The presented work deals with a **state** behavior of real gas, biogas. Theoretical approach was utilized for processing of this work. Compressibility factor was calculated with help of two **equation** of **state** – Van der Waals **equation** and Redlich‑Kwong **equation**. Constants a and b of both equations were calculated using geometric average of the constants of pure substances. On the basis of calculated data charts showing the dependence of compressibility factor and the pressure were created. These charts were created for temperatures 20 °C and 40 °C. Statistical analyses of data were carried out. The results showed that compressibility factor reached value from 0.997 to 0.97 (20 °C) and from 0.997 to 0.974 (40 °C) in the case Van der Waals **equation** and in the range of pressure from 100 kPa to 1000 kPa. In the case of Redlich‑Kwong **equation** these values were from 0.997 to 0.967 (20 °C) and from 0.997 to 0.974 (40 °C) in the same range of pressures.

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Neutron stars are very interesting physical systems and their properties, such as masses and radii as function of the central density, can be derived from the **equation** of **state** (EOS) of the β -stable matter contained in them. The EOS is microscopically calculated from the sections a and b. After that, briefly we outline the derivation of neutron-star properties from its EOS. One starts from the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov (TOV) equations for the total pressure P and the enclosed mass m [29] [30],

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Abstract. We discuss a non-perturbative T -matrix approach to investigate the micro- scopic structure of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Utilizing an e ff ective Hamiltonian which includes both light- and heavy-parton degrees of freedoms. The basic two-body interaction includes color-Coulomb and conﬁning contributions in all available color channels, and is constrained by lattice-QCD data for the heavy-quark free energy. The in-medium T -matrices and parton spectral functions are computed selfconsistently with full account of o ff -shell properties encoded in large scattering widths. We apply the T - matrices to calculate the **equation** of **state** (EoS) for the QGP, including a ladder resum- mation of the Luttinger-Ward functional using a matrix-log technique to account for the dynamical formation of bound states. It turns out that the latter become the dominant de- grees of freedom in the EoS at low QGP temperatures indicating a transition from parton to hadron degrees of freedom. The calculated spectral properties of one- and two-body states conﬁrm this picture, where large parton scattering rates dissolve the parton quasi- particle structures while broad resonances start to form as the pseudocritical temperature is approached from above. Further calculations of transport coe ffi cients reveal a small viscosity and heavy-quark di ff usion coe ffi cient.

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In the present work an attempt has been made to test the validity of suitable equation of state been made for theoretical prediction of elastic properties and Gruneisen para[r]

There is currently tremendous interest in the role of hyperons and other exotic forms of matter in neutron stars. This is particularly so following the measurement by Demorest et al. of a star with a mass almost 2 solar masses. Given that we know of no physical mechanism to stop the occurrence of hyperons at matter in beta–equilibrium above roughly 3 times nuclear matter density, we discuss the constraints on the possible maximum mass when hyperons are included in the **equation** of **state**. The discussion includes a careful assessment of the constraints from low energy nuclear properties as well as the properties of hypernuclei. The model within which these calculations are carried out is the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model, which is derived starting at the quark level.

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The Poirier-Tarantola proposed an **equation** of **state** derived using Hencky logarithmic strain [3] equivalent to the Eulerian strain for small strain and better behaved for large strain. The reference strain is neither the initial nor the final configuration, but the instantaneous configuration of the body being deformed. In uniaxial deformation as the instantaneous volume (V) of the body is increased by an infinitesimally small increment dV, the ratio (dV/V) is considered as an increment of the current **state** of strain

Nuclear matter is one of the most fascinating materials that exists. Therefore elucidating the **equation**-of-**state** of nuclear matter is a fun- damentally interesting question. Additionally, the nuclear **equation**- of-**state** has impacts on astrophysical observables. One important means of constraining the nuclear **equation**-of-**state** is through studying heavy-ion collisions. Nuclear material has two components - neutrons and protons - the ratio of which impacts the **equation**-of-**state**. Mea- surements of fragments emitted from reactions of nuclei with diﬀerent ratios of neutrons and protons - and comparison to simulations based on various underlying interactions - have placed constraints on both the symmetric and asymmetric parts of the **equation** of **state**.

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(Received 5 June 2018; revised manuscript received 25 July 2018; published 15 October 2018) On 17 August 2017, the LIGO and Virgo observatories made the first direct detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of a neutron star binary system. The detection of this gravitational-wave signal, GW170817, offers a novel opportunity to directly probe the properties of matter at the extreme conditions found in the interior of these stars. The initial, minimal-assumption analysis of the LIGO and Virgo data placed constraints on the tidal effects of the coalescing bodies, which were then translated to constraints on neutron star radii. Here, we expand upon previous analyses by working under the hypothesis that both bodies were neutron stars that are described by the same **equation** of **state** and have spins within the range observed in Galactic binary neutron stars. Our analysis employs two methods: the use of **equation**-of-**state**-insensitive relations between various macroscopic properties of the neutron stars and the use of an efficient parametrization of the defining function pðρÞ of the **equation** of **state** itself. From the LIGO and Virgo data alone and the first method, we measure the two neutron star radii as R 1 ¼ 10 . 8 þ2.0 −1 . 7 km for the heavier

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On 17 August 2017, the LIGO and Virgo observatories made the first direct detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of a neutron star binary system. The detection of this gravitational-wave signal, GW170817, offers a novel opportunity to directly probe the properties of matter at the extreme conditions found in the interior of these stars. The initial, minimal-assumption analysis of the LIGO and Virgo data placed constraints on the tidal effects of the coalescing bodies, which were then translated to constraints on neutron star radii. Here, we expand upon previous analyses by working under the hy- pothesis that both bodies were neutron stars that are described by the same **equation** of **state** and have spins within the range observed in Galactic binary neutron stars. Our analysis employs two methods: the use of **equation**-of-**state**-insensitive relations between various macroscopic properties of the neutron stars and the use of an efficient parametrization of the defining function p(ρ) of the **equation** of **state** it- self. From the LIGO and Virgo data alone and the first method, we measure the two neutron star radii as R 1 = 10.8 +2.0 −1.7 km for the heavier star and R 2 = 10.7 +2.1 −1.5 km for the lighter star at the 90% credible level.

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Abstract. We investigate an eﬀective relativistic **equation** of **state** at ﬁnite values of tem- perature and baryon chemical potential with the inclusion of the full octet of baryons, the Delta-isobars and the lightest pseudoscalar and vector meson degrees of freedom. These last particles have been introduced within a phenomenological approach by taking into account of an eﬀective chemical potential and mass depending on the self-consistent interaction between baryons. In this framework, we study of the hadron yield ratios mea- sured in central heavy ion collisions over a broad energy range.

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8. Lawal, A.S., Van der Laan, E.T. and Thamby- nayagam, R.K.M. \Four-parameter modication of the Lawal-Lake-Silberberg **equation** of **state** for calculating gas-condensate phase equilibria", Paper SPE 14269 Presented at the 1985 Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 22-25 (1985).

On the basis of our findings it may be concluded that in the most of the cases of materials the widely used fundamental EOS are still most suitable and valid for the bulk as well as nanocrystalline materials to predict their compression with pressure. In the present work it is found that the Murnaghan and Usual-Tait **equation** of **state** is most suitable and competent for this prediction of compression behavior of nanocrystalline TiO 2 . The expression of

SPH has been widely used since its inception in the areas of momentum dominant fluid flow to great success. However, there has been limited investigation into areas of buoyancy dominant flow. While there has been some modelling of buoyancy dominant flows, such as modelling natural convec- tion in a closed box and of the Rayleigh-Bérnard instability [1, 2], this has been done using an artificial modification of the body force term in typical SPH via application of the Boussinesq approximation. The use of SPH should allow for these phenomena to be modelled without the utilisation of ad hoc relations. The logical source for motion for a thermally driven system is within the **equation** of **state**. The simplest example of an **equation** of **state** is the ideal gas law, which while used for weakly polar gases at low pressures and moderate temperatures, is indicative that temperature and energy play an important part in the dynamics of a system. Energy is not typically considered in standard SPH for- mulations and thus the **equation** of **state** used is based on a the speed of sound within the fluid being modelled, as well as its density [3]. With the desire to model thermally dependant problems, how we use the **equation** of **state** in SPH needs to be revised.

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Heavy ion collisions provide the only tool to explore densities larger than the nuclear saturation density ρ 0 in the laboratory, as in the course of such collisions nuclear matter undergoes compression followed by expansion phases. In the incident energy regime between 0.4 and 2A GeV up to three times the nuclear saturation density is reached during the collisions. Several observables have been studied which are predicted to be sensitive to the nuclear EOS with the help of theoretical models: Kaon production in heavy ion reactions below threshold in NN collisions as measured by the KaoS collaboration [1] is sensitive to the density reached in the course of the reactions, which is depending on the stiﬀness of the **equation** of **state**. The authors claimed that only a soft EOS is consistent with the data, i.e. with a compression modulus at saturation density κ ≈ 200 MeV. This ﬁnding was conﬁrmed by a second theoretical group and it was shown to be robust with respect to the input parameters to the models [2].

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ABSTRACT: This paper deals with Bianchi type V cosmological model in the presence of perfect fluid with polytropic **equation** of **state** (EoS) p K n , where K and n are constants called as polytropic constant and polytropic index respectively. The physically realistic solutions of the Einstein's field equations for Bianchi type-V space time have been obtained under the assumption of the scalar expansion is proportional to the shear scalar 2 . The kinematic & physical properties of the model are also studied.

Figure 3.6 shows the spectra from the synchrotron M¨ ossbauer experiment. Pressure determined by the **equation** of **state** of KCl are shown on the right. At low pressure the spectra are characterized by slow oscillations, consistent with no magnetic ordering. With increasing pressure, it is expected that the quadrupole splitting of the nuclear excited **state** should increase as inter-atom bond shortening accentuates the intra-atom electric field gradient, i.e. the rate of change of electric field at the nucleus. This effect is reflected in the SMS spectrum in the shortening of period between 8 and 13 GPa. This trend does not persist at higher pressures. At 19 GPa the period in the SMS spectrum has increased and continues to do so with pressure up to 23 GPa. At higher pressure the spectra are characterized by fast, irregular oscillations, indicative of a magnetically-ordered **state** coupled with thickness effects.

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anymore [1–3]. At higher temperature hadronic matter is expected to undergo a transition to a quark- gluon plasma [4] with is presently under study at CERN and RHIC facilities. Experimentally it is a matter of debate whether signals of phase transitions have been actually observed, due to the di ffi cul- ties in extrapolating bulk matter properties from measured observables in heavy-ion collisions. This contribution will focus on quest for the **Equation** of **State** (EoS) of nuclear matter as it can be ac- cessed with heavy-ion collisions (HIC) at intermediate energies (E beam / A = 20-100 MeV). How much

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The appearance of quark matter in the interior of massive neutron stars (NS) is one of the mostly debated issues in the physics of these compact objects. If one considers only purely nucleonic degrees of freedom in the construction of the **Equation** of **State** (EoS) [1] to describe the interior of NS, it turns out that for the heaviest NS, close to the maximum mass (about two solar masses), the central particle density reaches values larger than 1/fm 3 , so that the nucleon cores start to touch each other, and it is

Calculations using astrophysical equations of **state** at low densities comparable to that of the neutrino emission surface in supernovae and accretion disks are confronted with experimental results from heavy ion collisions. An extension of previous work shows that it is impor- tant to include all of the measured experimental data to draw con- clusions about the astrophysical **equation** of **state**. Armed with this information, the calculations of the astrophysical **equation** of **state** are signiﬁcantly constrained. Predictions of temperatures and densities sampled in black hole accretion disks are compared to those sampled in the experimental data.

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Abstract. The **equation** of **state** (EoS) for the eﬀective theory proposed recently in the frame work of the scale-invariant hidden local symmetry is discussed briefly. The EoS is found to be relatively stiﬀer at lower density and but relatively softer at higher den- sity. The particular features of EoS on the gravitational waves are discussed. A relatively stiﬀer EoS for the neutron stars with the lower density induces a larger deviation of the gravitational wave form from the point-particle-approximation. On the other hand, a relatively softer EoS for the merger remnant of the higher density inside might invoke a possibility of the immediate formation of a black hole for short gamma ray bursts or the appearance of the higher peak frequency for gravitational waves from remnant os- cillations. It is anticipated that this particular features could be probed in detail by the detections of gravitational waves from the binary neutron star mergers.

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