In this paper, we present a project of the University of Kent Graduate School that utilises this paradox of playfulness and creativity. LEGO ® is used in workshops to explore doctoral students’ emotions around the complex and solitary experience of a PhD research. We argue LEGO ® is uniquely generative for exploring emotionwork. After a brief overview of the background and context to the doctoral training workshop, we provide a brief review of emotionwork. We then describe the LEGO ® workshop we developed for our students, before explaining our approach to data collection and analysis. We then present our results, using verbatim statements from conversations with students around their LEGO ® models. We present the interconnected building elements of height, walls and positioning, which are particularly impactful in highlighting the emotionwork with LEGO ® models. We connect the findings to a brief discussion in relation to the literature around emotionwork. We have found that LEGO ® ’ bricks structure, solidity, and variety ensure its openness to metaphorical investment and promote the creation of narratives. Thus, building LEGO ® models enabled participants to engage creatively with routinization of practices and emotionwork, as well their positive support networks. We conclude with final thoughts on the value of LEGO ® and steps for further developing the existing workshop.
These men thought that making any effort to do emotionwork was sufficient for living up to expectations for the companionate marriage (Rubin 1992, 1994). They managed to hold that belief while failing to do intensive caring work. As Victor said earlier, he did what he could. Some of the men made use of the term “we” to suggest they provided emotional and instrumental care to their partners. Chad told Julie, “We’re in this together,” but Julie did not believe him. Nick said, “We can handle this.” This suggests that the men believed they were doing their part as companionate partners. Vince remarked that he “tried to be understanding about it. Sometimes I wasn’t as understanding as I could have been by making her feel worse about the whole thing. And, maybe [I] got a little frustrated that I ended up dealing with the kids more because of it...I really tried.” He was not successful, but at least he had made the effort. Men’s lack of success at caring work did not harm their sense of competence as men because success at emotionwork is not a signifier of masculinity.
The second hypothesis was to explore the Manager’s emotion work’s predictive impact on burnout in a manufacturing scenario. The data indicated that EmotionWork and Burnout were significantly related, Zapf et al (2001) had also showed a unique contribution of emotionwork variables in the prediction of burnout. Most previous researchers have analysed the relationship between specific aspects of emotionwork (mostly emotional dissonance) and emotional exhaustion. Emotional Exhaustion is a key component of burnout (Pugliesi, 1999; Wharton, 1993; Kruml and Geddes, 2000). A strong statistically significant correlation between Emotional Dissonance and Burnout is corroborated by several studies; Abraham, 1998; Brotheridge & Lee, 1998; Grandey,1998; Kruml & Geddes, 1998; Morris & Feldman, 1997; Nerdinger & Ro¨per, 1999; Zapf et al., 1999, 2001. The moderate yet negatively significant relationship between Emotion Control and Burnout (r= -0.225*, p=0.014) could be explained by the fact that Emotion control for organizational purposes can also be referred to as Display Rules (Ekman & Friesen, 1975; Rafaeli & Sutton, 1989; Wharton, 1993). Since Display rules are non- existent in most manufacturing set ups, it is likely that Managers will welcome emotion control of some sort, as dealing with ‘organized chaos’ or a wild array of emotions with no formal structure – could understandably, be stressful. It could be inferred that Managers of this study showed an aversion to emotional autonomy. There have been a few other studies such as Sarkar & Suresh (2013) and Kovacs et al (2010) that uncovered a significant relationship between Emotion Control & psychological well-being (the theoretical opposite of burnout). The emotional compliance with organizational and social requirements is likely to lead to a predictable emotional display, which reduces the possibility that an embarrassing interpersonal
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.106057 892 Psychology superiors and lack a sense of belonging to their organizations. The positive emo- tions conveyed by direct leadership have a greater impact on their work status and are more susceptible to positive emotional fluctuations. The positive emo- tions of leaders can determine the positive level of employee’s emotions and the Influence becomes a greater extent, which in turn affects their performance and CWB. According to the results of data analysis, we can easily find that the direct effect of the mediator model is significant only under the moderating of leader- ship justice, and when there is no leadership justice to play a moderator role, the leadership positive emotion’s effect are based on the positive emotions of em- ployees. The model of leadership positive emotion affecting the employee’s CWB-S is a complete intermediary model. That is to say, in the group with low leadership fairness, the employee’s CWB-S not only influenced by the indirect effect of the employee’s own positive emotions, but also influenced by the direct effect of the leadership positive emotion. The lower sense of leadership justice will increase the effectiveness of direct influence of leading positive emotions. According to emotions as social information theory analysis, it is find that the potential cause of this phenomenon is that for the employee groups with higher leadership fairness, their own emotional and behavioral decisions is based on both the infection path and inferred path for the leadership positive emotion in- formation. The influence of leadership positive emotions is a comprehensive product of employees’ rational decision-making and perceptual deci- sion-making. For groups with low leadership fairness, their own positive emo- tions and behavioral decisions are more likely to follow the trajectory of the emotional infection path when they influenced by the leadership positive feel- ings they feel. They have higher possibility to deal with leadership positive emo- tional information just in the form of the most direct infection, but not deep analysis, so that they generate the same positive emotions compared with their leader, and reduce the emotional CWB that opposite to the type of leadership positive emotions.
In recent years, the eastern part of China has suffered numerous large-scale continuous fog and haze, which seriously impact people’s production and life. In present research, a combination me- thod of questionnaire and experiment is used to discuss whether the hazy weather could influence the emotion and if there are any impacts on the work efficiency. 2 (gender) × 3 (emotional type: positive, neutral and negative) completely randomized design is used and the reaction time (RT) is analyzed. The results show that 1) hazy weather truly induces the negative emotion, e.g. depres- sion and anxiety; 2) the interaction effect of emotion and gender is significant; the RT of females is significantly longer than males’ in negative emotion condition; for females, RT in negative emotion condition is significantly longer than that in positive and neutral emotion condition, which shows that the hazy weather would lead some inefficiency.
Fitting in within the work environment therefore involves more than just being able to do the job from a technical perspective (Muller, et al., 2003). Supervisors are often looking for employees who fit in and who are not considered to be too difficult. Often this means that people with disability, in this case ASD, are not considered for positions in which they could perform well with some accommodations. Individuals who are not able to adequately perform the required emotionwork in their place of employment will find that they will suffer a penalty. The experiences of the participants above demonstrate how severe these outcomes can be.
But this is only part of the analytic story. To understand how the women in this study dealt with such a difficult life event, it is important to recognize that they learned to cope collectively with their disease. And it is here that the stress and coping literature falls short. Existing research in the area does not give much insight into the processes through which people learn to help one another cope with the stressful circumstances or events in their lives. Although this has long been identified as a problem with this body of literature, it continues to be ignored. In an overview essay, Pearlin (1989), for example, argues that most of research in the area presents coping as taking place in a social vacuum, and goes on to implore researchers to remedy this problem. Even so, work in the area continues to be criticized for focusing more on the outcomes of various coping strategies than on the processes through which they occur (Young 2004; Thoits 1995).
Sixty high-pleasure, low-arousal pictures chosen from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) were presented to induce positive emotion . The IAPS provides pictures standardized on the basis of ratings of valence and arousal and the details of pictures used in the present study are shown in Table 1. The valence and arousal of each picture were measured by the Self- Assessment Manikin (SAM), which range from a smil- ing, happy figure to a frowning, unhappy figure when representing the valence dimension, and an excited, wide-eyed figure to a relaxed, sleepy figure when repre- senting the arousal dimension . The range of scores is from 1 to 9, with 1 being the most unpleasant or re- laxed and 9 being the most pleasant or excited. For both valence and arousal, 5 is considered neutral. The valence of the chosen pictures ranged from 6.40 to 8.05, and the arousal ranged from 2.44 to 5.35, showing that these pic- tures were high pleasure with low-arousal. The categor- ies of these pictures included 10 pictures of happy parents with children, 10 pictures of smiling infants, and 10 pictures of cute animals. The remaining 30 pictures were beautiful natural scenery (such as beaches, moun- tains, and flowers). Each picture was also evaluated by participants of the present study using the SAM (Table 1). The mean valence and arousal of all pictures were 5.84 ± 0.93 and 4.17 ± 0.65, respectively, and showed that the participants of the present study also evaluated these pictures as pleasure with low-arousal.
with an obstetric service) explored midwives’ balance of risk with enabling women’s control over birth. This study included a discussion of midwives relationships with their neighbouring obstetricians and the reasons behind women’s choices to birth there over the hospital obstetric unit. This study is now over 20 years old and was carried out within an American Birth Centre. Whilst many of the issues Annandale identified are similar to those facing such centres and midwives in the UK, there are significant differences in the USA’s healthcare services organisation, funding and maternity care culture which means the findings can not be easily applied here. The second study is a Masters dissertation which reports on a small ethnographic study of an Alongside Midwife-led Unit in England (Newburn 2009). Newburn’s dissertation explores the development of the unit and ‘what the birth centre care meant to the women and men who opted for it, and to the midwives working there’ (Newburn 2009: 11). Despite its limitations of time and space, this study gives an interesting preliminary account of the workings of the unit and the motivations of those who choose to work and birth there. Neither of these projects compared midwives’ work within different institutional work spaces to explore the effects of different unit models or locations on midwives’ daily practice and their relationships.
The report documents findings from a study on practice assessment panels and focuses on decision making around social work students deemed to have failed their practice placements. The report briefly documents major developments in English social work education as well as the current context of practice learning within England. The report goes on to highlight concerns around the robustness of practice education, in particular the apparent reluctance by practice educators to fail social work students in practice learning settings and details how the research under discussion emerged out of this existing research. The practice assessment panel, a feature on many UK social work education programmes, is often a key site of decision making but to date, has not been the subject of any academic inquiry. The report documents original research which aimed to explore practices around PAPs as well as decision-making processes when issues of marginal or failing students arose. The research utilises a dual-strand methodology: an online survey sent to social work education providers in England and an ethnographic study.
Risk is conceptualised in this study as a discursive construct in social work, thereby positioning this research within an idealist and constructivist-subjectivist paradigm (Crotty 1998). In a sense I have regarded risk as a language artefact. That is, I have taken the view that meanings of risk in social work are generated by how they are spoken of between individuals (such as practitioners, clients and administrators) and within the context of wider networks of power, such as within institutional contexts, including the legal system and health and welfare systems (Weedon 1997, p. 105; cf. Sarangi & Candlin 2003). Meanings of risk in social work can thus be understood as being in a constant process of discursive production (Weedon 1997, p. 105; cf. Sarangi & Candlin 2003) whilst simultaneously discursively producing ‘social reality’ (Healy 2000, p. 39). Hence for the purpose of this research I have assumed that risk predominantly acts as an idea or ‘way of thinking’ (Parton 1996, p. 98) that influences how the things that come to be associated with it (such as people and events) are recognised and responded to. This viewpoint has enabled me to link the conceptual dimensions of risk, that is, the idea of risk with how it is recognised and experienced in embodied aspects of social workers’ interventions.
This study examined the effect of psychological work climate and emotional intelligence on teamwork among Nigerian workers. One hundred and sixty participants were drawn from the University Teaching Hospital in Ado-Ekiti. The participants were made up of 65 males and 95 females. The Index of Organizational Reaction Scale (IOR), Work Group Function Scale (WGFS) and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQ) were used to gather data from the participants. Four hypotheses were tested, it was established that psychological work climate and emotional intelligence has an effect on teamwork. For effective teamwork to be achieved at the work place emotional intelligence is to be developed and a favorable psychological work climate created.
Mohr et al. (2006) explain that state that job strains can be classified into psychological strains, physical strains, and behavioral strains. Behavioral strains is an individual’s way to face stress by reducing stress-emitting emotion (e.g. alcohol drinking, work avoidance) or eliminate the stress itself (e.g. talking to supervisor, and solution development), a form of behavioral strains such as yelling at workmates, sitting at home and not going to office, and reducing the work quality and quantity equivalent to CWB, including role ambiguity, work conflict, workload, organizational constrains, and interpersonal conflict (Bruk-Lee and Spector, 2006; Galic and Ruzojcic, 2017). Some studies above can help explain that employees’ work stress tend to cause them to commit deviant action as their emotion has led to being negative. Thus, hypothesis 4 can be made as follow:
Due to the fact that most User Interfaces (UIs) today are textually based, research focused on text affect detection can play a significant role in improving current UIs and making them more socially aware. Several approaches have been undertaken for emotion detection in English including machine learning algorithms , keyword spotting, lexical affinity, hand-crafted models  and symbolic methods . In Arabic, most work has focused on text classification based on topic rather than on affect . Also, little work exists for sentiment analysis in the Arabic language . However, as far as we are aware, no published workexists for emotion classification in Arabic, and the only work that could be classified under this category is that of .
The goal of this paper is to propose an efficient system for recognizing the five emotions of music content. First step is to analyze the musical feature MFCC and mapped them into five categories of sad, happy neutral, angry and fear. Secondly auto associative neural network is adopted as a classifier to train and test for recognition the five emotions and compared with the support vector machine. This paper is organized as follows: A review of literature on music emotion recognition is given in Section 2. Section 3 explains the MFCC feature extraction process from the input music signal. Section 4 gives the details of AANN model for emotion recognition. Section 5 explains the SVM model for emotion recognition. Experiments and results of the proposed work are discussed in Section 6. Summary of the paper and the future directions for the present work are provided in the last section of the paper.
Most existing work does not consider the rela- tion between an emotion word and the cause of such an emotion, or they simply use the emotion word as a feature in their model learning. Since emotion cause extraction requires an understand- ing of a given piece of text in order to correctly identify the relation between the description of an event which causes an emotion and the expression of that emotion, it can essentially be considered as a QA task. In our work, we choose the memory network, which is designed to model the relation between a story and a query for QA systems (We- ston et al., 2014; Sukhbaatar et al., 2015). Apart from its application in QA, memory network has also achieved great successes in other NLP tasks, such as machine translation (Luong et al., 2015), sentiment analysis (Tang et al., 2016) or summa- rization (M. Rush et al., 2015). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work which uses mem- ory network for emotion cause extraction.
Emotional intelligence enables one to learn to acknowledge and understand feelings in ourselves and in others and that we appropriately respond to them, effectively applying the information and energy of emotions in our daily life and work. Cooper and Sawaf (1997) define emotional intelligence as the ability to sense, understand and effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions as a source of human energy, information, connection and influence. Mayer and Salovey (1993) define emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and action. Emotional intelligence involves the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotions; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thoughts; the ability to understand emotions and emotional knowledge and intellectual growth.Emotional intelligence is the set of abilities that accounts for how people’s emotional reports vary in their accuracy and how to move accurate understanding of emotion leads to better problem solving in an individual’s emotional life. Emotional intelligence can be defined as the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion and regulate emotion in the self and others (Mayer and Salovey, 1997). The term Emotional Intelligence encompasses the following five characteristics and abilities as discussed by Goleman (1955).
Understanding emotions in the workplace has been of interest to management scholars for more than a decade (Daus and Ashkanasy, 2005; Salovey and Mayer, 1990). Research has examined a range of diverse issues such as the role of affective experience in work motivation (Seo et al., 2004), and the challenge of handling emotional interaction among members of multicultural teams (Von Glinow et al., 2004). Recently, empirical and theoretical studies of emotional intelligence, such as the empirical relationship between leader emotional intelligence (EI) and transformational leadership (Barbuto and Burbach, 2006; Brown and Moshavi, 2005; Leban and Zulauf, 2004), the impact of EI on organizational change (Huy, 2002), and the link between EI and job satisfaction (Sy et al., 2006) have been explored. However, emotions and emotional labour have received little attention in the context of family business. Emotion has been hailed as the missing ingredient in understanding organizational life (Fineman, 2004). Hochschild’s elegant appeal makes the point:
a vector of real numbers where each vector represents ratios of counts. Several EME approaches have been proposed, most of them making use of term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf)[2, 3]. In the tf-idf scheme, a basic vocabulary of “words” or “terms” is chosen, then for each document in the corpus, a frequency count is calculated from the number of occurrences of each word [2, 3]. After suitable normalization, the frequency count is compared to an inverse document frequency count (e.g the inverse of the number of documents in the entire corpus where a given word occurs-generally on a log scale, and again suitably normalized). The end result is a term- by-document matrix X whose columns contain the tf-idf values for each of the documents in the corpus. Thus the tf-idf scheme reduces documents of arbitrary length to fixed-length lists of numbers. For non-textual content, tools are available to extract the text from multimedia entities. Bougiatiotis and Giannakopoulospropose an approach that extracts topical representations of movies based on the mining of subtitles. In the context of this work, we focus on two research axis of the EME research field: Semantic topic detection (STD) and sentiment/emotion analysis (SEA).