future development of the system. The description of the technical potential for new connections and greater use of the system shows a SYS at its most strategic and forward looking. The focus is on the future shape of the transmission system as a whole, taking into account current and possible future trends, such as the expansion of renewable sources of energy. For instance, a SYS can indicate the most favourable locations for new connections and increased capacity on the network, because of more favourable geographical, environmental or technical conditions, and, conversely, can indicate where there are serious limitations for development. Proposals for development that are in line with these signals are likely to find applications for consents easier to negotiate. So although actual development will rely upon customer initiatives, a SYS provides an influential guide, which represents proactive, long-term thinking on the part of the licence holder. In SEA terms, this can be defined as policy, the “inspiration and guidance for action” (Wood and Djeddour, 1992, page 8). SEA could provide an assessment of the broad environmental implications of new connections and increased use of the network. This would then give signals to customers about the most environmentally acceptable options for development.
A schematic setup of the system is as shown above. It consists of a chain and sprocket assembly, weights, bearings and a supporting plate. The chain used is of 3000mm length and is mounted on 5 sprockets. The position of sprockets is adjusted in such a way that they allow the chain to rotate freely without any disturbances in-between. The sprocket shafts are of 38mm diameter and are press fitted inside the bearings. The bearings used are of standard dimensions of 38mm inner diameter and are mounted inside the supporting plate. Shaft of one of the sprocket is connected to generator through transmission system. The transmission system used may be chain driven or gear driven which transmit the motion of sprocket to the generator. A 300-watt 12v 300rpm generator is used which is suitable to charge a 12v battery effectively. 5 Weights of equal mass are attached to the chain by replacing the chain pin with a nut and bolt as shown in figure. These weights have equal spacing of 600mm in between them. The imbalance produced due to these weights gives motion to the chain drive assembly.
In developing countries, recent trend is to adopt High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission in the existing AC transmission system to gain its techno-economical benefits. In restructured electricity market, accurate prediction of electricity spot prices have become an important activity to address the system operations and price volatility in the marketplace. Electricity pricing i.e. Spot pricing is a market-pricing approach used to manage the efficient use of the transmission system when congestion occurs on the bulk power grid. Most of the methodology is either on AC or DC system and its implementation. Since AC real power system is not mainly revamped with DC system because of advantages of HVDC system, it developed suitable AC-DC based OPF methodology and its implementation on real power system. The aim of this paper is to model AC-DC OPF based electricity spot pricing and its implementation on standard IEEE 57 Bus System and Real power system. The results are simulated both for standard IEEE-57 Bus system and also for real network 400 kV MSETCL. Finally the results obtained are compared at several possible conditions like addition of 765 kV AC transmission lines, impact on Bus voltages and optimal electricity spot prices.
operational costs incurred by the distribution network owner may be internally eﬃcient but may inadvertently limit the ability of DER to contribute to system wide and transmission related issues. The potential for conﬂict between the actions of the transmission System Operator and a DNO is also becoming increasingly apparent. For example, a DNO may have given an ANM-related connection to a DG that also partici- pates in the transmission system balancing mechanism. There is the risk that if that DG reduces its output in response to a bid acceptance by the SO, the automated ANM scheme will respond by allowing increased output at other actively managed generators. A similar potential con- ﬂict arises in respect of DG with a contract to provide the transmission system operator with short-term reserve services where a short-notice increase in generation is required from time to time. This requires headroom on both the generator providing the reserve and on the distribution network between the generator and the interface between transmission and distribution. Under existing ANM schemes, there will be occasions where the reserve cannot be delivered due to distribution constraints (National Grid, 2016c). New arrangements for coordination between transmission and distribution are required and will necessitate changes to regulatory and commercial frameworks that must be driven by policy makers.
Bilateral trading in electricity is one of the typical deregulated power market trading methods and it has its own way to calculate and allocate congestion cost. In this paper, using as a practical bilateral structure example, the British electricity market is stated in details especially the operation mechanism and the methodology of imbalance settlement. A corresponding congestion cost allocation method for bilateral market is introduced briefly by equations and is simulated in a modified IEEE-14 bus model to investigate its pros and cons.
For smooth supply chain and to provide competitive business environment, electricity power industry across the world is deregulated and liberalized. Due to deregulation in electricity markets diverse participants are involved like producers, intermediates, speculators, traders, consumers hence the electricity market price and traded volume is the result of many interacting factors combined within complex and nonlinear forms. Unlike any other traded commodities, electricity power cannot be stored hence any un-utilized demand is lost which is the unique feature in this market that drives extreme volatility and large stochastic dynamics into the future electricity price hence forecasting becomes very difficult (Ramirez et al ., 2010), (Malo et al., 2009), (Wang et al. , 2013), (Norouzzadeh et al ., 2007), (McArthur et al. , 2013). Also additionally peak demand and supply shortages drive extremely high price volatility due to the complex, non-linear wholesale electricity market dynamics. Hence with all these factor combination,
The transmission system in Nigeria system does not cover every part of the country. It currently has the ca- pacity to transmit a maximum of about 4000 MW and it is technically weak, thus very sensitive to major distur- bances. Major problems associated with transmission systems include poor funding by the Federal Government, it is yet to cover many parts of the country, it’s current maximum electricity wheeling capacity is 4000 MW which is awfully below the required national needs, some sections of the grid are outdated with inadequate redun- dancies as opposed to the required mesh arrangement, regular vandalization of the lines, associated with low level of surveillance and security on all electrical infra- structure, technologies used generally deliver very poor voltage stability and profiles, there is a high prevalence of inadequate working tools and vehicles for operating and maintaining the network, there is a serious lack of required modern technologies for communication and monitoring, transformers deployed are overloaded in most service areas, inadequate of spare parts for urgent maintenance, poor technical staff recruitment, capacity building and training programme .