Environmental Radioactivity

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Natural environmental radioactivity in the soil of Terengganu State, Malaysia

Natural environmental radioactivity in the soil of Terengganu State, Malaysia

[13]. Lee, S. K., Wagiran, H., Termizi Ramli, A., Heru Apriantoro, N. and Khalik Wood, A. Radiological monitoring: terrestrial natural radionuclides in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia. Journal of environmental radioactivity. 2009. 100(5): 368-374. [14]. Gabdo, H., Ramli, A., Sanusi, M., Saleh, M. and Garba, N. Terrestrial gamma dose

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30 years of European Commission Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring data bank (REMdb) – an open door to boost environmental radioactivity research

30 years of European Commission Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring data bank (REMdb) – an open door to boost environmental radioactivity research

Abstract. The Radioactivity Environmental Monitoring data bank (REMdb) was created in the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident (1986) by the European Commission (EC) – Directorate-General Joint Research Centre (DG JRC), sited in Ispra (Italy). Since then it has been maintained there with the aim to keep a historical record of the Chernobyl accident and to store the radioactivity monitoring data gathered through the national environmental monitoring programs of the member states (MSs). The legal basis is the Euratom Treaty, Chapter III Health and Safety, Articles 35 and 36, which clarify that MSs shall periodically communicate to the EC information on environmental radioactivity levels. By collecting and validating this information in REMdb, JRC supports the DG for Energy in its responsibilities in returning qualified information to the MSs (competent authorities and general public) on the levels of radioactive contamination of the various compartments of the environment (air, water, soil) on the European Union scale. REMdb accepts data on radionuclide concentrations from EU MSs in both environmental samples and foodstuffs from 1984 onwards. To date, the total number of data records stored in REMdb exceeds 5 million, in this way providing the scientific community with a valuable archive of envi- ronmental radioactivity topics in Europe. Records stored in REMdb are publicly accessible until 2011 through an unrestricted repository “REM data bank – Years 1984–2006” https://doi.org/10.2905/jrc-10117-10024 (De Cort et al., 2007) and “REM data bank – Years 2007–2011” https://doi.org/10.2905/de42f259-fafe-4329-9798- 9d8fabb98de5 (De Cort et al., 2012). Access to data from 2012 onwards is granted only after explicit request, until the corresponding monitoring report is published. Each data record contains information describing the sampling circumstances (sampling type, begin and end time), measurement conditions (value, nuclide, appa- ratus, etc.), location and date of sampling, and original data reference. In this paper the scope, features and extension of REMdb are described in detail.
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Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1965  EUR 2965

Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1965 EUR 2965

Data are given on the concentrations of strontium-90, cesium-137 and other radionuclides in fallout, air, soil, waters, herbage, animal bones and foods.... PAGE INTRODUCTION 1..[r]

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Simulation of Dose Assessment for Special Environmental Radioactivity Distribution Using Monte Carlo Technique

Simulation of Dose Assessment for Special Environmental Radioactivity Distribution Using Monte Carlo Technique

In this study, modeling and recalculation of exposure dose rate have been performed for the Hammam Pha- raon (hot spring) area. The importance of the selected study area is arising from the special physical characteri- zation (source term shape, radioactivity distribution, composition and density) in addition to the development of climatotherapy and balneotherapy there. Hammam Pharaon and many other places in Egypt open the field of medical tourism. The source term shape, radioactivity distribution, composition and density have been consi- dered. In addition, those places are characterized by their high content of natural minerals. Hammam Pharaon is located on the east side of Gulf of Suez, about 250 km in the east direction from Cairo. It is formed from a group of hot sulfuric water springs. The spring water flows directly from the limestone mountain caves, forming a nat- ural canal with 100 meter length along the seashore. The out-flow water with elevated levels of 226 Ra and its progenies radionuclides affect an area of 100 meter length by 20 meter width of the shore.
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Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1968  EUR 4412

Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1968 EUR 4412

In Tables 10 to 12 are reported the geographic coordinates of the sampling sites, the beta radioactivity concentration in the water of lake Maggiore and at the other sites, respectively [r]

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Misure di radioattività ambientale ISPRA 1962  EUR 481  = Measures of environmental radioactivity ISPRA 1962  EUR 481

Misure di radioattività ambientale ISPRA 1962 EUR 481 = Measures of environmental radioactivity ISPRA 1962 EUR 481

Durante il 1962 ci è parso opportuno determinare la concentrazione media mensile dei principali radionuclidi presenti nell'aria Sr 89 , Sr 90 , Cs 137 e Zr 95 + Nb 95 , allo scopo di val[r]

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Misure di radioattività ambientale ISPRA 1961  EUR 223  = Measures of environmental radioactivity ISPRA 1961  EUR 223

Misure di radioattività ambientale ISPRA 1961 EUR 223 = Measures of environmental radioactivity ISPRA 1961 EUR 223

Nella terza colonna della tabella 5 sono riportati i valori medi mensili della concentrazione di radioattività beta totale espressa in pc/1 nell'acqua piovana; questi valori si riferisco[r]

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Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1981. Radiological protection No. 28. EUR 8308

Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1981. Radiological protection No. 28. EUR 8308

EUR 8308 — Resultater af målinger af radioaktiviteten i omgivelserne i EF-medlemsstaterne for luft — nedfald — vand — mælk —1981 EUR 8308 — Meßwerte der Umweltradioaktivität in den Lände[r]

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Assessment Of Environmental Radioactivity In Selected Dumpsites In Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

Assessment Of Environmental Radioactivity In Selected Dumpsites In Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[19]. Tubosun, I.A., Tchokossa P., Okunlola, G.A., Balogun, F.A., Fasasi, M.K. and Ekhaeyemhe, S.: ―Natural Radioactivity Associated with Mining of Rare Metal Pegmatite of Oke-Ogun Field, Sepeteri, Southwestern, Nigeria.‖ International Journal of Science and Technology, Vol.3 (10) 350 -356, 2013. [20]. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects

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Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1980. Radiological protection No. 22. EUR 7639

Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1980. Radiological protection No. 22. EUR 7639

EUR 7639 — Resultater af målinger af radioaktiviteten i omgivelserne i EFmedlemsstaterne for luft — nedfald — vand — mælk — 1980 EUR 7639 — Meßwerte der Umweltradioaktivität in den Lände[r]

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Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air deposition water milk 1979  Radiological protection No  20  EUR 7032

Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1979. Radiological protection No. 20. EUR 7032

EUR 7032 — Resultater af målinger af radioaktiviteten I omgivelserne i EFmedlemsstaterne for luft — nedfald — vand — mælk — 1979 EUR 7032 — Meßwerte der Umweltradioaktuitat in den Länder[r]

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Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air deposition water milk 1978  Radiological protection No  17  EUR 6620

Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1978. Radiological protection No. 17. EUR 6620

Disse 5 stationer indgår i tabel 15 under "drikkevand", og man har her foretaget målinger med henblik på at bestemme niveauet for særlige radionuklider og ikke den totale betaaktivitet..[r]

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Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air deposition water milk 1977  Radiological protection No  15  EUR 6212

Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1977. Radiological protection No. 15. EUR 6212

Tabel 1 giver et generelt billede af nettet til kontrol med radioaktiviteten i omgivelserne i Fællesskabet i 1977, og de data, der er fremkommet ved disse målinger, indgår i denne rappor[r]

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Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air deposition water milk 1982 83  Radiological protection No  34  EUR 10235

Results of environmental radioactivity measures in the Member States of the European Community for air-deposition-water-milk 1982-83. Radiological protection No. 34. EUR 10235

Europæiske F ællesskaber — Kommissionen Europäische Gemeinschaften — Kommission Ευρωπαϊκές Κοινότητες — Επιτροπή European Communities — Commission Communautés européennes — Commission Co[r]

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Environmental radioactivity ISPRA 1964  EUR 2509 e

Environmental radioactivity ISPRA 1964 EUR 2509 e

VAN D E R STRICHT European Atomic Energy Community - EURATOM Joint Nuclear Research Center - Ispra Establishment Italy Protection Service - Site Survey and Meteorology Brussels, Septembe[r]

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Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1963  EUR 2213

Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1963 EUR 2213

Joint Nuclear Research Center Ispra Establishment - Italy Security Service Site Survey and Meteorology... Manuscript received on November 15, 1964..[r]

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Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1966  EUR 3554

Environmental Radioactivity ISPRA 1966 EUR 3554

four lakes Maggiore, Monate, Comabbio and Varese and submitted to gamma spectrometry and radiochemical determinations of single nuclides0 The data obtained from these analyses are report[r]

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Radiation hazard index and excess lifetime cancer risk due to natural radioactivity in environmental matrix waste dumpsite, Rivers state.

Radiation hazard index and excess lifetime cancer risk due to natural radioactivity in environmental matrix waste dumpsite, Rivers state.

passed to subsurface aquifers, soils, and the atmosphere. Natural environmental radioactivity due to gamma radiation depends on the geological and geographical conditions, and found in various quantities in soils around the world (UNSCEAR, 2000). One of the main determinants of the natural background radiation is the soil radionuclide activity concentration; disintegrated rocks through natural process allow radionuclides to escape to soil by rain and flows. In addition to the natural sources; soil radioactivity is also affected by anthropogenic activities. There are radioactive isotopes in our environments, air, water and ground (Eisenbud and Gesell, 1997; Henriksen and Maillie, 2003) measurement is only reliable source to accurately reflect people’s true exposure. Over-emphasizing the effect caused by radon decays with a series of solid, short-lived radioisotopes that are collectively referred to as radon daughters or radon progeny. Isotopes of such can emit alpha particles of high energy and high mass particles consisting of two protons and two neutrons. When these emissions take place within the lung as inhaled radon progeny decay the genetic material of the cells lining the airways may be damaged and lung cancer may result. (NRC, 1980) Naturally occurring radioactive materials are found in both groundwater and surface water. At high levels, when ionizing radiation strikes a living organism’s cells, it may mutate the organism’s cell. If radiation affects a significant number of cells, the organism may eventually develop cancer among other liable diseases.
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Radioactivity measurements for the ERMES project at the STELLA facility

Radioactivity measurements for the ERMES project at the STELLA facility

STELLA (SubTErranean Low Level Assay) is the ultra low back- ground facility of the Gran Sasso National Laboratories (L.N.G.S.) in Italy. It is mainly devoted to material screening and rare events physics due to its very low radioactive background. Nevertheless, also environmental samples are measured within the collaboration with the ERMES (Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring for Earth Sciences) project. After a short description of the facility some on-going appli- cations within the ERMES project will be briefly presented. The use- fulness of doing environmental radioactivity measurements in a deep underground laboratory will be shortly discussed.
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Experiments on Radioactivity in a Student Laboratory

Experiments on Radioactivity in a Student Laboratory

This paper is proposing an experiment on radioactivity suitable for a student laboratory, which does not require any safety control, because it is investigating the natural background and the radioactivity of potassium chloride, a salt with a very low emission. Let us point out that the use of sealed radioactive sources, even those low-risk for a student laboratory, requires some specific safety and security criteria and controls. Since the aim of this experiment is not only the measurement of radioactivity, but also the study of Poisson distribution and application of chi-squared test, this can be done in complete safety with the normal environmental radioactivity [1]. In physics and other sciences, we often use the Gaussian distribution. However, we have to remember that not all natural processes are following it: in fact, the radioactive decays are governed by the Poisson distribution. This distribution is named after the French mathematician Siméon Denis Poisson and is good for radioactive decay [2], telephone calls [3] and requests for documents on web servers [4] and many other phenomena. The Poisson distribution is also known as the law of rare events, where the word ‘law’ is used as a synonym of probability distribution [5]. The name may be misleading, because the total count of occurrences in a Poisson process needs not be small. For instance, in the case of a radioactive source, the number of decays in a certain time interval seems large, but, since decaying nuclei are rare when compared with Avogadro number of atoms, the occurrences are following a Poisson distribution.
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