schedule. The schedule for stadium general by the keynote speakers is also written in the event rundown. At the end of the program, the students are assigned to write final reports. As an evaluation, the students will get marks / scores based on the internship program, but the testing tool has not been standardized. The plan for quality evaluation is not well- planned. During preparation stage, the potential problems are discussed for anticipation, but the instruments are not standardized. The achievement scale of the internship planning is shown in Table 4: The planning for the component of the internship program is 56.38% or in moderate category. It means that some aspects are partially implemented / partially available based on the criteria. The aspects of the plan for student learning activities are exceptionally 83.33% or high category, while the aspect of quality evaluation readiness is 30% or in low category. The internship program is substantial implementation of academic activities and should be in line with learning activities in, but innovation in lecture planning is still needed. In activities involving global interactions, the planning can be focused on academic process in global scope. The activities can be projected in presentation, paper discussion as collaboration among domestic and overseas students to produce collaborative publications. Related to quality evaluation, the implementation is necessary. The low achievement score should be given special attention for evaluation. Administrative matters such as semester lesson plans, structured scheduling, standardized learning evaluation, and quality evaluation activities should be applied. The contextual comprehension is not only at the administrative level, but there should be a follow-up. The evaluation process is not only routine activity, but it is expected to be applied thoroughly. If there are some inappropriate findings, correction and revision need to be done. Potential problems may occur if there is no careful planning. Mujiman (2011) said that training design determines the success of the program. The planning of internship program essentially needs to be revised and improved as guidelines for the program.
In this paper we have discussed the IPC series which has proved highly influential in promoting the development of AI planning technology in the past eight years. We have briefly reviewed some of the issues that have arisen in the conflict between the goals of a competition and the goals of a scientific study. We have also described our own experiences in evaluating data generated in the 3rd IPC and we have discussed several of the statistical approaches we used in testing hypotheses about the relative performances of the competing planners. These techniques are, of course, widely known in the empirical sciences, but we believe that they should be of particular interest to the AI community, where they are, in our experience, less well known and even less widely used. Apart from stimulating huge growth in the power of planning systems, both in the expressiveness of the models they can handle and in the speed with which they can plan, the IPC series has also been central in promoting a more rigorous approach to empirical evaluation of planning systems and the use of more extensive data collection and evaluation. This is a healthy trend that should be encouraged in planning and in the wider AI community.
Knowledge of physical characteristics of land is fundamental for rational land evaluation and land use planning, both in developed and undeveloped regions. A review of two land classifications, parametric and physiographic approaches, is carried out. The parametric approach classifies on the basis of selected land attributes determined by land use or uses in question. Its employment may range from general purpose surveys which are considering many attributes, to classification on the narrower basis for special purposes. The physiographic approach, on the other hand, classifies land rather than its specific attributes. Each land unit identified in this way is therefore considered to be relatively homogeneous in overall characters. Both approaches have had varying merits depending on the goal and circumstances of the land evaluation. On a detailed study required by most practical purposes, both approaches theoretically meet the requirements of land classification. Of both approaches, it was concluded that physiographic approach had the advantage of being rapidly implemented whereas, the parametric approach, whilst slower in use and applicable only in localized studies, yielded more reliable results. In reality, however, the distinction between both approaches is not so clear-cut because they can be combined with advantage. Their advantages and disadvantages relative merits also are assessed related to three problems of land classification: (1) complexity of land, (2). extent of land-units, and (3) associations of land-units. The two approaches are really not alternatives and can, in fact, be combined with profit, since the relative advantage of each varies with circumstances. The physiographic approach offers a possibility on the more rapid survey at relatively low cost, as needed in most undeveloped regions. Its reliability is consistent for reconnaissance investigation and, with moderately close sampling, for semi-detailed surveys. It has an additional advantage of enabling a survey with diverse specialists. For a detailed survey, however, greater precision and reliability of the parametric approach is preferable. In practice, therefore, both methods are best combined to reinforce each other.
Proffit et al (1991) claimed that the more perfect the occlusal relationship that can be achieved in the operating room, the more precisely the surgeon can position the jaws, and vice versa. Normally postsurgery orthodontic treatment took between 3 and 6 months to produce optimal occlusal results. They stated that as long faces have lower occlusal forces, teeth erupt relatively more; but short faces have higher occlusal forces than normal, so that teeth do not fully erupt. Tooth length could also determine auto rotation of the mandible, for as teeth erupt, the mandible rotates down and backward. They stated that the maxilla could be widened or narrowed up to 10-15 mm, moved forward up to 10mm and upward 10-15 mm. For the planning of complicated cases they used the semiadjustable articulator and measured from the articulator disc to each tooth, and the central incisor to the articulator incisal pin. For a final wafer they used a second set of models articulated in the final occlusion, and made a thin wafer, since thicker wafers introduced more inaccuracies. Common problems that they encountered at the model surgery planning stage were; 1) elongated 2nd molars and interference by the orthodontic bands, 2) inter-canine width, and 3) the lack of space for interdental section. Normally a 4-5mm separation of roots is required to cut between them.
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resources for the survival of life on earth. The natural resources assessment is the prerequisite for the assessment of productivity of land and the sustainability of the ecosystem. The land resources are under ing population and competing demands of the various land uses. In reality most of the arable lands are degraded, water resources are depleting and the degradation of land resources is at an alarming rate that has not only rendered the enhanced stability of production questionable but also causing numerous environmental problems. It has been recognized that the land assessment and its reliability for land use decisions depend largely on the quality of soil information. In this connection, detailed soil y and geographical information system were used for land evaluation. Keeping this in the view, the present study
Principle considered – the EERA approach recognises that there are two ways in which environmental limits can be determined i.e. scientifically or socially determined. Crucially, the approach recognises that “environmental limits need to be predetermined and supported by stakeholders” and how “the UK’s democratic planning process lends itself well to this approach” (LUC, 2008 p.12). The EERA project was only able to engage technical stakeholders, presumably due to available resources as per Sheate et al (2012), but recognises that stakeholder views in this regard can provide a proxy for the views of the wider public. Were the approach to adopted wholesale in spatial planning, it is feasible that the wider public would be engaged in the process of determining environmental limits.
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Under the Potentially Preventable Complications sys- tem, candidate diagnoses are those that are not excluded at the global or specific levels. These diagnoses are iden- tified as not present on hospital admission. The candi- date diagnoses are evaluated with respect to risk of complications based on reasons for admission and sever- ity of illness. Evaluation of risk of complications based on reason for admission is related to hospital services provided to each patient. A major factor in this evalua- tion is the type of hospital service, whether medical or surgical, that a patient receives. The susceptibility of complications varies widely among medical and surgical patients. For example, among medicine patients, aspira- tion pneumonia is more likely to develop as a complica- tion for a patient with stroke as a principal diagnosis than for one with urinary retention. The type of surgery is also a major influence on the likelihood of specific complications .
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During the planning process, sustainability, democratic participation and gaining social elements to İstanbul city have been emphasized. According to this, single centered function which makes the basis of structural problems of İstanbul Metropolitan Area will be transferred to multi- centralization and amending the natural structure by protection form the basic objectives. Within this frame, the plan has been prepared with the consideration of a multi-centered and balanced regional development approach which includes differentiated precautions for the problems and potentials of Marmara Region and to be integrated with Trakya and Kocaeli 1/100.000 scaled Master Plans. European Spatial Development Perspective criteria were taken as an example during the production of decisions related with Economic, Social and Ecologic Environment. Besides, the plan aimed to make necessary participation promotions and provided functional integration between institutional and spatial strategic plans (Figure 2).
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Rapid urbanization has caused significant problems , and sustainable city design can play an important role in solving these problems under limited budgets and resources. Previous studies have proposed city evaluation indicator s that can suggest appropriate urban design s. However, these indicators do not clearly consider economic theory, which is crucial for understanding accumulation of urban capital stock by the flows from daily urban activities. This study proposes a research framework based on economic theory for evaluating urban sustainability; this framework uses the inclusive wealth index (IWI) concept to examine inclusive urban capital stock. It examines the advantage s of using the IWI as a city evaluation indicator along with data envelopment analysis and a decomposition analysis framework . We use data for 20 Japanese ordinance -designated cities for an empirical study to demonstrate a proposed approach for evaluating inclusive urban capital . The developed research application evaluates each city’s relative superiority in terms of capital accumulation and identifies those factors determining changes in capital flows via changes in efficiency, priority, and scale. The combination of these results can be helpful to decision makers seeking to increase urban capital by considering reference city information and relative superiority.
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A small pilot of the 20 item questionnaire was completed with a purpose sample of 20 mental health nurses within Older Peoples Services in the Trust, selected because they represented the experience of staff and work based contexts typical of the trust, with to the aim of testing feasibility. Overall, the pilot showed that the MwR assessment tool was received positively and data collection methods were viable (Hemingway et al 2010). The project team, with the support of the Clinical Governance Support Team (CGST), revised the questionnaire after the pilot evaluation. The survey was approved by the Education and Training sub-group of the Drug and Therapeutic Trust Action Group (D&T TAG). The sample frame was derived from the SWYPFT payroll for all registered nurses:
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highways such as Tai 61 expressway, Tai 15 and Tai 1, as well as the establishment of tourist attraction, have significantly increased the development opportunities for land use, thus making these zones highly potential for development (Fig. 3). Overall, the zones with greater development potential were mostly located along river basins and of urban planning areas. The factors that contributed to this include mild terrains, low species coverage despite the water streams passing through, concentration of public facilities and industries and easy accessibility. All of this resulted in the high development potentials along the river basins. The development potentials are absolutely related to natural environment factors. Before any land development project starts, the priority should be given to the consideration of the location and natural and cultural environments. Only by minimizing the impacts to environment the optimal balance between nature and human activities can be reached.
However, there has been a growing recognition of men’s involvement in family planning and contraceptive usage in the recent years, given the fact that fertility decisions should be conjointly taken by men and women together. 7 Men's attitude is much more important in the adoption of temporary methods of contraception and also in limiting the family size. Hence, there is an urgent need to understand the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of couples towards family planning and the extent they feel any responsibility in family formation and reproductive health. Knowing the women’s and their husband’s awareness and attitude towards family planning may help us to intervene so that the practice can be increased. Hence the present study is concerned with evaluation of attitude of couples towards family planning in the field practice areas.
Evaluation of health promotion interventions is essential in order to collect evidence about the efficacy of a program, identify ways to improve practice, justify the use of resources, and identify unexpected outcomes. This paper clarifies the role of evaluation as a crucial component of health promotion interventions. Moreover, it summarises the key elements of the most widely used planning/evaluation frameworks necessary for constructive evaluations of health promotion interventions, and incorporates them in to a single approach. It provides a methodical framework for the provision of evaluation guidance to health promotion practitioners and discusses the importance of including evaluation when planning any health promotion intervention. The focus of this paper is on the essential elements of the evaluation of health promotion programs.
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The understanding of the urban system that promotes urban growth is imperative for the purpose of policy making, formulating development strategies as well as development plans preparation. Apparently, the dynamic nature of planning and monitoring of development in Klang Valley, the fastest growing region in Malaysia, necessitates a ‘tool’ for continuous monitoring, evaluation and analysis of current environment as well as assessing the capacity for future development. As such, the development of a comprehensive database and GIS-based planning application under the project named “Application of Geographical Information System for Klang Valley Region (AGISwlk)” was initiated in 1995. The implementation of AGISwlk had been directed toward organisation of the system to facilitate immediate query and analysis, monitoring of development planning as well as spatial modelling. The project had since undergone intensive enhancement in its database structure, data quantity and quality, analysis approach and techniques as well as system customisation and integration to include the ability to provide alternatives in development scenarios.
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To achieve the study purpose, the researcher adopted descriptive survey to make assertions on how project planning, stakeholder participation and monitoring and evaluation affect implementation of government projects in Machakos County Government. The researcher observed and described the phenomena and the situations or events in a scientific manner. The design can be used in longitudinal studies to allow researchers to gather information for the long duration of time at different periods and summarize, present and interpret data for the purpose of clarification (Orodho, 2003). According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), the main purpose of descriptive research was to find out and report the way the data is and it establishes the current status of the population under study. The research also described and explained the existing status of two or more variable
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In addition, Theuri and Getui (2002, 8) agree with Matovu et al (1996) by commenting that in Kenya, 70 Percent of women live in the rural areas making a livelihood out of agricultural activities. In the agricultural sector, women provide 80 percent of the agricultural labour force, while agricultural education, extension and training is mainly targeted on men Watkins (2000, 45) concurs with Theuri and Getui (2002) by saying that gender is one of the key determinants of the distribution of benefits from education. Many development projects have ignored the gender balance issue and as the result they have failed to benefit women positively. And to correct such an imbalance, gender analysis has to be done to reduce such an inequality, such that roles played by women and men are known to facilitate the exploitation of the latent potential in both genders and make project planning more gender sensitive ( Esuruku 2007, 30).
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However, it is important to mention that research emphasized that it is still more effectively used in traditional production profile organizations, whose activities are based on separate processes with sufficiently stable, well defined environment and need to provide a limited number of services or products. In todays, especially project- based organizations, not only challenges for financial or human resources, production technologies sides exits, but there are many other factors as extremely dynamic environmental conditions and the need for high level management of information. Here can also be mentioned a shortened product production cycle, constantly changing consumer needs and diversification of activities also are influential (Barba, 2013; Ordysiński, 2013). It is agreed that implementation of mentioned tools, which organizations in practice actively use for optimization and development processes, is still under theoretical consideration and still seems to face similar problems, but both representatives of organizations and researchers confirm that their parallel implementation can reduce the number or impact of such problems. Other possible solutions are the following: the use of process evaluation and Enterprise Resource Planning system or other systems as a coherent process rather than a temporary project, as well as assessing not only the technical nature and indicators but also the social changes and climate in the organization (Chofreh, 2014; Hornstein, 2015).
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In the fifth step of the project a procedure is to be developed which allows the planning of phase based ramp-up capable production systems. Based on existing factory planning models an explicit listing of the necessary steps regarding the planning of ramp-up capable production systems is to be integrated into a planning procedure. For this purpose it is planned to go through three stages. At the beginning there is a summary and categorization of the ramp-up ability characteristics of the design objects from step three and measures from step four. As an intermediate result is then a comprehensive collection of ramp-up capability relevant features and the derived measures. In step two these are assigned to the stages of factory planning. They are recorded in that phase, in which first information is required for the design of objects in the planning. In the last section, planning content will be assigned to other necessary information. It is described, e.g. which input is required for the planning of specific objects and which output is generated. In step six, the developed evaluation methodology, the planning of measures and planning procedure are incorporated in a software tool. The tool should have a clear and concise structure to ensure the necessary user-friendliness.
Refering to the definition of the UNDP the results-based management is : "a strategy or management method applied by an organization to ensure that its processes, products and services contribute to the achievement of clearly defined outcomes. Results-based management provides a coherent framework for strategic planning and management by improving learning and accountability. It is also a broad management strategy aimed at making significant changes in the way agencies operate, with an emphasis on improving performance and achieving results. This requires the definition of realistic results, monitoring progress in achieving the expected results, integrating lessons learned into management decisions and reporting of information about the performance. "In other words, management process is based on a result of some inputs (resources and activities), and monitoring and evaluation is done on this sense.
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In light of the different needs and contexts of school based education and parental based education, it was surprising to ﬁnd that the discourse on sex and sexuality education within the international and Irish literature continues to focus on formal teacher-led, school based education, and/or risk prevention programmes for adolescents. The concept of sexuality education as a ‘life long process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs and values about identity, relationships and intimacy’ (Goldman and Bradley 2001:198) tends to be ignored. There is a lack of discussion on and evaluation of sex and sexuality programmes speciﬁcally designed to enable women explore issues around their own sexuality, prepare them for involvement in their children’s education and/ or their role as community educators and developers. Stepping into this considerable gap, the IFPA initiative of WiSE UP is not only an ambitious pilot programme in term of scope and numbers, it was groundbreaking because it was a community based sexuality education for women that was being independently evaluated.
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