Enterprise Application Integration

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A Process Model for Enterprise Application Integration: Case for a Customs Department

A Process Model for Enterprise Application Integration: Case for a Customs Department

As business enterprises develop independent information systems, it is realized that the disparate applications, dealing with distinct business domains, cannot communicate with each other. A number of problems often arise in such case, including duplication of datasets, integrity of data, and inconsistency of reports generated. Re-developing these applications as one way to solve these problems may not be prudent. It is better to find ways of using existing databases and applications rather than recreating the same business processes and data repositories. There is therefore need to find ways of integrating disparate applications into a unified set of business processes. In addition, internal applications need to share data with external applications belonging to organizations with which it is important to share some business data. These challenges have led to the emergence of Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), the unrestricted sharing of data and business processes among any connected applications or data sources.
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A conceptual framework for the implementation process of enterprise 
		application integration (EAI) in Government

A conceptual framework for the implementation process of enterprise application integration (EAI) in Government

A study conducted by Local Government Authorities (LGA) in the UK has found many ‘non- integrated’ IT infrastructures [4], [5] in e-government project implementation. This disintegrated nature of information systems (IS) has resulted in inconsistent and redundant data of poor quality with less data integrity and with over-reaching maintenance and operational costs [6]. Therefore, the nature of applications developed independently must be integrated in order to perform versatile functions in the government field. Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) technology has proved its worth by offering a solution for seamless integration of the existing applications without disturbing the existing functionality [7].
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TIGRA - An architectural style for enterprise application integration

TIGRA - An architectural style for enterprise application integration

Before we started the T IGRA project, our financial institution performed application integration in a rather ad-hoc man- ner. The IT department for trading had to implement, main- tain and integrate about 120 different applications. Due to a lack of an enterprise application integration approach, most of these applications had two or more direct interfaces with other applications. There is, and probably never will be, a common trading data format that every application supports. Therefore each interface was unique, which lead to large in- terface development costs: developing an interface required between three and ten person years of effort and took be- tween one and three years. Neither the development costs nor the time that was needed to integrate new applications were acceptable any longer.
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Recent Trends and Challenges in Enterprise
Application Integration

Recent Trends and Challenges in Enterprise Application Integration

Enterprise application integration (EAI) is the use of technologies and services across an enterprise to enable the integration of software applications and hardware systems. Many proprietary and open projects provide EAI solution support.EAI is related to middleware technologies. Other developing EAI technologies involve Web service integration, service-oriented architecture, content integration and business processes.Intercommunication between enterprise applications (EA), such as customer relations management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM) and business intelligence is not automated. Thus, EAs do not share common data or business rules. EAI links EA applications to simplify and automate business processes without applying excessive application or data structure changes. However, EAI is challenged by different operating systems, database architectures and/or computer languages, as well as other situations where legacy systems are no longer supported by the original manufacturers.
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A Case Study on Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Using Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)

A Case Study on Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Using Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)

The adapter module acts as a service connector to connect various software services and systems such as ERP or CRM. A service adapter, very similar to a hardware or software driver (e.g. printer driver, database driver), uses the native transaction interfaces in the proprietary service to transfer messages between the service container and the service. ESB solution providers provide a range of service adapters for various systems and services. The mediation module transforms protocol, message format, and message content between the requesting service and the service provider. Mediation is critically important for the system integration because services on the ESB use different protocols and data formats. The mediation module is implemented using the XML-based transformer components which are configured through XSL (Extensible Style sheet Language). More complex transformers are required to invoke other SOA services or query database.
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Top-Down Enterprise Application Integration with Reference Models

Top-Down Enterprise Application Integration with Reference Models

In summary, the Meta-CDL model serves as a shared description (could be compared to the 'canonical data model' in federated database systems (Sheth & Larson 1990)) to which the forwa[r]

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An Approach for Integration of IT Services for a Big Enterprise
              Application

An Approach for Integration of IT Services for a Big Enterprise Application

Enterprise application integration is another answer for fabricate endeavors adaptable data framework, where applications, information and business forms are coordinated. Based on application reconciliation and information mix, business process the board acknowledged in procedure dealer assumes the center job in EAI. Extricating the business procedure streams from applications kept up by practical offices is a promising way to deal with accomplish the adaptability of big business data framework. It has been pulled in more consideration of clients, analysts and merchants. Alongside the advancement of Web Service innovation and the development of SOA, ESB, the EAI advances will be increasingly impeccable and progressively institutionalized. The application connectors are utilized to understand the correspondence among applications and EAI stage. The information joining in EAI is a sort of coherent information mix, which furnishes worldwide information mappings with applications for change between private information organizations to the open arrangements characterized in EAI. In spite of the fact that GAV and LAV has their benefits and disadvantages separately, creators imagine that the LAV is an all the more encouraging technique since it priors the worldwide information pattern to the private information in applications utilized for unique capacities. For business process the executives, it is a significant bearing of the examination and use of EAI. In any case, the depiction and demonstrating of business procedures ought to be additionally institutionalized.
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A development and integration framework for optimisation based enterprise solutions

A development and integration framework for optimisation based enterprise solutions

Abstract: The operations research literature includes some papers describing collaborative work between researchers and industry. However, not much literature exists that outlines methodologies to guide the development of a de- cision support module and its integration into an existing information management system. Here we describe a framework to aid the collaborative development of an optimisation solution by researchers and information system developers. The proposed framework also helps in the effective integration of the information manage- ment system and the decision support module. The framework is divided into three main components: a data model, a data extractor and validator, and a solution visualisation and auxiliary platform. We also describe our experience and positive results from applying the proposed development and integration framework to a project involving the development on an optimisation-based solution for workforce scheduling and optimisa- tion problems. We hope that this contribution would be particularly useful for less experienced researchers and practitioners who embark on a collaborative development of a decision support module based on optimisation techniques.
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Towards the integration of enterprise software: The business manufacturing intelligence

Towards the integration of enterprise software: The business manufacturing intelligence

The information that circulates in company reduces uncertainty, costs and enriches products. Products and services are increasingly information-intensive. Nowadays, inside the enterprise, intangibles resources (brand, logo, reputation,..) are important. Even physical products is dematerializing and incorporating an high informative content. People don’t have more interest in the physical phone but in all value-added services that revolve around it (ringtones, logos, wap). The after-sale, online assistance and various updates make more attractive the extended product (Kotler, 1988). This immaterial content is well integrated with the flow of business information and it is processed by intelligent techiniques of Knowledge Management (KM) that support strategic decisions (Choi and Lee, 2002). The system of Knowledge Management is integrated with the culture and business strategy and in particular with business processes (Alavi and Leider, 1999). KM manages all type of information: structured and unstructured. Enterprise Information System (EIS) currently processes only structured information that correspond to 20% of the information that circulate in the company; the remaining 80% is unstructured information (Tan, 1999). From the annual survey Teradata 2006, on a sample of about 1200 managers from 23 countries (56% from the Americas, 23% from Asia- Pacific and 21% from Europe, Middle East and Africa –EMEA-), 70% of interviewees who work in America and Asia-Pacific and 36% of interviewees of EMEA said that the use of unstructured data, can be an high competitive advantage to support decision and enterprise business.
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A fuzzy set model for assessment of a perspectives level for integration of new materials in industrial enterprise processesa

A fuzzy set model for assessment of a perspectives level for integration of new materials in industrial enterprise processesa

Among the topics of scientific publications on this subject, there are several main trends. Some authors focus their attention at the development of new production technologies, for example, additive technologies, computer engineering, laser material technologies, etc. Gressa & Kalafsky [1] study the influence of additive technologies on the global structure of demand and consumption, that is, the study subject is the long-term economic effect resulted from the introduction of additive technologies in production. Cozmei & Caloian [2] emphasize the capital capacity of additive productions concluding that the additive technologies development will invariably lead to the global improvement of the taxation system. Gebler, Schoot Uiterkamp & Visser [3] agree with them, they see the purpose of additive technologies in increasing the company's profit through the use of consumer surpluses, thanks to the construction of a flexible production system that implies the custom orders production. The consequences of the additive technologies integration into the real economic sector, in particular, the increasing level of different types of risks, were the subject of Mellor, Hao & Zhang' study [4], who stated that one of the significant risks is almost unlimited capabilities in the field of final product use.
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Information integration – an essential pillar in e government development

Information integration – an essential pillar in e government development

Even if ERP systems are becoming increasing widespread, they alone are not the answer for the government collaboration challenge, since they automate and streamline internal business processes. The efforts should be oriented toward a comprehensive government solution for achieving collaboration and process integration across different public entities. The purpose is to accomplish horizontal integration of data across multiple lines of business by integrating government processes, disparate back- end applications, ERP applications and data into a seamless enterprise environment. Moreover, using collaboration tools public entities will achieve people (employees, citizens and companies as well) interoperability, without regard for organizational boundaries.
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CREF4.09-218-v2.0_SUBI Integration with IntelliSpace PACS Enterprise

CREF4.09-218-v2.0_SUBI Integration with IntelliSpace PACS Enterprise

At times, the user requests an exam without images in IntelliSpace PACS. When the exam queried by the user does not have any images in it, to allow the user to have access to the patient Timeline, the user is presented with the option to load alternate exams with images in IntelliSpace PACS. This will only occur when the query finds an exact match for the parameters passed in; however that exam does not contain images. If a user selects an alternate exam, a red warning banner message is made visible at the top of the viewer to remind users that they are not viewing the exam they selected from the EMR application.
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Using Ontologies for Enterprise Architecture Integration and Analysis

Using Ontologies for Enterprise Architecture Integration and Analysis

This paper raises the hypothesis that ontologies can contribute for solving the described problem. Ontologies describe a domain model by associating meaning to its terms and relations. A more formal and widely used definition is that of Gruber who defines an ontology as a "formal specification of a conceptualisation" [16]. Several authors recognize ontologies and associated techniques as being valuable tools in the enterprise architecture domain [17][18][19][20][21]. Enterprise architecture can benefit from the available knowledge and techniques, which can improve model creation, extension and validation, through an explicit semantic definition of the concepts present in different meta-models [22].
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IHE cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging: interoperability testing software

IHE cross-enterprise document sharing for imaging: interoperability testing software

As mentioned earlier, two different approaches for testing are identified and discussed in [15]. The com- mon approach to healthcare system testing is the Upper-Lower Tester. Using this approach, the system under test communicates with a Lower Tester via a spe- cific communication protocol, and with the Upper Tes- ter being the user or the business application under test. Although this approach is widely used, it suffers from many limitations: it usually allows the testing of one sys- tem and one message at a time. In other words, the test- ing environment does not simulate the working environment in which communication between multiple applications take place by exchanging a series of mes- sages in order to collaboratively conduct a business pro- cess. Even when this approach is expanded to test a choreography, e.g. more than one message between more than one system as in [14], it still suffers from the lack of business level testing that can be achieved with the actor based testing. An actor is an application that has specific business responsibilities and communicates with other actors according to constrained messages that all cooperating actors agree on. Actor based testing allows the construction of an environment that simu- lates the real operation environment in which the sys- tem under test is expected to operate. Actor based testing does not suffer from the limitation of the Upper- Lower Tester. However, it requires the business process to be specified in terms of profiles between actors with identified responsibilities.
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Cloud based Testing Techniques (CTT)

Cloud based Testing Techniques (CTT)

Load testing is used for creating heavy user traffic and measuring its response. It also tunes the performance of any application to meet certain standards. On the other hand, Stress Testing helps to determine ability of application to maintain a certain level of effectiveness [13,14]. For any application, it is essential to work even under excessive stress and maintain stability. Stress testing does this by creating peak loads using simulators.

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SAP HANA on Google Cloud Platform                 (Research Paper Based on Quantitative Approach)

SAP HANA on Google Cloud Platform (Research Paper Based on Quantitative Approach)

Abstract SAP HANA is an in-memory, column based, relational database management system (RDBMS) created and showcased by SAP. It's essential capacity as database server is to store and recover information as requested by the applications. Moreover, it performs advanced analytics (spatial data processing, predictive analytics, streaming analytics, graph data processing, text analytics, text search) and includes ETL capabilities as well as an application server. The key distinctions between HANA and previous generation SAP systems are that it is an in-memory, column based database that combines OLAP and OLTP operations into a single system. Storing data in main memory rather on disk provides faster data access and, by extension, faster querying and processing. This article aims at explaining what SAP HANA Express Edition is and how it can be implemented using Google Cloud Platform.
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The application of commercial enterprise to the construction of railways

The application of commercial enterprise to the construction of railways

It is a curious and instructive fact this, and one which we realize more and more as we study the railways of these countries, that no shareholder can look for a satisfactory dividend on[r]

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Enterprise Application and Delivery in Cloud Computing

Enterprise Application and Delivery in Cloud Computing

 NetSuite-NetSuite is a pure cloud solution provider and claims to be the enterprise systems leader in the cloud. NetSuite ERP is dedicated to mid-sized to large companies and currently has approximately 10,000 customers. NetSuite ERP’s main functionalities are accounting, manufacturing, fulfilling, billing, and payroll. NetSuite also provides a platform, Suite Cloud, which is used by a community of 4,000 developers. With tools such as workflow management, application development, and integration services, Suite Cloud helps developers create applications, which are sold through the online store SuiteApp. The latter currently contains 1,000 applications. NetSuite also has a partner network; Accenture is an official reseller, while Yammer! has developed instant messaging services, and Google has integrated its Google Apps.
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Highlighting the Gaps in Enterprise Systems
Models by Interoperating CGs and FCA

Highlighting the Gaps in Enterprise Systems Models by Interoperating CGs and FCA

From this starting point, Conceptual Graphs (CGs) enabled us to focus on the meta-objects and their relations, through CGs’ simple concept → relation → concept nature [6, 14]. Furthermore we could make use of CGs [Type-Label: Referent] components in each CGs concept. To identify gaps and missing mean- ing (semantics) and in line with previous work, FCA (Formal Concept Analysis) was then applied through the CGtoFCA algorithm [1, 7, 8]. The outcome is then presented as a Formal Concept Lattice (FCL). A CG was produced for each layer [6, 14]. Each layer has a meaning its own right given their distinctive head- ings (i.e. Value, Competency, Service, Process, Application, Data). Our intention was thereby to capture each layer as a modular ‘semantic unit’ in its own right. The result for the Value Layer in the EIM is accordingly shown in Fig. 1.
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A Web‐Based Instructional Module for Research and Learning in Design and Analysis of Enterprise Systems

A Web‐Based Instructional Module for Research and Learning in Design and Analysis of Enterprise Systems

An overview of a web site for an instructional module on enter- prise integration and supply chain management topics is offered. The design of the web site facilitates implementation of both learn- ing and research components of the proposed web development framework. The dissemination of information from simple to com- plex topics pertaining to a research category satisfies audiences with discerning knowledge needs. The information presented in its cur- rent form on the web site is incomplete. Additional information for various research areas is still being collected, organized, and associ- ated with various learning models. For this purpose, a better job of dissemination of information is required. In future, it is hoped to link live applications through the web site.
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