Environment and Trade

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Trade, Environment Quality and Income in MENA Region

Trade, Environment Quality and Income in MENA Region

in these industries (Copeland and Taylor 2004). In this context, it should be noted that the differences in environmental policy and differences in factor endowments might jointly determine the comparative advantage in trade. It is clear that impacts of trade liberalization on environmental quality depend on, among other factors, jointly by differences in pollution policy and differences in factor endowments, which leads to two competing theories in question.Lucas, et al. (1992), study the toxic intensity implied by the composition of manufacturing output in a sample of 80 countries, and find that a high degree of trade distorting policies increases pollution in rapidly growing countries. Harbaugh et al. (2002) analyzed report in passing a beneficial impact of trade on the environment, after controlling for income. Dean (2002) found a detrimental direct of liberalization for a given level of income, via the terms of trade, though this is outweighed by a beneficial indirect impact via income.

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TRADE OPENNESS, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT: THE CASE OF GHANA

TRADE OPENNESS, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT: THE CASE OF GHANA

Another hypothesis explaining environmental degradation (pollution) especially in developing countries is the pollution haven hypothesis. The pollution haven hypothesis states that, regulations of the environment will move polluting activities of tradable commodities to poorer countries. It predicts that with globalization and trade liberalization, multinational firms in advanced countries where environmental regulations are strict will shift the production of their pollution intensive commodities to regions (developing countries) where environmental regulations are laxer.

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The landscape model: A model for exploring trade-offs between agricultural production and the environment

The landscape model: A model for exploring trade-offs between agricultural production and the environment

Many models simulate fi elds or regions, some simulate particular fl uxes, say water from land to rivers. It is rarer to fi nd models that try to integrate several of the impacts of farming in the landscape, and those that do adopt a relatively empirical, data-driven approach (Jackson et al., 2013; Tilman et al., 2001) that makes it dif fi cult to ex- plore the interactions between components of that landscape that might be better managed with a more holistic overview. It is rarer still to fi nd models that make explicit spatial and temporal linkage between adjacent fi elds and integrate all aspects of the managed farm environ- ment up to the catchment level. Such a model would be useful to under- stand the spatial interactions and impact of the natural (weeds, pest and diseases) as well as management (irrigation, fertilizer and application of pesticides) events on an agricultural landscape. Our aim is to develop a spatially explicit model that can simulate the essential processes of soil, water, crop growth and biodiversity for agricultural landscapes in the UK. This model can then be used to understand the trade-off between farm management practices on farm economy and the environment. The ability to quantify such trade-offs is critical to our management of the landscape and underpins many sustainability frameworks including the three pillars of sustainability (environmental, economic and social), the UN Sustainable Development goals which includes several targets that relate to agricultural landscapes (Gil et al., 2017), and water- energy-food nexus approaches that aim to consider the use of all of these resources. While tradeoff models exist (e.g. see Sharps et al., 2017) they usually operate at large scales, not accounting for the fi eld or farm scale at which land management decisions are often made. These models are often focussed on land-use options within GIS-based systems, operate on annual time-scales and can be focussed on policy. Our approach, and ultimate aim, is to simulate interactions between the multiple processes that take place in agricultural fi elds and the farmed landscape with a view to uncovering strategies for development and improvement of agri-environmental systems, beyond the current envelope (Fig. 1). By working on a daily time-step we can simulate the processes and inform the decisions that someone who manages land will have to take.

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Trade Openness, Domestic and Foreign Investments, and the Environment

Trade Openness, Domestic and Foreign Investments, and the Environment

main innovation is the decomposition of investment into domestic and foreign components to gauge the extent by which their respective effect on the environment differ. The only study that differentiates foreign and domes- tic investments to our knowledge is conducted by Yong, Brosig and Chen (2012) [12] on Chinese provinces over the period 1992-2008. For many countries, income, investment and pollutant emission series display per- sistence over time. Thus, the specification of the model should allow for rich dynamic adjustments and accumu- lation processes. We also address the endogeneity of income, trade and domestic and foreign investments. Eco- nomic activity brings about changes in environmental quality through the physical scale of production. It is also generally believed that public demand for environmental quality increases with per capita income. In the pres- ence of democratic institutions, a stronger demand for environmental quality should bring about stricter envi- ronmental regulations which in turn should impact on real income. For instance, output growth cannot be sus- tained indefinitely if environmental degradation exhibits irreversibility (Arrow et al. 1995) [13]. As such, one would expect national income and environmental quality to be determined simultaneously (Tahvonen and Kuu- luvainen 1993 [14]; Van Ewiijk and Van Wijnbergen 1995 [15]; Stern et al. 1996 [16]) and this is why Coondoo and Dinda (2002) [17] argue that causality between income and environmental quality is not unidirectional.

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Trade and Environment - Essays on Pollution Haven Hypothesis

Trade and Environment - Essays on Pollution Haven Hypothesis

Issues related to international trade and the environment have been debated since the early 1970s. Some of the issues focused on the impacts of environmental policies on international trade. One study of GATT (the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade), the predecessor of the WTO (the World Trade Organization), reflected the concern that environmental policies could become a new form of protectionism 1 . Many trade agreements in the 1990s included environmental considerations – for example, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Uruguay Round of the GATT. In 1999, President Clinton’s Executive Order 13141, Environmental Review of Trade Agreements, required that the United States “factor environmental considerations into . . . its trade negotiating objectives.” The opponents of trade liberalization argue that the concentration of pollution-intensive production in poor, developing countries that have less stringent environmental regulations would cause negative impacts to the environment and developed country consumers will enjoy the pollution- intensive goods at a lower price due to the underestimated pollution costs. The phenomenon of concentration of pollution-intensive production in certain countries or areas to take advantage of the less stringent environmental regulations is usually referred to as the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH).

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Trade Reform, Environment and Intermediation: Implication for Health Standard

Trade Reform, Environment and Intermediation: Implication for Health Standard

Broadly speaking general health standard and health related problems are intertwined with the environmental standard of a country in particular. And on the other hand the nexus between trade and environment related issues are in the forefront of economic research for quite a long time. Huge numbers of papers are produced concerning the world wide panic of environmental degradation that may arise due to non-usage of environmentally sound technology of production. Trade theorists more often than not look at such concerns from the perspective of globalization. A representative sample consists Anderson and Neary (1992), Barrett (1994), Beghin et al (1997), Conrad (1993), Copeland (1994), Hoel (1997), Markusen et al (1993), Motta and Thisse (1994), Neary (2005), Rauscher (1994, 1997), Ulph (1997), Ulph and Ulph (1996) et al. Surprisingly a relatively less attempt (Chaudhuri and Mukhopadhyaya, 2011; Biswas et al, 2012; Chung and Chung, 2012) has been made to analyze an important aspect of developing economy in particular and world economy in general, corruption which naturally co-exists with trade and environment related problems. Therefore trade and environmental issue must have some inference for health standard of an economy which is almost a neglected area of research.

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WTO agreements and dimensions of india’s foreign trade: food security,  water and environment

WTO agreements and dimensions of india’s foreign trade: food security, water and environment

insists to establish a fair and market oriented system through the process of negotiations of commitments on support and protection through operational rules and disciplines in the areas of market access, domestic support saged that progressive reduction in agricultural support and protection over an agreed period of time would result in correcting distortions in world agricultural markets resulting in greater r member countries particularly the developing There are many studies on impact of trade liberalization and WTO agreements. They show that the At present we are in the position to view seriously the impact of increased Indian foreign trade on three important and closely related areas that are food security, water and environment. Study on the impact of foreign trade on these areas becomes need of the hour on the following verely threaten by stagnant food production; shrinking in food production area; slow down in yield of food crops; overall slow down in the growth of agriculture; and, increase in absolute size of lability is decreasing sharply in the recent years; and, widespread water conflicts occur among water using sectors. Environment becomes another important area which is closely connected with the external trade. Because, every production discharges residual, and thus increased production with the view to export definitely brings pressure on the environment. Thus the study aims to view the size of external agriculture trade in the liberalized era through WTO agreement; to examine the change in direction d pattern the trade; to investigate impact of the trade on food security, water and environment; and to suggest policy measures to ensure the Indian food security, protect water resources and save the environment through trade is carried out in this direction. In order to get clear picture of impact of foreign trade on the above respect, a comparative analysis is done between two periods ie. before the implementation and

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Trade and the Environment with Heterogeneous Firms

Trade and the Environment with Heterogeneous Firms

Initiated by Bernard and Jensen (1995), a large body of literature has emerged that uses census data to analyze the characteristics of individual firms which consistently finds that firms within any given industry differ substantially in almost all dimensions (Bernard et al., 2003, and Baldwin and Gu, 2006), including systematic differences between exporting and non-exporting firms within the same industry (e.g. Pavcnik, 2002; Bernard et al., 2007). In response to these findings, theoretical models have been developed to examine the role of firm heterogeneity in international trade, the most seminal being Eaton and Kortum (2003) and Melitz (2003). While different in assumptions regarding market structure, the two models find that trade liberalization affects different firms in different and contradictory ways. Trade liberalization introduces additional competition, driving the less productive firms in an industry out of the market and allowing the more productive firms in the same industry to expand and become exporters. This “selection mechanism” has important implications for a country’s productivity gains from trade liberalization that cannot be accounted for if firm heterogeneity is not considered. We believe that this “selection” of firms that comes with trade liberalization may also have important consequences for the environment.

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Trade and Environment: Do Spatial Effects Matter?

Trade and Environment: Do Spatial Effects Matter?

exporter/importer countries, the higher the supply/demand of/for exports/imports will be. The coefficients of population are generally believed to be positive: for example, the higher the population of an importer country, the more imports it will be willing to accept, other things equal; the higher the population of an exporter country, the higher it may export because of economies of scale that it may benefit from. But it may also a case that exporter country with higher population may export less because of self-reliance behavior, that is, relative importance of domestic consumption. This is why the coefficient of POPi can be regarded as ambiguous. A slope parameter of DISTij is expected to be negative because it is a proxy that represents economic distance between countries, i.e. a term that captures trade resistance. The coefficients for all dummy variables included into the model, from LNGij to SEAij, are anticipated to be positive. The reason for this is that if, say, two trading partners share the same language (LNGij=1), then it is likely that the exporter may easily explore the market of trade partner and will export more goods to that country than to other countries.

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EOQ in fuzzy environment and trade credit   Pages 133-144
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EOQ in fuzzy environment and trade credit Pages 133-144 Download PDF

Now-a-days, the offer of credit period to the retailer for settling the account for the units purchased by the supplier is considered to be the most beneficial policy. In this article, an attempt is made to formulate an economic order quantity model under fuzzy environment where delay in payment for the retailer is permissible. The demand rate, ordering cost and selling price per item are taken as triangular fuzzy numbers. The α-cut representation method is used to calculate the optimum cycle time and total optimum cost. The optimum cycle time and total optimum cost in fuzzy sense is de-fuzzified using the centre of gravity method.

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Environment, trade, political economy and imperfect information: a survey

Environment, trade, political economy and imperfect information: a survey

Finally, the previous papers assumed that only governments can strategically manipulate markets to reduce foreign production. But producers themselves will have incentives to try to do that, by, for example, investing in more capital or R&D than would otherwise be warranted in order to reduce operating costs and hence obtain a strategic competitive advantage. Does this reduce or even reverse governments’ incentives to weaken environmental policy? This question is closely related to the ‘Porter hypothesis’ (Porter (1991)): that tough environmental regulations, far from harming competitiveness, may actually boost it by encouraging domestic firms to invest in ‘green technologies’ ahead of their rivals. However a careful analysis of these issues (Ulph (1996b,c), Ulph and Ulph (1996)) shows that the results are ambiguous. On the one hand, while strategic investment by firms is a substitute for government strategic policy, and hence reduces the direct need for strategic manipulation of trade or environmental policies by governments, the strategic investments made by firms can in turn be manipulated by governments. Moreover, it is not generally true that tougher environmental regulations always increase the incentives for firms to do more ‘green R&D’, and even if it does this may not justify governments setting environmental policies tougher than Pigouvian, because there are still rent-shifting arguments for relaxing it. In short, in the absence of other policy instruments, environmental policies may be tougher or weaker than Pigouvian when account is taken of firms’ own strategic behaviour.

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Carbon emissions and bilateral trade

Carbon emissions and bilateral trade

I thank Professor Matthieu Glachant and Professor Paul Ekins for their thoughtful and con- structive scrutiny which benefited this thesis and my thinking immensely. I thank Richard Perkins, Judith Rees and Eric Neumayer for their supervision of my thesis and support in my academic and professional development. I have received many helpful comments from Antoine Dechezleprêtre, Ralf Martin, Barry Anderson and Giles Atkinson. I feel privileged to have formed friendships during my PhD research. My warmest thanks go to Raphael Calel, Joana Setzer, Rhona Barr, Charlie Watson, Xavier Vollenweider, Chris Gaskell, Alessandro Tavoni, Giovanni Ruta, George MacKerron and Salvatore Di Falco for being my sources of inspiration and intellectual guidance, for sharing the ups and downs, and for making it a great PhD experience. I am grateful to my colleagues at the LSE Grantham Research Institute where my PhD was hosted, and to those at the Department of Geography & Environment. I’d like to express my deepest gratitude to Sean Standen for being simply and truly wonderful. My thanks goes to my mother, father, brother, sister, the Standen family, as well as my close friends Pinelopi Antoniou, Peiyao Wu, Farrah Djohan and Nancy Law and who have encouraged me throughout my research. I really value their support. Finally, I would also like to acknowledge colleagues and friends from my time working with the Electricity Policy Research Group at the University of Cambridge, particularly Michael Grubb and Karsten Neuho ↵ . It was thanks to the valuable years I spent working with them, that inspired and steered my research in energy and climate policy issues. This work was supported by the UK Economic & Social Research Council. Additional research support from the London School of Economics and Political Sciences (Grantham Research Insti- tute and the ESRC Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, Department of Geography and Environment, and the Graduate Scholarship Fund) is gratefully acknowledged.

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Syllabus INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

Syllabus INTERNATIONAL MARKETING

The course is designed to provide undergraduate students with up-to-date knowledge of international marketing issues that MNCs are facing. The course focuses on analyzing the cultural environment of global markets, assessing global market opportunities and developing global marketing strategies. Key topics of study include: the dynamic environment of international trade; the impact of international environment (history and geography, cultural, political, legal and economic) on firm’s global marketing standardization versus local adaptation strategy; developing global marketing strategies, including planning and organizing 4Ps marketing strategies; implementing global marketing strategies, including negotiating with international customers, partners and regulators.

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Ökologischer Landbau und Umweltstandards aus Sicht der Entwicklungsländer: Handelshemmnisse und Handelschancen

Ökologischer Landbau und Umweltstandards aus Sicht der Entwicklungsländer: Handelshemmnisse und Handelschancen

Eine Studie der Weltbank empfiehlt den Entwicklungsländern daher, die Aufmerksamkeit auf den Aufbau nötiger Infrastruktur etc. zur Erfüllung internationaler Standards zu richten (Stephenson, zitiert in: WTO-CTE-101, 1999, S. 6). Auch die UNCTAD hält „a positive Agenda on Trade, Environment and Development“ der Entwicklungsländer für nötig, da die Ablehnung des Themas langfristig nicht aufrechtzuerhalten sei: Erstens gibt es in den DSU- Entscheidungen einen Trend hin zur Akzeptanz von PPM-Standards (siehe Kapitel 2.3.2), zweitens wird ein ‚Mainstreaming’ der Umweltbelange in alle WTO-Abkommen vorgeschlagen, und drittens nimmt der gesellschaftliche Druck auf den Einbezug von Umwelt zu. Ein ‚Mainstreaming’ würde es Entwicklungsländern schon aufgrund personeller Knappheit in Genf erschweren, dieses für sie sensible Thema in den verschiedenen Gremien zu verfolgen, zumal Abwesenheit als Zustimmung gewertet wird (siehe Kapitel 2.4.7). Mit eigenen Forderungen zu dem Thema und bei einer getrennten Behandlung wären Entwicklungsländer auf überraschende Entwicklungen in wichtigen Verhandlungen vorbereitet (Jha / Vossenaar, 1999, S. 68-69, 71 ff.), und sie könnten ihre Interessen im Austausch gegen Zugeständnisse durchsetzen.

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Yasir Tariq Mohmand, Aneel Salman, Khurrum S. Mughal, Muhammad Imran, Nedim Makarevic

Yasir Tariq Mohmand, Aneel Salman, Khurrum S. Mughal, Muhammad Imran, Nedim Makarevic

and Iran are minimal. As a result of this trend of concentrated exports categories and markets, trade environment of Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to instabilities emanating from fluctuations in world prices, the socio political instabilities of the partner countries, and also the factors affecting the export promotion like poor infrastructure, out dated technology, non-tariff hurdles posed by the importer country, limited trade financing, etc. As such, this research primarily unveils the export scenario of Pakistan and export partners in an attempt to identify the factors influencing the bilateral trade of the country. Furthermore, the gravity model of trade is applied to the data and it is examined whether this model correctly explains Pakistan trade and trade partners. The results of the gravity model are then used to identify the potential trade partners of Pakistan, so as to provide policy makers with in-depth and accurate information for future policy making. Remaining paper is organized as follows: Section 2 contains explanation of the gravity model of trade, and review of literature on its theoretical underpinnings as well as empirical analysis, Section 3 discussed the sample data and its sources and the estimates, Section 4 discussed the results and finally Section 5 consists of conclusions deduced from our analysis.

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ournal of Economic Studies

ournal of Economic Studies

and Iran are minimal. As a result of this trend of concentrated exports categories and markets, trade environment of Pakistan is extremely vulnerable to instabilities emanating from fluctuations in world prices, the socio political instabilities of the partner countries, and also the factors affecting the export promotion like poor infrastructure, out dated technology, non-tariff hurdles posed by the importer country, limited trade financing, etc. As such, this research primarily unveils the export scenario of Pakistan and export partners in an attempt to identify the factors influencing the bilateral trade of the country. Furthermore, the gravity model of trade is applied to the data and it is examined whether this model correctly explains Pakistan trade and trade partners. The results of the gravity model are then used to identify the potential trade partners of Pakistan, so as to provide policy makers with in-depth and accurate information for future policy making. Remaining paper is organized as follows: Section 2 contains explanation of the gravity model of trade, and review of literature on its theoretical underpinnings as well as empirical analysis, Section 3 discussed the sample data and its sources and the estimates, Section 4 discussed the results and finally Section 5 consists of conclusions deduced from our analysis.

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New evidence of environmental efficiency on the export performance

New evidence of environmental efficiency on the export performance

The main result of this analysis is summarized in Columns (9) to (12) in Table 3. The magnitude of estimated result is θ θ θ , and the coefficient of energy which is regarded as higher marginal abatement cost results in the least values. From our findings, we can offer the empirical fact that the energy and environment efficiency in energy use, CO2 emissions, and NOx emissions may be a source of the comparative advantage in industries. However, we cannot show the relationship between the environment efficiency in SOx and the export performance. A possible reason is that major SOx emitter in industries is the electric power supplier and the international trade in the electricity has been concentrated in euprean market. In addition, there is the difference in costs of pollution management between SOx and NOx, and the total cost to abate NOx emissions in the power plant is relatively expensive 14 . The high SOx pollution

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A Study of Foreign Trade and Review of Trade ...

A Study of Foreign Trade and Review of Trade ...

When severe import restriction and import substitution were the focus of the trade policies adopted during the second half of the 1950‟s, exports were not considered a line of activity to be stimulated initially. As a result, except for a few items such as iron ore, stagnation of export earnings was observed in this period. The export policy had also led to the falling share of India‟s traditional exports and insufficient expansion in the case of non-traditional exports. In early 1960s, in view of the prevailing conditions of balance of payments in the country with rising import expenditure and stagnant export earnings, the much needed attention was finally given to the export sector. In line with the recommendations of the Mudaliar Committee, the Government adopted the policy of export promotion (Bhagwati and Desai, 1970). On the import front, imports of non-essential goods were restricted whereas imports of essential goods were liberalized. The schemes introduced by the Government for facilitating promotion of exports during this period were Cash Compensatory Support (CCS), Duty Drawback System, Import Replenishment Scheme (IRS) (previously termed as Import Entitlement scheme (IES). Export Processing Zones (EPZs) were established providing almost free trade environment for export production. In 1960 the Government for the first time allowed the coming up of the export houses. But despite this vigorous export promotion drive on the part of the Government the volume of export could not increase to the desired level and the problem of adverse trade balance persisted. By 1966 there was again a trade balance crisis as the imports needed to carry out planned investments and to provide intermediate goods and raw materials would have required much more foreign exchange than was available (Krueger, 2008).

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How the United States Uses the Trans-Pacific Partnership to Contain China in International Trade

How the United States Uses the Trans-Pacific Partnership to Contain China in International Trade

The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) was signed on February 5, 2016 by its twelve members and is now open for ratification. If ratified, the TPP will be the largest mega free trade area in history and will encompass forty percent of world trade. The U.S. led the TPP negotiations and deliberately excluded China from the negotiations. This ploy by the U.S. was a calculated effort to contain China and to shift power in trade in the Asia-Pacific from China to the U.S. China now appears to face a difficult choice. China can join the already concluded TPP, with its text largely drafted by the U.S., and submit to terms it had no part in negotiating and to a humiliating process of seeking approval from the U.S. Joining the TPP means accepting a treaty in which every major provision is directed at China in an attempt to contain China’s ascendancy in international trade. The other alternative is to ignore the TPP, but this could mean significant losses in trade opportunities right in China’s own neighborhood. The battle over the TPP is a major contest between the two countries to determine which will write the rules of international trade for the twenty-first century. On the one hand, the U.S. is determined to write the rules, which will have as their chief aim to contain China. On the other hand, China seeks to write the rules in a way that will benefit China at the expense of the U.S. This Article examines how the TPP is designed specifically to contain China and how China might respond to this challenge over who will write the rules of international trade and gain supremacy in trade in the twenty- first century.

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New Law Making and Regulatory Welfare Trade offs

New Law Making and Regulatory Welfare Trade offs

The contemporary regulatory state has developed as a result of both new legislation and political struggles that ac- companied an increasingly globalized world and the economic crisis in the 1970-1980s. The answer to this development was the reforms collectively known as New Public Management (NPM) which promoted the privatization and marketi- zation of the public sector, and thereby the creation of the new regulatory state. The regulatory-state formation in Europe was affected extensively by the formation of the European Union and its administrative traditions and wel- fare-state models. Path-dependent developments influenced the achievements which have been described as innovative, that is, regulatory innovation. Socio-economic goals are linked to three distinct policy choices, which have been char- acterized by trade-offs. The trade-offs occur because it is difficult to pursue successfully all three goals simultaneously. In Scandinavia the trade-off and new law-making achieved as a regulatory innovation the much-lauded mechanism of “flexicurity”, that is, the combination by law of the flexible market with social security.

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