Together these diverse confrontational practices imply a more expansive ontology and epistemology than those underpinning the dominant deterrence view, with its focus on unitary states and on means-end rationality. Campers’ security practices conform to Rowley and Weldes’ account of everyday security practitioners as drawing on ‘divergent epistemologies’ that validate experiential knowledge, from a range of situated perspectives (Rowley and Weldes 2012: 524). They call upon a range of individuals and communities to confront nuclear weapons, thus dramatically expanding who counts as an agent of security, and they treat these agents in a holistic way. Humour is often key; alternatively, campers may act in deliberately emotive, feminized ways to convey rage, despair or love, as in the instance when they interrupted a “nuclear defence” training seminar: campers ‘presented the delegates with large posters with images of victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering the effects of radiation burns … [and] read out first-hand accounts from Hiroshima survivors in unison before being loudly ushered out’ (Faslane Peace Camp, 2012b). Such modes of disordered emotional engagement are common in anti-nuclear protests (e.g., Managhan, 2007; Krasniewicz, 1992), making it difficult for officials to respond with reason or force. More than this, campers are treating their varied local audiences, whether sympathetic voters or base workers, as socially-embedded, embodied, feeling individuals, capable of experiencing shame, amusement and empathy, and of being convinced of the wrongness of nuclear weapons on any of these emotional registers.
24 Read more
methodological work, and indeed – as we have tried to do here – inter-theoretical work, that may also be ‘interdisciplinary’. The well-developed literature on ‘securitisation’ in international relations will be particularly useful in exploring ‘everyday securitisations’, including the ways in which non-state groups and actors ‘securitise’ activities such as cold-calling and anti-social behaviour. On the other hand, feminist criminologists have developed diverse approaches to understanding everyday victimisation and fear; methods which might inform rich explorations of key dimensions to everyday security. Here we have sought to outline the possibilities that can come from a re-orientation of security research towards the empirical study of the everyday; incorporating both the lived experiences and expectation of security projects, and the routine security practices that individuals and groups engage in. Our intention has not been to displace or turn extant research on its head. Rather it has been to add to the study of formal security projects and techniques, a body of work which focuses upon the typically informal, mundane, routine and everyday dimensions of security, and an exploration of the ways in which these are interconnected, at times tensely-related, and indeed constitutive of one another. In understanding the ways in which people manage to live confidently with risk and negotiate their safety in interactions with others, more attention might be paid, we suggest, to the various and variegated ways in which individual security practices and experiences are themselves sites of political struggle and contestation. From such a perspective it may become clear that politics and security are intertwined, not opposed, such that studies of everyday security can also serve as a useful critical vantage-point from which to expose inequality and difference, and to re-engage politics rather than efface it. Far from the ‘death of politics’, it is anticipated that this will open up new possibilities for a different politics – perhaps a more nuanced ‘infrapolitics’ of everyday security. To conclude by paraphrasing Neocleous and Rigakos (2011: 8) – and by
25 Read more
As a growing number of analysts have sought to emphasise from a range of vantage points, the prevalent elitist focus on politicians, security professionals, and private security companies – even in the ‘critical’ study of the politics of threat and (in)security – is analytically and politically problematic in excluding the political subject of (in)security for a number of significant reasons. First, if meanings of (in)security are intersubjectively produced by, culturally embedded in, and politically contested via ‘processes of identity construction in which the self and other, or multiple others, are constituted’, then the role of diverse publics in shaping that field of understanding is of central concern (Weldes et al 1999: 10). Second, to prioritise elites silences the voices of individuals and groups marginalised by their socioeconomic, gender, racial, and ethnic status – political subjectivities who may also be disproportionately affected by discourses and practices of security – which in turn serves to perpetuate their exclusion (Booth, 2007; Hansen, 2000; Jarvis and Lister, 2013). Third, as Jef Huysmans (2014: 59) has argued, elitism also has the effect of reducing ‘the visibility of the pervasive presence of exceptionalist securitizing in everyday life and intimate relations’ such that the latter is bracketed off from security politics, which is assumed to be the preserve of an ‘exceptional class’. Where might we find critical resources for countering elitism and bringing the political subject of (in)security back in to security studies?
37 Read more
The Anthropocene demands a re - evaluation of how we think about historical time across various disciplines and fields of analysis. It challenges scholars to connect understandings of the past with those of the emerging present and (long - term) future. Recognising that many of the future global challenges of insecurity and conflict will be products of climate change – prompted by drought, desertification and migration - this chapter seeks to reflect upon and explore the conceptual implications for historical time and temporalisations prompted by the Anthropocene. It is suggested that social scientists need to (re)consider relations between different temporalities in the production of and responses to contemporary insecurities. In so doing, the chapter explores the meanings of and interconnections between ‘security’ and concepts of ‘sustainability’, the ‘everyday’, and the ‘emergent’ in the study of crime, risks and harms. Each is informed by different temporal registers that imply differing ethical considerations. Exploring their intersectionality, sites of contestation and their interwoven assemblage raise salient issues for critical security studies in an anthropogenic age. The challenge is to shape new normative understandings of security, ethics and
30 Read more
In this article, we seek to challenge some of these ways in which the ‘2015 Mediterranean migration crisis’ has been scripted by elites. Situated within – and contributing to – a flourishing research agenda on everyday geographies and ontologies of personal (in)security, we aim to bring non-elite knowledge and experience to the foreground. We do so by examining the diverse grounded perspectives of those on the move who are arguably the key dramatis personae in the so-called ‘crisis’ and yet whose voices are often absent in dominant representations of it. Specifically, we take as our analytical focus the dynamic interplay between contemporary EU border security apparatuses and mobile subjects who encounter, negotiate, and challenge these apparatuses. Drawing upon 37 in-depth qualitative interviews with recent arrivals as part of a multi-sited research project across the Mediterranean region, we offer a historicised and geographically situated analysis of the contested politics of ‘irregularity’ on the island of Malta. A geopolitically significant site along the central Mediterranean route, the changes in migratory dynamics witnessed in Malta over the past two decades offers an instructive lens through which the ‘crisis’ narrative can be usefully problematized and disaggregated.
38 Read more
Drawing on these resources we employ a theoretical framework that prioritises the emo- tional and psychosocial explanations of security. We explore how geopolitical tremors are felt by young people and affect their sense of ontological security and being in the world. Thus, adopting OS as a theoretical tool enables security to be analysed as multi-scalar, rela- tional and intersectional. Our focus is on ethnic and religious minority youth in Scotland and their responses to othering processes generated by geopolitical events and discourses. Events, such as the murder of British soldier Lee Rigby in Woolwich (2013), Glasgow Airport and London bombings (2007) and terrorist incidents in Paris (2015), Brussels (2016) and Istanbul (2017), have shaped the everyday securities of minority youth in Britain. Subsequent counterterrorism policies have delineated groups who are deemed high risk, marking out Muslims in particular as ‘securitized’ or ‘suspect’ citizens (Hussein & Bagguley, 2012; Maira, 2009; Pantazis & Pemberton, 2009). Paradoxically, those deemed ‘risky’ are often those most at risk and in need of security (Mythen et al., 2012) Racism and Islamophobia are risk for young Muslims as well as those misrecognised as Muslim (Alexander, 2000; Hopkins, Botterill, Sanghera, & Arshad, 2017) and have potential to destabilise OS. Katz (2010, p. 61) argues that in response to pervasive landscapes of fear individuals ‘tend to turn inward’, potentially internalising the fears of others. Others have also observed practices of self-surveillance amongst young Muslims, such as the self-policing of mobility (Hussein & Bagguley, 2012), self-silencing in public and institutional settings (Hopkins, 2010; Nabi, 2011) and mainstream- ing faith practices for conciliation purposes (Mansson McGinty, 2013). In the following sec- tions, we discuss the psychosocial strategies young people employ to secure themselves against everyday risks and cope with intersubjective anxieties, the ‘seemingly banal moments of discomfort’ that reveal a ‘more fundamental ontological relation underlying all acts of racism’ (Noble, 2005, p. 12). Young people’s experiences are located within particular histories and discourses, yet they are also dynamic and, whilst 9/11 has a long-standing legacy, for many young people the event itself is a distant memory, or not even recalled. As such, youth insecurities should be understood geopolitical framings, with more careful consideration of youth agency and the psychosocial strategies used to mitigate against everyday risks they encounter growing up in this context.
21 Read more
livelihoods offer a rich example of everyday negotiations of security and insecurity. Furthermore, internal labour mobility and external leisure mobility intersected through the mobilization of the market. Marketing strategies not only drew upon longstanding patterns of internal island mobility by requiring that traders and products be brought to market but after emancipation the market itself moved, particularly in response to tourist ships, in order to secure trade. Thus the market – and the market on the move – became key to securing livelihoods after emancipation. The vulnerability and opportunity associated with these negotiating spaces were marked by practices that remained only partially visible to travellers. Whatever measure of success of failure they engendered, small-scale negotiations of insecurity pushed back against, and were themselves in negotiation with larger scale insecurities. More importantly than negotiating livelihoods in a strictly financial sense,
16 Read more
As shown in this chapter, both Parivartan’s community beat policing, and its rape prevention and educative work, operate partly by disciplining (or seeking to discipline) young people, especially young women and girls, and their parents, in order to limit opportunities for transgression and violation. However, it is significant to note that the programme also, conversely, actively intervenes in certain ways to address the vulnerability of women and girls in public spaces, by trying to make public spaces safer for them. Parivartan beat Constables reported widely, for instance, that they had been called upon by Women’s Safety Committees (WSCs) to provide a police presence to combat sexual harassment of adolescent girls in the vicinity of local schools. Women Constables reported patrolling outside schools at arrival and departure times, sometimes in civil dress, in order to catch the culprits. They reported that the incidence of harassment in the patrolled areas had decreased, as the likelihood of being caught and possibly charged was quite high due to the consistent police presence. One male senior police official involved in overseeing the implementation of Parivartan argued that combating sexual harassment was important as it contributes to an overall atmosphere of public safety. These efforts to regulate sexual harassment in the vicinity of schools can be read as another of Parivartan’s attempts to enter, address and reconfigure aspects of everyday life which
288 Read more
The ‘smart city’—insofar as the concept has any definitive purchase—is really what I termed in my (2008) a ‘hypers- patial’ city. That is, its social world is not just connected, but hyperconnected. This means that the risks it generates are not just those of an everyday physical space, or even what was once termed a ‘cyberspace’, but perils with multidi- mensional properties—ones which go far beyond mass data-veillance, or the hacking of a home hub by tech-savvy burglars. For as McLuhan once warned, when citizens are multiply interconnected, the second order nervous system which emerges risks generating debilitation as much as facilitation, deformation rather than information and insecu- rity rather than security. In this paper I address the nature of this risk from two angles. First the way the advent of the smart city concept has also revealed a striking level of unpreparedness for managing everyday life and security within hyperconnected urban space. Given that cities have always been technologies rather than merely technologized, there are profound questions to be asked about why this latest evolution of our most successful tool for enabling mass proximity social organisation has been perceived to be so different from previous transitions. A second angle focuses more directly upon the metaphysics and ecology of the hyperconnected city. Utilising two key determinants of contemporary urban life, the virtualised economy and automated governance I consider whether life within the smart city may so reorder traditional ideas of security and the citizen that both are rendered obsolete.
11 Read more
With so many security issues lugged in the employment of the plastic money, it seems that in country of traditions like India, cash money cannot be abolished permanently and can run side by side by moving gradually towards the plastic money, equally it is the major requirement of the growing economy and global spread of the business and above serving a vast market to the manufacturers. Problems are there, user has to be too much vigilant in dealings and transactions via cards. An alternate of the plastic money transactions is the smart money transactions which will be the scope of the next paper. A slight answer is the provision of basic training to the cardholders that must be free of cost, also mandatory and easily availed near to home to train them about the precautions to keep them safe from the fraudsters or skimmers. India is moving toward more networked, demonetized economy with robust infrastructure. Plastic Money will be one of the everyday necessities of the community.
In 1999, the same year I became a so-called mobile subject, Ahiwa Ong published Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logics of Transnationality. In that pre-9/11 world, Ong described a form of privileged mobility that “refers to the cultural logics of capitalist accumulation, travel, and displacement that induce subjects to respond fluidly and opportunistically to changing political-economic conditions” (6). In her view, these relations were “shaped within the mutually reinforcing dynamics of discipline and escape” (19), and they dealt with the problematic nature of identity in late modernity, in which “flexibility, migration, and relocations, instead of being coerced or resisted, have become practices to strive for rather than stability” (19). Looking back at those words, in the midst of the largest surge of human mobility since the Second World War, we realize that the paradigm has shifted, and that the Freesa exposes its absurd new logic: “In crisis, nation-states pit protection of their own citizens against a broader commitment to protect human rights. Contradictory projects are carried out daily in the name of vague security agendas” (17), observes Alison Mountz (2010), whose work examines borders and human smuggling across them. Two decades later, the black lines on the flashcard look much thicker.
29 Read more
Coming back to teachers, it must be emphasised that they ought to perceive their profession not as an occupation but a mission. A good teacher is a teacher who is aware of his role. Th e model of a teacher as a professional is only complete when he exercises practical activity to improve his workplace. At this point, however, the above ideal clashes with the reality of everyday life. We observe many social threats to education such as the excessive amount of responsibilities (especially those not pertaining directly to work with a student i.e. administration, ﬁ ling documents etc.) together with relatively low remuneration, exposure to high stress levels and professional burn out. Another problem in the teaching profession seems to be motivation for further work, eﬀ ort, development clashing with everyday routine, monotony and excessive daily duties.
16 Read more
The ‘ mobilities turn ’ and the shift of focus to mobility as a social phenomenon in its own right (Cresswell 2010; Hannam, Sheller, and Urry 2006) has done much to qualify assumptions in traditional transport research about everyday mobility prac- tices. In particular, it has developed our understandings of the ‘ non-rational ’ factors that play a role in shaping mobility patterns and practices, including embodied tactile and sensory experiences (Jones 2012; Strengers 2014), affectivities (Löfgren 2008; Sheller 2004), identities (Adey et al. 2012) and symbolic and cultural meanings (Cresswell 2010; Jensen 2009; Vannini 2010). We now recognise that mobility is far from purely functional. Rather, the experiential qualities and meanings generated through mobile performances embed mobility into a meaningful and satisfying life. This broader sense of mobility being affectively as well as effectively important and satisfying to travellers is crucial for understanding why people travel as they do (Anable and Gatersleben 2005).
19 Read more
This essay begins to think about how ‘everyday futures’ are imagined in discourse and practice around ‘the Circular Economy’. The Circular Economy is offered as a model for a significantly more environmentally sustainable economy—a blueprint for an alternative future to the current “linear economy” of “make, use, dispose” (WRAP, n.d.)— and of resilience in the face of resource insecurity and the potential disruptions of ecological crisis. With Mische (2014), we argue for the importance of the task of analysing such “sites of heightened, future-oriented public debate about possible futures”, or “sites of hyperprojectivity” (p. 437). Projects and visions of collective futures mobilise—sometimes conflicting—understandings of the common good, or “orders of worth” (Stark 2009; Boltanski and Thévenot 2006), actual or imagined “teleoaffective” engagements (Schatzki, 2002; Welch and Warde, 2017), and implicit models of engagement with everyday life (and in the case of circular economy, centrally, of consumption). Such imagined futures may come to invest professional practices, political spaces, and everyday consumption. We approach the task from a dual theoretical background in practice theory (e.g. Schatzki, 2002; Warde, 2005) and conventions theory or ‘pragmatic sociology’ (e.g. Boltanki and Thévenot, 2006; Thévenot, 2001, 2014) v . Our intuition is that the project of the Circular Economy provides a productive site in which concepts from these two theoretical traditions may encounter one another in the context of projected everyday futures. This essay offers some initial thoughts on what is intended to be a larger project to articulate these theoretical positions together, with the goal to enrich and develop understandings of the cultural dimensions of projections of socio- technical everyday futures (see Jasanoff and Kim, 2009, 2015). In this essay we simply sketch some lines of enquiry, drawing on examples from the national contexts of Estonia, Italy and the United Kingdom, and the EU level.
77 Read more
Meredith McGuire, who works with an understanding that religious expression is part of culture, shows that this expression is fluid and connected to everyday life experiences. While on face level, this might seems to be only relevant for the cultures approach as discussed earlier, it also relates in my view to the notions of a generational approach to research on youth. However, relating the everyday experiences to religious experiences, the notion of cultural and religious syncretism becomes relevant. She asserts that there is an agreement with Rosalind Shaw and Charles Steward that the notion of syncretism is basically ‘the process by which cultures constitute themselves at any given time’ (Loc. 2522). They argue that all cultural groups are fundamentally syncretistic, but not all have the same attitudes or social movements against the syncretism of others. Social scientists should therefore ask the key question, who opposes syncretistic religious beliefs and practices and why, meaning what are the political interests and social locations? Why would the labelling of cultural or religious hybridity as ‘inauthentic’ be an issue only for certain types of societies in certain historical periods, given the fact that it is basic to all processes of cultural formation (Loc. 2526)? She surmises that the reason for this resistance and stereotypical depiction is because it (syncretism) challenges privileged status of a particular (meaning their own) religious practice. McGuire (Loc 2526) states:
28 sustained as well as challenged through agency exercised in different scales and registers. Much work needs to be done to empirically develop this insight. The STV framework might help us do this. Take for example how, first, (im)mobility connects time, space and violence; by examining in particular the issue of travelling to work we have suggested how this contributes to the depletion of workers through anxiety, physical and mental stress, and through gendered disciplinary practices such as sexual harassment and worse. But (im)mobility also tells us something about everyday temporalities (the dead time of the commute to work every day for example, or waiting in queue for permits to cross lines of conflict for procuring everyday essentials of living) as well as understanding the particular spatialities of these journeys. If travelling to work poses serious questions about everyday practices and violence, these are also present in the way in which women’s presence in public spaces for leisure is seen as bodies as being ‘out of place’—leisure in public spaces then becomes another marker of unequal gender relations and the discursive and physical violence attendant upon it. Second, it shows how we might visualise space and time in relation to violence. Why are certain spaces seen as ‘safe’ for some and ‘dangerous’ for others; why is it that the household, which for so many women is a site of production and reproduction, insecurity and violence, continues to be reified as an appropriate everyday space of decent living? If time and space are deemed to be unruly and dangerous, so are the sexed bodies that occupy these—public discourse about women’s dress, demeanour and independence discursively constructs ‘dangerous women’ whose occupation of certain spaces at certain times undermines the social norms of domesticity and therefore makes them the targets
30 Read more
isolation, several part-time jobs and study. Their busy lives left me with a rich sense of the everyday nature of mobility for young Chinese people from major urban centers along China’s east coast. It also revealed the limitations of participant observation in such hectic mobile lives. Young mobile Chinese living in Tokyo juggle hectic schedules between study and work, needing to attend classes to fulill their visa requirements while earning money to cover their living costs. This leaves little time for social interaction with classmates and co-workers, let alone a nosy anthropologist. What is more, even when invited into people’s lives, my ieldwork mainly involved short interviews with young mobile Chinese in their dorm rooms. I was not allowed to follow them to work, lest I cause trouble with their employers, and my efforts to follow them in other parts of their lives meant I was always focusing on one interlocutor at the expense of another. All of these problems gave me the feeling that my ieldwork was increasingly becoming centered on my relationship with several of my interlocutors, and was vastly altering the schedules of the young mobile Chinese I knew.
21 Read more
7 Stasiewicz, 2008  argues that virtualization is no longer a new phenomenon but a mature technology. Virtualization is accepted and integrated by many enterprises and it has been used for network infrastructure for many years. Virtualization will provide security for network services by reducing the risk of host failure while reducing server resource consumption. Using virtualization and having a long-term commitment to it, enterprises can now save money through lower energy costs and fewer hardware upgrades.
imperatives motivating the agent of the security state – when each instance of bad behaviour then comes to yield the information that pieces together the next important plot point, the overall implication of following the story is that all such behaviour is justified. More than this, the ability to follow such narratives can rely on the audience learning to inhabit the logic of securitisation – this is a way of learning about the world of terrorist threat by learning to see through the eyes of the rogue agent, the hysteric in service to the security state. In part through reference to familiar film conventions that lead an initially sceptical audience to come to recognise over the course of the film that the apparently unstable heroine is, in fact, the only one able to comprehend what is happening around her. In an age of securitisation, this narrative structure can be redeployed to mobilise the audience’s identification with the central character seeking to battle threats from terrorists that no-one else can see. If the identification is grudging and the character unappealing, so much the better, because that is an important part of the lesson for the general public. You may not like these people, but you must appreciate the sense of what they are doing.
11 Read more
Abstract- Medicinal services information is progressively being digitized today and the information gathered today rolling in from all present day gadgets, has achieved a noteworthy volume everywhere throughout the world. In the US, UK and other European nations, medicinal services information needs to be secured and Patient Health Records (PHR) should be ensured with the goal that re-recognizable proof of patients is impossible from fundamental data. Protection of human services is an essential viewpoint administered by Healthcare Acts (e.g. HIPAA) and henceforth the information should be secured from falling into the wrong hands or from being ruptured by malevolent insiders. It is critical to secure existing medicinal services enormous information conditions due to expanding dangers of breaks and holes from private information also, expanded appropriation of cloud advancements. In this paper the current human services security situation in enormous information conditions has been compressed alongside challenges confronted and security issues that need consideration. Some current methodologies have been portrayed to show present and standard headings to comprehending the issues. Since medicinal services administration in the US has a solid concentrate on security and protection rather than different nations on this day, the paper concentrates on Acts and security hones in the US setting.